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Archaeological Institute of rent Britain anfc Erelanfc 










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Observations in disproof of the pretended rnarA 

riage of William de Warren, Earl of Surrey, 

with a daughter of Matildis, daughter of I Thomas Stapleton 1 

Baldwin, Comte of Flanders, by William 

the Conqueror J 

On the Tore of the Celts Samuel Birch 27 

On the Cromlechs extant in the Isle of Anglesey Rev.H.Longueville Jones 39 
On Crannoges, and Remains discovered in them E. P. S 44 

Ecclesiastical Antiquities of the Isle of Man. ) 

r Rev. J. L. Petit 48 

Cathedral of St. German 

On some remains of the work of William of) ^ B 59 

Wykeham, at Windsor Castle 

Medieval Pottery J.I 62 

On some British Kistvaens (Stone Coffins) \ 

under the present church-yard of Pytchley, I Rev. Abner W. Brown... 105 

Northamptonshire J 
Antiquities found at Woodperry, Oxon J. W 116 

Notices of Ancient Ornaments, Vessels, and) 

,. , m , ' .. [Albert Way 129 

appliances of sacred use The Chalice 

On the History and Remains of the Franciscan) j , B'lline-s 141 

Friery, Reading J 

St. Winefrede's Well at Holywell, Flintshire ... Ambrose Poynter 148 

Notice of a Decorated Pavement in Haccombe) 

Church, Devonshire J Lord M "? n Com P ton - 151 

Observations on the Progress of the Art of. 

Sculpture in England, in medieval times, I Sh . R Westraacottj RA . ,93 

and notices of some artists, by whom it was f 

On some arrangements for the Hanging of) T rr p 005 

Bells in Churches without Towers J 

Notices of the Priory of Southwick, in the) Rey w H Gunner _ 214 

County of Southampton J 

Towyn-y-Capel, and the ruined Chapel of St.N 

Bride, on the west coast of Holyhead I Hon. William Owen | 

Island: with notices of the curious inter- f Stanley, M. P. j" 

ments there discovered 
Some Notices of Records preserved amongst) 

the corporation archives at Southampton l ' ' ' 
The Cross-legged Effigy at Horsted Keynes,\ 

Sussex: with some remarks on early effigies I W. S. W 234 

of diminutive dimensions J 



Ancient Chess-Men, with some remarks on] 

their value as illustrations of medieval cos- r Albert Way 239 

Icenia : notices of Roman Remains, and evi- \ 

dences of occupation } *** J. Guim 246 

On some Anomalies observable in the Earlier) llev .C. H.Hartshorne.... 285 

Styles of English Architecture ) 

Stanton Lacy Church, near Ludlow J. L. P 297 

On some oblique Perforations in the Walls of) T rr p OQQ 

Churches called Squints or Hagioscopes J 

The Castle and Parliaments of Northampton ... Rev. C. H. Hartshorne ... 309 
Illustrations of Domestic Customs during the\ 

MiddleAges. Ornamental Fruit-Trenchers I Albert Way 333 

inscribed with Posies J 

Observations on the Wait Service mentioned ] 

in the Liber Win ton, and on the supposed^ E. Smirke 339 

Monastery of Sapalanda J 


Inventory of Reginald Labbe, A.D. 1293 T. H. T 65 

Extracts from the Archives, St. Paul's, London 252 

Remarkable instance of the use made of the\ 

terrors of Excommunication in the thir- ! W. S. W 343 

teenth century J 


COMMITTEE 67, 155, 255, 348 

Notice of the Meeting of the French Society \ 

for the preservation of Historical Monu- L W. Bromet 361 

ments, June 1846 J 


Shirley's account of Farney, in Ulster 93 

Northamptonshire Churches, No. 1 97 

Monastic Ruins of Yorkshire, Nos. 1 and 2 101 

Petrie's Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland 166 

Guilhabaud's Ancient and Modern Architecture 184 

Walbran's Antiquities of Gainford, Durham 185 

Francis's History of Neath Abbey 273 

Maitland's Church in the Catacombs 278 

Gibson's History of Tynemouth 366 

Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors 373 

Manuals of Gothic Architecture 379 


Report of the Receipts and Disbursements of the Archaeological Institute 270 


Those marked thus * are plates to be inserted in the places indicated. 

The Cloisters in Windsor Castle, from a sketch by E. Blore, Esq., frontispiece. 

Tores of the Celts. Fourteen examples ..... 28 37 

Cromlechs at Plas Newydd, Llanfaelog, and Presaddfed, Anglesey . 41, 42, 43 

Javelin with loop ....... 47 

Bronze pin with cup- shaped head ...... 48 

Three Etchings of Peel Castle and St. German's Cathedral, in the Isle of 

Man . . . . . . . . . 49, 51, 53 

Round Tower, Peel Castle. Masonry of Round Tower . . . . 49, 50 

Masonry of building on south side of Round Tower . . . 51 

Cathedral of St. German, East end ...... 52 

South-eastern pier of Central Tower, and details ... 53 

Masonry of Chancel. South Transept ..... 54 

Window on North side of Nave ...... 55 

Masonry in turret of central Tower, and belfry Window . . . ib. 

Window in outer Porch of Entrance Gate, and masonry of Gateway . 57 

Medieval Pottery, found in Trinity College, Oxford . . . .62 

Early British Sword of bronze and Stone axe, found in South Wales . . 67 

Early British Vases from Furness. ...... 68 

Glass vessel, supposed of Roman date, found at Lavenham, Suffolk . . 69 

Late Roman Vases found at Tubney, Berkshire . . . ib. 

Crosses at Carew and Nevern, South Wales ..... 71 

Runic Cross at Lancaster, and Inscription . . . . . 72, 73 

Seal found at Giez in Touraine ...... 74 

Mayoralty Seal of London ....... ib. 

Seal, found near Stoke by Clare, Suffolk .... .76 

Four examples of medieval Brooches . . . . . .77 

Seal of John de Dufforde, found at Newnham Murren, Oxfordshire . . 75 

Silver Ring, supposed to be Saxon, from the collection of Mr. Talbot . . 78 

Enamelled armorial Scutcheons, found at Newark Priory, Surrey . . 79 

Effigy found at Lewes Priory, Sussex ...... 80 

Inscription on leaden cist of Gundrada, discovered at Lewes . . . gl 

Portion of Inscription on incised slab in memory of Gundrada . . . ib. 

Monument in St. Stephen's Church, Bristol, and Effigy on ditto . . 82, 83 

Sepulchral brass in Wyke Church, Hants .... 84 

Carved Casement-mold, Abbey Church, St. Alban's . . . gg 

Die found near Swansea ....... gg 

Gold ornament found near Cader Idris . . . . . .87 



Corrected plan of Roman Tiles at Wheatley, Oxon . . . 

Ancient Boat found in the barony of Farney . . . . . . ib. 

Hammer-head found near Lough Fea ...... 

Bridle of Bronze found at Lough Fea ..... 

Bronze Caldron, discovered in Farney, Ulster ..... 96 

Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, Churchyard Cross, &c. ... 97 

Interior of Higham Ferrers Church, Northamptonshire . . . ib. 

Window, Priest's door, and Font . . . . . 99, 100 

Site of the Ancient Church, Woodperry, Oxfordshire . . . .116 

Iron Arrow-heads, Bone Arrow-head, Tweezers, and Bronze Pin, 

Woodperry ....... 119, 120 

Antiquities found at Woodperry ..... 121,122 

Fragments of the Ancient Church, Woodperry . . . 126,127 

Monumental Slabs, Woodperry . . . . . . 127 

Border Tiles found at Woodperry . . . . . .128 

*Tiles found at Woodperry ...... ib. 

Golden Chalice, formerly belonging to Rheims Cathedral . . . 129 

Chalice, Corpus Christi College, Oxford . . . . .135 

Chalices and Patens, York Cathedral . . . . .137 

Chalices, Evesham, Hereford, and Chichester Cathedral . . .138 

Brass of Henry Denton, Higham Ferrers . . . 139 

West Window of the Church of the Franciscan Friery, Reading . . 1 41 

Plan of the Church . . . . . . .144 

Moulding of the Chancel-arch of ditto ..... ib. 

Elevation of the Nave Arches, Cap and Base of Nave Pillar, of ditto . 145 

Moulding of West Window, and Aisle Window of ditto . . . 146 

Roof of St. Mary's Church, Reading, with details .... 147 

*St. Winefrede's Well, Flintshire . . . . . .149 

*Tile Pavement at Haccombe, Devonshire . . . . .152 

Fictile Vases found near Kingston upon Soar . . . . .159 

Roman Gold Rings ........ 163 

Incised Slab, Hexham Church, Northumberland .... 164 

Tomb of the Butler family, at Clonmel, Ireland . . . .165 

Round Tower on Devenish Island, Lough Erne, Ireland . . .167 

Fineen's Church at Clonmacnoise . . . . . .170 

House of St. Finan Cam . . . . . . .173 

Oratory of Gallerus . . . . . . .174 

Inscriptions on Ancient Irish Tombstones ..... 175 

Doorway of the Church of St. Fechin . . . .176 
Windows of the Church of the Trinity at Glendalough, and of St. Cronan's 

Church ...... 177 

St. Mac Dara's Church, Connamara . . . . .178 

Doorway of the Round Tower of Timahoe . . . .179 

Church of Cormac, Cashel .... 180 

North Doorway of the Church of Cormac . . . . .181 

Base and Window of ditto, and Window in the Round Tower of Timahoe . 182 

Tombstone of Suibine Mac Maelhumai . *" 183 



The Ascension of Elijah, sculptured on a Sarcophagus at Rome . . 193 

The Sacrifice of Isaac, sculptured on a Sarcophagus at Rome . . . 195 

Sculptured Head from Hereford Cathedral . . . . .197 

Statues from the entrance porch of the Guildhall, London . . . 204 

BELL-COTS ........ 206213 

1. Corhampton, 2. Littleton, 3. Ashley, and 4. King's Somhorne, Hamp 
shire. 5. Northborough, Northamptonshire. 6. Little Coxwell, Berkshire. 
7. Idbury, Oxfordshire. 8. Binsey, Oxford. 9. Manton, and 10. Little 
Casterton, Rutland. 11. Penton Mewsey, Hampshire. 12. St. Helen's, and 
13. St. Michael-le- Belfry, York. 14. Godshill, Isle of Wight. 15. Cleeve 
Abbey, Somerset. 16. Welborne, Norfolk. 

West front of St. Mary's Church, Portchester, A.D. 11331153 . . 214 

The Font, Portchester, and Sculpture on it . . . 216, 217 

Seal of the Priory of Chertsey ...... 222 

Views of Towyn-y-Capel, Holyhead, and Plan of Mound, with Chapel 223, 226, 228 
Cross-legged Effigy at Horsted Keynes, Sussex .... 234 

ANCIENT CHESSMEN in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford ; and in the possession of the Rev. J. Eagles 241 , 243, 244 

Discovery of Roman Urns, Felmingham ..... 246 

Roman Fictile Vessels, Felmingham ...... 248 

Vase discovered at Bottisham, Cambridgeshire ..... 255 

Turbinated- shaped ball, discovered at Allington Hill .... 256 

Spear and Celt Mold, found between Bodwrdin and Tre Ddafydd, Isle of Anglesea 257 

Details of supposed Saxon Tomb, Bedale, Yorkshire .... 258 

Sculptured Stone, Bedale crypt ....... ib. 

Sculptured Crosses, at Hawkswell, Aycliffe, and Bedale . . 259, 260 

Seal of St. Wolstan, Bishop of Worcester, A.D. 1099 . . . .261 

North-east angle of the Chancel, King's Wear, Devon .... 264 

Ring, Bredicot ; and Ear-ring, Bredon Hill, Worcestershire . . . 267 

Thumb Ring, found in the river Severn, near Upton .... 268 

Early coped Coffin-lids, Repps, and Bircham-Tofts, Norfolk . . . ib. 

Singular Ring, in the possession of the Rev. W. Sneyd .... 269 
Ring, found on Floddon Field ....... ib. 

Inscribed Stones, found at Port Talbot and Pyle, near Swansea . . . 275 

Plan of Neath Castle, and Seal of the Abbey of Neath, Glamorganshire 276, 277 
Encaustic Tiles discovered in the Conventual Church of Neath Abbey . 277 
Early Christian Inscriptions and Symbols, from the Catacombs at Rome 280 283 

Stanton Lacy Church, Shropshire ...... 85 

Window, Caistor, Northamptonshire ... 288 

Windows, Headbourn Worthy, Hampshire, and Oxford Castle . 289 

Door, Stanton Lacy ........ ib. 

Stanton Lacy Church, elevation -... 297 
Head of Chancel-door, masonry . . . 298 

SQUINTS, or Hagioscopes, Ashley Church, Hants . . . 299 
Crawley, Hants, and North Hinksey, Berks . . . 30 j 


SQUINTS, Otterbourne, Hants, and Irthlingborough, Northants . . . 302 

Minster Lovell, Oxon, with Plan ..... 303 

Taunton, Somerset, and Newnham Murren, Oxon . . . 304 

Kenton, Devon, and Enford, Wilts . . . 305, 306 

Bridgewater, Somerset, with Plan ..... 307 

Charlton, Wilts, and Gloucester ..... 308 

Plan of Northampton Castle ....... 330 

Ornamental Fruit-Trenchers ...... 334, 336 

Vases from a Barrow near Wimborne, Dorsetshire . . . 348 351 

British "Penffestyn," or Head-piece ...... 352 

Enamelled Bead, found near Oxford ...... 354 

Fragments of Saxon Crosses, in the Museum at Bath .... 356 

Ancient Stone Vase, found at Bath ...... ib. 

Gold ring with talismanic inscription, found in Glamorganshire . . 358 

Seal of Brembre's Chantry, Wimborne Minster, Dorsetshire . . . 360 

Seal of the Sub- dean of Chichester ...... 361 

Ancient Mazer, found near Hursley, Wiltshire . ib. 

Votive Altar and inscribed Tablet found at Tynemouth . . . 367 

Second Great Seal of Edward III. . . . . . .372 

Seal of Tynemouth Priory ....... 373 

Arcade, St. Peter's, Northampton ...... 379 

Pinnacle, Howden, Yorkshire ... ... 384 

Impost, St Benet's, Cambridge . . . . . . .387 

East end of Darent Church, Kent . . . . . . 388 

Early English Capitals and Foliage ...... 389 

Decorated Capital and Foliage ....... ib. 

Doorway, Adderbury, Oxfordshire ...... 390 

Early English Mouldings, Temple Church, London . . . .391 

Early English Corbel-table, Beverley Minster, Yorkshire . . . ib. 

Perpendicular Tower, Dundry, near Bristol ..... 392 



MARCH, 1846. 


THE Cotton Manuscript Vespasian E. xv. contains the Ni- 
grum Registrum prioratus de Lewes quod fieri fecit Robertus 
Auncell, prior, Anno Domini 1444, which was formerly be- 
longing to the earls of Dorset, whose ancestor had a grant 
from the crown of the site of the priory of Lewes, and was 
subsequently in the hands of Sir Edward Byshe and Doctor 
Matthew Hutton, by whom it was given to Sir Robert Cotton. 
Being of so late a date the narrative portion of its contents is 
utterly unworthy of being considered as any authority, and 
the assertion it contains that William de Warren, the founder, 
was made earl of Surrey by William the Conqueror, and that 
he married his daughter, is disproved by the charter, copied 
from another register of Lewes (which was in the possession 
of John Selden, Esquire, in 1649, and doubtless of earlier 
date) by Dugdale, and printed in the Monasticon in 1655. 
In neither of these repositories is there any copy of the original 
charter of foundation, which had been sent to the abbey of 
Cluny, in Burgundy, to which this priory was a cell, by reason 
of the refusal of Hugh, the abbot, to send over monks until 
he had received the said charter, and had obtained the king's 
license for their admission into England. 

The first endowment made during the reign of William the 
Conqueror is now only to be collected from the entries of its 
possessions in Domesday book, and from an original charter of 
that king, which is preserved in the Cottonian manuscript, 
Vespasian E. Ill fol. 1, now in part illegible, owing to decay 



and the application of some chemical mixture, with a view to 
render the writing distinct. In the new edition of the Monas- 
ticon is a copy of this charter, with the words filise mese after 
Gonfredae, as part of the original ; but, in fact, erroneously, 
as they are interlined in a modern hand of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. In another Cotton MS., Vespasian E. 11, is an early 
fragment of a register of Lewes, which, under the heading 
Comes vetus, details the possessions of Lewes, which are con- 
firmed by this royal charter in this form : 

Willelmus comes primus, concedente filio suo secundo Comite, dedit 
nobis pro anima Gundrade uxoris sue Waltuna cum pertinentiis suis, sci- 
licet, dimidiam Walpolam et terrain de Chenewica et terrain Brunsuen. 
Reddit sancto Pancratio viii libras cum x solidis, quos accrevit Ranulfus 
Decanus quando placitavit contra Achi. Godwinus diaconus reddit xx soli- 
dos de terra sua et Stangelinus junior et Mainerius filius ejus xx solidos. 
Stangelinus presbiter de Limea reddit pro terra sua xvi libras. Godricus 
miles de Walsocba reddit xx solidos pro terra sua. Ceteri homines nostri de 
Walsocha pertinent ad Waltunam et hoc quod reddunt est in firma de Wal- 
tuna, et tercia pars de Anamera, que nostra est, pertinet ad Waltunam et 
redditus ejus est in firma de Waltuna. In Wella piscatores reddunt ix 
solidos et ceteri homines nostri reddunt et pertinent ad Waltunam. Wal- 
tuna et quicquid habemus infra Maresia reddunt Ix et xi libras et x solidos. 

The charter of William the Conqueror is apparently as 
follows : 

Notum sit presentibus et futuris quod ego Willelmus (gratia Dei) rex 
Anglorum concede monasterio Sancti Pancratii quod si + ta est apud Leuuas 
pro anima domini et antecessoris mei regis eduuardi et pro anima patris mei 
comitis-f Rotberti et pro mea ipsius anima et uxoris mee Matildis regine et 
filiorum atque successorum meorum et pro anima + Guillelmi de uuarennaet 
uxoris sue Gon (dra) de (pro me et heredibus meis) quandam mansionem 
nos + tram nomine Waltonam cum omnibus que ad eandem mansionem per- 
tinent, que Willelmus ac illam mansionem tenet + de me. Concedo etiam 
ut monachi in eodem monasterio conversantes et conversaturi ea libertate 
pos -j- sideant, qua ecclesie, quas barones mei, me concedente, construunt, 
possident, elemosinas. quas ego eis concessi. + Et ita quod ego in ista elemosina 
habeam quicquit in illis habeo. Et ut donatio hec firma et inconcussa-f-per- 
petuo maneat signo sancte crucis manu propria confirmavi et manibus fide- 
lium meorum testificandam + liberavi. 

S. Wil+lelmi Regis. S. Rob + berti (filii Regis.) S. Willelmi+filii 
Regis. S. Hainrici-f filii Regis. S. Willelmi de + Warenna. S. Tho + me 
archiepiscopi . S. Os + mundi episcopi. S. Wauche + lini episcopi. S. 
Remigii-}- episcopi. S. Willelmi + episcopi Dunelmensis. S. Hain + rici. 
S. Richardi + de Ton(ebrige) (S. Alani -f- comitis Britannic) S. Walteri-f- 
Giffardi. S. Eduuardi -f-vicecomitis. S. Milonis + Crispini. 


The manor given by this charter is in Norfolk, and has 
now the name of West Walton or Walton Prior, and is situate 
in the hundred and half of Freebridge, in Marshland, on the 
banks of the Wisbeach river, and is thus described in Domes- 
day, under the heading Teirse Willelmi de Warrenna, fo. 150 
160 b. Hund. et dim. Fredrebruge. 

Waltuna tenuit Toche liber homo tempore regis eduuardi. Modo tenet 
Sanctus Petrus. iiii carucatse terrse, semper ix villani, &c. Tota valet xvii 
libras et x solidos. Tota habet iiii leugas in longo et ii quarentenas in lato, 
quicumque ibi teneat, et redit ii solidos de gelto de xx solidis. Hoc est de 
feudo Fedrici. 

This notification applies to all the lands that were held 
by the Saxon Toche ; and in Domesday, under Terrse Willelmi 
de Warene, in Cambridgeshire, f. 196 b, we have this state- 
ment of his degree of affinity to William de Warene. 

In Trepeslav Hundredo. In Trumpinton tenet Willelmus iiii hidas et 
dimidiam. Terra est v carucarum. In dominio sunt ii e et ix villani cum 
iiii bordariis habentes iii carucas. Ibi i molinum de xx solidis. Pratum v 
carucarum. Pastura ad pecora villae et iiii socos. Valet et valuit vi libras. 
Tempore regis Eduuardi vii libras. Hanc terram tenuit Tochi de Eclesia 
de Ely, die quo rex Eduuardus fuit vivus et mortuus, nee potuit dare nee 
vendere, nee ab Eclesia separare. Hanc terram postea habuit Frederi, 
frater Willelmi. 

Domesday again furnishes us in the survey of the lands of 
William de Warren, in Norfolk, with the proof that this brother 
of William de Warren was a Fleming, and this entry is of 
singular importance in subverting the fabled royal descent of 
Gundrada, as a daughter of William the Conqueror ; it occurs 
in vol. ii. fol. 169, b. Hundredum de Grenehou. 

In Pagrava tenet Sanctus Ricarius i carucatam terre (de fedo Fedrici) 
quam tenuit quidam liber homo tempore Regis Edwardi. Tune iiii villani 
et semper, modo ii bordarii. Semper in dominio i caruca et semper inter 
omnes dimidia caruca. Tune valuit xx solidos, modo xxv solidos. 

In Acra tenuit quidam liber homo i carucatam terrse, semper vi villani 
et i bordarius et iii servi et i caruca in dominio. Tune inter omnes iii ca- 
rucae, modo i. Silva ad xv porcos. Semper dimidium molinum. Tune valet 
et semper xx solidos, hoc est de fedo Fretherici. Wimerus tenet. 

The monastery designated by the name of Sanctus Petrus 
in these extracts from Domesday is that of Cluny, and that 
under the name of Sanctus Ricarius had anciently the Latin 
name of Centulum, and at the present day its site is the small 


town of Saint Ricquier, canton of Ailly-le-haut-Clocher, arron- 
dissement of Abbeville, Departement of La Somme, being in- 
cluded in the pagus Pontivus, or Ponthieu, in the diocese of 
Amiens. In the chronicle of this abbey, printed by D'Achery, 
in his Spicilegium, is a copy of a charter of Guy, Comte of 
Ponthieu, made at the solicitation of abbot Gervinus, annuen- 
tibm Proceribus mea provincits in prasentia Regis Philippi 
Marchionisque Balduini, necnon etiam principum regalis palatii, 
granting to St. Ricquier the fourth part of a vill, called Outre- 
bois, with these witnesses, signum Balduini juvcnis comitis, 
signwni Frcderici, 8fc. Actum est hoc anno Regis Philippi im- 
perii vi. Iticarnationis Dominica mlxvii. In this the second 
year of the reign of William the Conqueror in England, Abbot 
Gervinus passed over to his court, and obtained from him a 
confirmation of the gifts made to his monastery in the days of 
King Edward, being present Ralph, earl of Norfolk, with his 
son of the same name, who joined in this petition to the king, 
as they themselves had been the donors. His charter has this 
preamble : In nomine Sanctce et individiice Trinitatis, ego 
Guilldmus concessu Dei Anglorum Rex, affectu mei prof edits in 
Domino, et prece compulsus Domni Abbatis Gervini Monasterii 
sancti Richarii, quod est sitmn in pago comitatus Pontivi, nihil- 
ominus quoque hortatu amicorum meorum, Radulfi scilicet comitis, 
necnon et Jilii ejus Radulfi, annuentibus etiam unanimiter mece 
curies Primatibus, regio more concedo quicquid hi ambo, videlicet 
pater etjilim,fratrumprcdibati Sancti devote concesserunt usibus. 
Quarum igitur ecclesiarum vel mansionum, ut cunctis manifestetur 
cognitio, dignum duximus in prcssenti denominatim manifestare 
scripto. Hcec est Sancti Richarii terra in Anglicis finibus sita 
a Radulfo comite eidem Sancto tradita. The places named are 
Sporle, South Acre, Custhorp, Cotes, Pickenham, Narford, 
Swaffham and Gaywode. Earl Ralph by his wife of the 
race of the Bretons in France had inherited the towns of Gael 
and Montfort in Britanny, being himself probably a Fleming, 
and died during the reign of the Conqueror. He was suc- 
ceeded in his title of earl of Norfolk, by his son of the same 
name, whose conspiracy in 1074 is fully described by William 
of Malmesbury, in which Roger, earl of Hereford, brother of 
his wife, and Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon, were involved. 
At the time of the survey his vast possessions in Norfolk were 
in the king's hands, and it is also probable that Frederic, 
brother-in-law of William de Warren, was engaged in the 


same conspiracy, as the whole of his fief had been transferred 
to that illustrious Norman. At the same time the abbey of 
St. Ricquier lost the possessions of their gift, and with the sin- 
gle exception of the carucate of land in Little Pagrave, there 
is no other mention of this abbey at the time of this survey. 
Sporle was subsequently given to the Benedictine abbey of St. 
Florent at Saumur in the reign of Henry the Second, and it 
was the site of an alien priory, dissolved in the parliament held 
at Leicester 2 Hen. V. 1424, and made parcel of the endow- 
ment of Eton college by Henry VI. in the nineteenth year of 
his reign. Pagrave was a berewic of Sporle or Spurley, and 
divided between earl Ralph and Frederic, and hence the names 
of Great Pagrave and Little Pagrave ; at which last was a 
chapel in the parish of Sporle, now destroyed*. 

The name of Warren was that of a river, which has its 
source in the commune of Omonville-sur-Varenne and falls into 
the canal of Dieppe below the castle of Arques, from which it 
has now the appellation of riviere d' Arques. Seated upon 
the left bank of this river was the bourg, which anciently had 
the same name as the river, the chief residence of the family, 

8 The remaining text of this charter of 
the Conqueror is as follows: "Villa vo- 
cabulo Esperlais, ubi habentur hospites 
xxxvii, qui persolvunt annualiter unus- 
quisque in Nativitate Domini duos equos 
oneratos de brais ; a festivitate Sancti Jo- 
annis Baptistae usque ad festum Sancti 
Michaelis tribus diebus omne opus Domini 
sui : ceterum quod residuum est de anno, 
semel in hebdomada erunt ad omne opus, 
quod eis injunctum fuerit. Habentur inibi 
sex carrucae, sylva optima, terra arabiliset 
inculta, prata omnibus nutrimentis aptis- 
sima. Est et alia villa, quae vocatur Acra, 
ubi habentur hospites ii. molendina iii, quae 
solvunt xxxv oras denariorum. Praeterea 
omnes homines villae metent segetes tribus 
in hebdomada diebus et omnes carrucae 
arabunt tribus diebus ad frumenta et ad 
avenas. Est et tertia villa, quae vocatur 
Culesturpo, quae solvit quinque oras dena- 
riorum et carrucis suis arant terras tribus 
ad frumenta et ad avenas diebus. Sequitur 
quarta villa, quae vocatur Achotes, et alia, 
quae vocatur Apicheneam, ubi habentur 
omnes praedictae consuetudines carrucarum. 
His jungitur Merefort, ex qua viii carrucas 
duobus diebus ad frumenta et ad avenas ; 
et in Augusto xxv homines duobus diebus 
ad messemmetendamconsuetudinaliter Do- 
minus villae habebit. Vocatur villa sequens 

lingua eorum Assuafam, de qua habetur 
omnis decima tarn annonae quam aliarum 
rerum. Est et alia quae vocatur Guenite, 
ubi est molendinum unum et sylva, piscatio 
quoque optima. Hoc autem iterum ite- 
rumque cum interdicto affirmationis af- 
firmo, ne alicujus tyranni invasione posthac 
usurpetur quovis modo. Haec itaque charta 
ut posteris nostris immutabilis perduret, 
regia nostra earn auctoritate firmamus." In 
Domesday this place has the name of Sparle, 
and it is thus mentioned under the heading 
Norfolc. Terre Regis quas Godricus servat. 
Hundredum de Grenehov de xiiii letis. Sparle 
tenuit Rex jEdwardus et hoc manerium fuit 
de regno, sed rex Edwardus dedit Radulfo 
Comiti. Huic manerio jacet i beruita, que 
vocatur Paggrava. Est etiam adhuc alter 
beruita, que vocatur Acra. Alia beruita 
Pichenham. Hoc totum manerium simul va- 
luit tempore Regis Edwardi x libras et 
quando Godricus recepit xxii; modo xxxiiii 
libras et ii solidos. Swaffham, another 
capital manor, had been given to Alan, 
earl of Brittany, the husband of a sister 
of the second earl Ralph, as we learn from 
Domesday. Hundredum de Grenehov. Terre 
A 1 11 it/ comitis. Suafham pertinuit ad regio- 
nem et Rex Edwardus dedit Radulfo comiti. 
Hence in each case a brother-in-law was 
benefited by these forfeitures. 


who bore the local surname ; and it was only at a period sub- 
sequent to the raising of a fair mound in the valley for the site 
of the castle, that another epithet derived from this structure 
attached to its locality, as in the name of Bel Encombre we 
have the literal translation of Bellus Cumulus. Bellencombre 
is now the cheflieu of a canton in the arrondissement of Dieppe, 
departement of La Seine Inferieure, with a population of 927 
inhabitants. The cartulary of the monastery of the Holy 
Trinity of the Mont de Rouen, subsequently designated the 
abbey of Sainte Catherine after the acquisition of her relics, 
a manuscript of the eleventh century, furnishes the earliest 
notice of the first baron of this name in Normandy. From 
it we learn that Rodulf de Warren was a sharer and coheir 
with Roger, son of the bishop, in an extensive fief in the 
vicinity of Rouen, and that they had also several vills in 
the pays de Caux, and hence he was doubtless identical with 
Radulf, son of the bishop, whose name occurs in the following 
instrument, inserted in the cartulary of the cathedral church 
of Rouen, which regards the two communes of Douvrend and 
Bailly la riviere, near Dieppe. 

Hoc scriptum est quomodo villa de Duuerent a dominicatu Archiepisco- 
patus exiit et quomodo postea rediit. Duerent fuit in dominico Sancte 
Marie. Hugo Archiepiscopus tulit de dominicatu et dedit cuidam militi, 
Odoni, in matrimonio sororis sue. Mortuo Odone dedit iterum Hugo sororem 
euam cuidam Henrico cum eadem terra. Postea defuncto Henrico clamat 
earn Walterus, comes de Medanta, propter hoc quod Henricus suus 
consanguineus erat, et ita ei dedit Robertus Archiepiscopus. Postea re- 
demit earn Robertus Archiepiscopus, qui earn sibi dederat, pleno pilleo 
de denariis, et ita redacta est terra de Duerent in dominicatu sancte Marie. 
In quo Robertus Archiepiscopus dominicatu triginta annis et plus quiete 
tenuit ; sed postea amore captus filiorum Ricardo filio suo injuste 

Membra ipsius terre sunt hec ; Putham, Duuerendel, Puteolis, Airumesnil 
Hagenonmesnil, Hugonismesnil, Rainulfivallis, Le Coldret, Hupei, Cornepit ; 
et partes de Baslei, scilicet Montane, Muntut et Extriemontem, quas adqui- 
sivit Robertus Archiepiscopus judicio Ricardi Comitis et principum ejus in 
appendiciis Duuerent ; ad quarum divisionem et saisionem misit Ricardus 
Comes Goscelinum filium Hecdonis, Ricardum vicecomitem filium Tescelini, 
et Radulfum filium Episcopi, et Osbertum de Augia. Hi manducaverunt 
ipse die cum archiepiscopo in silva, que dicitur Blanca, et flagellaverunt ibi 
plures puerulos atque eos bene refocillaverunt in recordatione et memoria 
hujus facti. Fuerunt etiam quamplures conpatriote, scilicet, Walterus et 
Wacelinus frater ejus de Euermo, Hagenon de Hubovilla, Ricardus de Sancto 


Supplicio, Reinerus de Berengerivilla et Ricardus de Capitevallis et multi 

The cartulary of the abbey of St. Amand contains this 
record, proving the identity of Roger, son of the bishop, and 
consequently that of his brother Ralph, as sons of Hugh, 
bishop of Coutances : 

Cum prescripts beneficiis illud etiam in hoc privilegio (i. e. Willelmi 
Regis Anglorum quinto anno regni sui) annotatur donum, quod Rogerius 
filius Hugonis episcopi Constancie urbis, ecclesie gloriose Dei genitricis 
Marie et bead Amandi Christi antistitis, que est infra muros urbis Rotho- 
magensis, concessit quando filiam suam, videlicet, Emmam Christi obsequio 
mancipavit. In comitatu Talou hoc mansum, quod vulgo vocatur Herbou- 
mesnil, predictus Rogerius dedit cum uno molendino. In eodem comitatu 
terrain que vocatur de la Mare prefate ecclesie tribuit, quam nunc tenet 
Walchelinus. Preterea hanc terram, quam nunc Turoldus presbyter et 
fratur ejus Turchitillus tenent, cum hiis, que pertinent ad illam, donavit si- 
militer Rogerius. In hac elemosina habeatur quedam piscaria, que de 
censu xv solidos solvit monachis Sancti Dionisii unoquoque anno -f Signum 
Willelmi Normannorum comitis. -f Signum ipsius Rogerii. 

Aubermesnil is a commune in the canton of Blangy, arron- 
dissement of Neufchatel, departement of La Seine-Inferieure, 
between Mortemer and Foucarmont, a district which had 
anciently the name of the comte of Talou, as comprising the 
territory limited by the river Bresle, anciently named Augus ; 
and it was doubtless parcel of the fief, of which the castle of 
Mortemer was originally the chief seat, and from which the 
descendants of Roger, as well as himself, had their surname. 
Hugh, bishop of Coutances, was present at the dedication of 
the church of Fecamp in the year 990, and survived as late as 
the year 1020. Also of his endowment was the priory of St. 
Lo of Rouen, to which he transferred seven canons, of those 

k Hugh was Archbishop of Rouen from seven years until 1037, when he died, leav- 
942 to 989 ; the son of Hugh de Calvacamp ing three sons, Richard, Ralph, and Wil- 
and brother of Ralph, to whom he gave the liam. Of the localities named Douvren- 
bourg of Toeni, in the canton of Gaillon, delle, Pulcheux, Agranville, Angreville, 
arrondissement of Louviers, departement Humesnil, Hernouval and Huppy are all 
de PEure, ancestor of the illustrious race hamlets in the parish of Douvrend, and 
who bore this surname. Walter, third of the Montigny, Motuy and Etrimont in that 
name, comte of the Vexin Francais, of of Bailly-en- Riviere; and the name Blan- 
Chaumont, Pontoise and Mantes, son of ques is yet that of the wood, and of a 
Drogon, comte of the Vexin and of Amiens, hamlet adjoining, where the parties 
was husband of Biota, and with her died dined, and the boys were first flogged and 
from the effects of poison at Falaise in 1063. then feasted in memory of this act. En- 
Archbishop Robert was son of Richard I. vermeu, Ybouville, St. Sulpice, Bellengre- 
and Gunnor, and succeeded to Archbishop ville and Capval are adjoining parishes. 
Hugh, whose prelacy continued for forty- 


who had been appointed to the cathedral of Coutances, after- 
wards the usual place of residence of his successors in the 
capital of the duchy, being inclusive of the church of Blosse- 
ville-Bonsecours, in the vicinity of the Mont de Rouen, a 
commune, which was shared between his sons. According to 
the continuator of William, the monk of Jumieges, whose 
own history closed with the accession of Robert Courte-heuze 
to the ducal throne, and who from internal evidence was 
doubtless a monk of the abbey of Bee Herluin, the families of 
Warren and Mortemer derived their descent from a common 
ancestor, and such tradition was undoubtedly correct. In the 
text of Duchesne we read this paragraph of this writer, under 
the heading Quomodo eadem Comitissa sorores suas et 
neptes nobilioribus Normannorum in conjugium tradidit et de 
posteritate earumdem, having reference to the countess Gun- 
nor, wife of Richard I. Comte of Normandy, deceased in 996. 

Et quoniam de sororibus Gunnoris Comitissae fecimus mentionem, libet 
etiam de illis, qui secundo gradu consanguinitatis affines eidem fuere, prout 
ab antiquis accepimus, aliqua dicere. Habuit ergo ex fratre suo Herfasto 
eadem Comitissa nepotem Osbernum de Crepon, patrem videlicet Willelmi, 
Comitis Herefordise, viri per omnia laudabilis. Neptes vero plures prsedicta 
Gunnor habuit : sed solummodo de quinque, quibus maritis nupserint, au- 
divi. Una itaque earum matrimonio copulata est patri primi Willelmi de 
Warenna, ex qua natus est idem "Willelmus, postea Comes Surreise, et 
Rogerius de Mortuomari, frater ipsius. Altera Nicholao de Bascheritvilla, 
ex cujus posteritate natus est Willelmus Martellus et Walterus de Sancto 

The memory of the aged people from whom this writer 
received this information, cannot be implicitly relied upon, and 
the lapse of time requires that we ascend a generation higher, 
so as to fix the marriage of this nameless niece with one con- 
temporary with Richard I. in the person of Hugh, afterwards 
bishop of Coutances, and father of Ralph de Warren and 
Roger de Mortemer, as this contemporary charter witnesses. 

Non inconsulte antiquorum ritu approbatum constat, ut quod in consta- 
biliendis rebus concors fidelium sententia approbat, hoc fideli litterse trada- 
tur, quse longiore aevo perdurat. Cujus vivaci testimonio cunctis tarn pre- 
sentibus quam et nostris minoribus notum facimus, nos fratres in Rotoma- 
gensi monte Sanctse Trinitati, Deo nostro, in unum servientes, quod habita 
cum Rodulfo Warethnse emptionis conventione in perpetuum hujus nostri 
loci alodium, e vicino ejus centum acres silvse triginta emimus libris, etquat- 
tuordecim acres terras arabilis in Blovilla decem aliis libris, et item bene- 


ficium coci ejus Odonis apud villam dictam Merdeplud aliis decem libris. 
Item quoque pratura ponti Huufridi subjacens decem libris. Item ab eo- 
dem Rodulfo terrain unius carrucse ad Blovillam pro sexdecim libris et 
terrain prseti Sottevillne pro decem libris accepimus; et in ejus necessitate 
pallium unum pro viginti libris et xxx solidis dedimus. Item de supradicta 
silva centum acras emimus a Rogerio filio Episcopi, qui et particeps et 
coheres est ejusdem allodii, xv libris. Sed et ipsam partem de castellario, 
qua? nostrae emptioni est continua et ad ipsum pertinebat, emimus xxx soli- 
dis. Supradictas autem centum acres quidam noster familiaris, nomine 
Rogerius, suo adjutorio nos confortavit emere, quum ipse prior xv libras 
pro sexaginta acres dedit, et post ad centenam perfectionem aliis xv libris, 
quas solvimus, pervenire nos fecit. Hujusemptionis affirmatorem dominum 
nostrum Willelmum, Normannorum ducem, ex ejus signo subter agnos- 
cendum constat, et Rotomagensis archiepiscopi Malgerii subsignatam auc- 
toritatem, et hujus rei ne quis infringere presumat affirmationem. 

Signum Willelmi comitis. Signum Archiprgesulis Malgerii. Signum 
ejusdem Rodulfi de Guarethna. Signum Beatricis, uxoris ejus. Signum 
Rogerii filii episcopi. Signum Hubertii filii Turoldi. Signum Willelmi. 
Signum Hugonis. S. Hepponis. S. Rotberti. S. Warnerii forestarii. 
S. Erchemboldi. S. Gunfridi. Signum Snelli. Signum Willelmi filii 
Rogerii, heredis scilicet ipsius, qui, ut omni paternae conventioni annueret, 
partem suam condonaret, xiiii libras et x solidos a nobis accepit. Signum 
Hugonis fratris ejus. Signum Rodulfi de Cruizmara. S. Turoldi filii 
Osberni de Freschenes. Signum Gulberti filii Rodulfi de Cruizmara. 
Signum Hugonis de Flamenvilla. Ex nostra parte signum Ricardi, sene- 
scal. S. Bernardi coci. S. Ansfredi coci. S. Ascelini prepositi. S. Ro- 
dulfi filii Benzelli. 

Mauger, archbishop of Rouen, was the successor of Arch- 
bishop Robert, his paternal uncle, deceased in 1037, which 
see he retained until May, 1055. Blosseville, Eauplet, and 
Pont Honfroi, are in the immediate vicinity of the Mont de 
Rouen, and Sotteville-lez-Rouen lies next its suburb on the 
south side of the Seine. The use of the word castellarium, 
in the sense of castellanise districtus, attests the tenure of this 
land of Roger to have been annexed to the castle of Morte- 
mer, and among the witnesses are the two sons of Roger, 
William and Hugh, the former of whom ratified the sale made 
by his father. Below in the same cartulary we read : 

Item Rodulfus de Warenna, consensu uxoris suae vocabulo Emmse, 
domno Rainerio abbati et Monachis Sanctae Trinitatis totam portionem 
suam silvae montium Blovillse et Scurrae septem libris denariorum vendidit, 
quarta feria ante Pascha Domini, Willelmo, inclito duce Normannorum, 
assensum prebente. S. ejusdem Willelmi comitis. S. ipsius Rodulfi. 
Signum Emmae, uxoris ejus. S. Hugonis de Flamenvilla. S. Leudonis. 
VOL. in. c 


Ex nostra parte. S. Ansfredi, coci. S. 'Bernard!, coci. S. Warnerii 
forestarii. S. Alberici forestarii. 

Owing to this arrangement Monsieur Deville, the editor of 
this cartulary, plausibly assumes that these charters were in 
chronological order, and consequently appended this note ; 
"hie enirn invenitur Ilodulfus I. de Warenna, conjux Bea- 
tricis, postea Einmse, ex qua Rodulfum II. et Willelmum I. 
filios habuit. Hie Willelmus I. comitatus est Willelmum 
Conquestorem in Angliam, a quo recepit fere trecenta maneria, 
postea a Willelmo Rufo, comitatum Surreise," at the foot of 
the following charter : 

Vir quidem, nomine Hugo de Flamenvilla, vendidit Sanctse Trinitatis 
monachis decimam, quam tenebat de domino suo Rodulfo de Warethna in 
Amundi Villa et terram unius mansi, annuente ipso Rodulfo, qui etiara, 
accepto precio a monachis, dedit illis consuetudinem moltae, quae sui juris 
erat in praedicto manso ; et in Maltevilla decimam, quam ex supradicto viro 
et ex alio, nomine Willelmo, filio Walonae, tenebat, et unum hortum et 
decimam culturae de Hamara. Item in eadem villa, &c. In Flamenvilla 
quoque ipse predictus Hugo to tarn propi'iae carrucae decimam, necnon et 
omnium virorum ejusdem villa ad se pertinentium, tarn vernaculorum quam 
rusticorum, nobis tradidit et donavit. Post modicum tempus pretaxati 
Hugonis dominus, scilicet supra memoratus Rodulfus et uxor ejus, voca- 
bulo Emma, ac filii eorum Rodulfus et Willelmus, ad nostrum venerunt 
monasterium ; una cum eis venit ipse Hugo, rogavit eos ut harum omnium 
conventionum donationem in perpetuam hereditatem facerent, et coram 
altari sancta Trinitatis suis manibus cartam signarent, et fecerunt. Harum 
omnium conventionum testes multi sunt, et maxime hi, qui eodem die, quo 
ejus puer monachus est effectus, interfuerunt. Cum quibus ipse etiam 
predictus Hugo cartam manu sua firmavit, ibidem abbate Rainerio cum suis 
monachis astante. 

S. Rodulfi de Warethna. S. Vidonis de Briothna. S. Willelmi, filii 
Walonis. S. Emmae, uxoris Rodulfi de Warethna. S. Rodulfi, filii eorum. 
S. Willelmi fratris ejus. S. ipsius Hugonis de Flamenvilla. S. Rotberti 
filii ejus. S. Gisleberti filii ejusdem. S. Rodulfi de Wesneval. Ex nostra 
parte. S. Ricardi senescal. S. Osmundi, marescal. S. Bernard! coci. 
S. Ansfredi coci. 

The second signature is that of Guy de Brionne, son of 
Rainald, Comte of Burgundy, who in another charter relating 
to a sale of tithes in Motteville and Emanville is styled Comte ; 
quam venditionem Wido comes et Ilodulfus de Warethna, 
cum uxore sua nomine Emma, annuerunt et confirmaverunt. 
His mother, Aden's, was daughter of Richard II., Duke of 
Normandy, and had Brionne of the gift of his cousin ; but in 


the year 1047, he formed a conspiracy to dispossess his bene- 
factor of his sovereignty, and in a battle fought at Val-es- 
dunes in the comte of the Oximin, was defeated by the united 
forces of the French and Normans. Thence, having fled to 
Brionne, he was besieged in his castle three years, until, com- 
pelled by famine, he surrendered and implored the mercy of 
the duke, which he obtained, according to William of Jumie- 
ges ; " cujus dux, suorum consaltu, miseriae misertus clemen- 
ter ille pepercit et recepto castello Brioci cum suis domesticis 
eum manere in domo suo jussit." This second marriage of 
Rodulf de Warren was subsequent to the marriage of William 
the Conqueror with Matilda, daughter of Baldwin de Lille, 
Comte of Flanders, as we learn from the following record, in- 
serted in the cartulary of the abbey of Preaux, dedicated to 
St. Peter, in the vicinity of Pont-Audemer ; and hence it is 
probable that the two sons named above were the issue of this 
first wife and not of the second, as conjectured by Monsieur 

Eodem anno, quo in conjugium sortitus est Normannorum Mar- 
chio, Willelmus nomine, Balduini comitis filiam, dedit sancto Petro 
Pratelli consuetudines, quas habebat in quadam terra, que Wascolium 
vulgo vocatur, scilicet, hainfaram, utlac, rat, incendium, bernagium, bellum. 
Pro quibus abbas ejusdem loci Ansfridus nomine ei dignam dedit pecu- 
niam, id est, x libras denariorum et orationes loci Pratelli. Eodem anno 
quidam miles de Warenna, Radulfus nomine, annuente conjuge sua 
Beatrice, dedit sancto Petro Pratelli quicquid in eadem terra, scilicet, 
Wascolio, habebat in piano, in aqua et silva ; et ideo dedit ei predictus abbas 
societatem loci et quinque uncias auri et centum solidos et anulum aureum 
unum appendentem novem nummos et unum coclar argenteum. Huic 
conventioni interfuerunt testes ex parte Abbatis Rogerius filius Hunfridi, 
eo tempore vicecomes Rotomagi, et Girardus, comitis botellarius, et Guar- 
nerius et Gotmundus et Gaufridus milites Abbatis et Christianus et Her- 
bertus presbyteri. Ex parte vero Radulfi, Godefridus, frater ejus, et 
Hilbertus filius Turoldi de Fontanis et Robertus filius Ansfridi de Ivetot. 

Ansfridus succeeded as abbot of Preaux, his predecessor 
Einardus in 1050, and the marriage of Duke William with 
Matilda did not take place until 1053, so that we are able 
to fix this date as that of the above grant, and to add a third 
brother Godefridus to the issue of Hugh, bishop of Coutances. 
Vascceuil is situate on the river Andelle, in the vicinity of the 
forest of Lyons. On the other hand the cartulary of the Holy 
Trinity affords two specific dates as to the time of his being 
the husband of Emma. 


Notum sit omnibus sanctae ecclesie filius tarn praesentibus quam etiam 
futuris, qualiter vir quidam illustris, nomine Rodulfus de Warenna, cum 
conjuge sua, vocabulo Emma, divina favente gratia, quatuor suis juris 
ecclesias cum omnibus appenditiis suis, videlicet, harum villarum, id est, 
Amundi villae, Anglicevillae, Flamenvillae, Maltevillae, domno Abbati Rain- 
erio et monachis ejus pro xxx libris denariorum, in alodio vendiderunt et 
tradiderunt. Sed et unicuique ecclesiae contiguos sex jugeres terrse, quos 
acres dicimus, supradicto abbati et monachis in perpetuam hereditatem 
tradiderunt. Hoc ergo actum est favore et auctoritate Willelmi, consulis 
Normanniae, qui etiam hujus negotii donationem firmavit, et proprio adno- 
tationis signo cartam corroboravit. 

Signum ejusdem Willelmi comitis. Signum Rodulfi de Warenna. Sig- 
num Emmae uxoris ejus. Signum Hugonis de Flamenvilla, Ex nostra parte. 
Signum Bernard! coci. S. Ricardi Senescal. S. Osberni Bruncosted. 
S. Ansfrcdi coci. S. Heddonis de Chanaan. Acta sunt haec anno ab Incar- 
natione Domini M.LVIIII. 

Omnibus sanctae ecclesise filiis notum sit, quod Rodulfus de Warenna 
ejusque conjux, vocabulo Emma, cum filiis suis, Rodulfo scilicet atque 
Willelmo, post annos fere xvi, quam quatuor villarum Caletensis pagi, 
Maltevillae, videlicet, Flamenvillae, Amundivillae et Anglicevillae ecclesias et 
earum decimas nobis vendiderant, convenientes in hoc monasterio anno 
dominicae incarnationis MLXIIII, omnem totius Osulfivillae ejusdem Cale- 
tensis pagi, cum ecclesia, dccimam, quam a Guillelmo filio Rogerii filii 
Hugonis episcopi xxx libris denariorum emerant, pro redemptione animarum 
suarum in perpetuam hereditatem nobis dederunt, et donationem super 
altare Sancta Trinitatis posuerunt coram testibus. 

Signum ipsius Rodulfi. Signum Emmae uxoris ejus. Signum Rodulfi 
filii eorum. Signum Willelmi, fratris ejus. Signum Hugonis de Flamen- 
villa. Signum Rainaldi. Signum Guillelmi, filiorum ejus. Signum Gisle- r 
berti, clerici. Signum Leudonis. Ex nostra parte testes : Ricardus sene- 
scal. Bernardus, cocus ; Ricardus de Appivilla; Guillelmus, sartor; 
Rainaldus, Anglicus ; Walterius, cocus ; Albericus de Blovilla ; Osbernus 

The five churches named in these evidences are those of 
Mauteville-l'Eneval, otherwise Motteville-les-deux-clochers, Fla- 
manviUe-rEneval, Emanville, Anglesqueville-sur-Saane and 
Auzouville 1'Eneval, the affix of L'Eneval being derived from 
the manor of Eneval in the parish of Pavilly, which was the 
head of a barony, including these parishes in the pays de Caux, 
in times subsequent to the annexation of Normandy to the 
realm of France. Besides the proof thus afforded of the co- 
heirship of these two brothers in the pays de Caux, we find 
that Roger, son of Bishop Hugh, sold to the monastery of the 
Holy Trinity and to the abbot Rainerius the multure of all his 


men, both free men and husbandmen, living under his rule in 
Blosseville and Le Mesnil Enard and Neuvillette, and in Les- 
cure and Eauplet, as well as of his own house situate in the 
city of Rouen, for seven pounds, with the consent of his wife 
Odain, and their sons William and Hugh. In like manner 
Ralph de Warren sold for the same sum to the aforesaid abbot 
the multure of all the men belonging to him in the same 
villages. The last mention of this baron in the same cartulary 
occurs in this form, and from it we may infer that he had 
not been present at the battle of Hastings. 

Ea tempestate qua Guillelmus, dux Normannorum egregius, cum classico 
apparatu ingentique exercitu, Anglorum terram expetiit, quidam miles, 
nomine Osmundus de Bodes, cum aliis illuc profectus, et langore correptus 
atque ad extrema perductus, pro animse suss remedio, dedit sanctae Trini- 
tati omnem decimam terras suae in alodio, quam domini sui Rodulfi de 
Warenna tenebat beneficio. Unde et eidem domino suo Rodulfo, ut hoc 
annueret, xxx solidos dedimus ; quod et fecit ante altare Sanctae Trinitatis. 

Signum Rodulfi de Warenna. Signum ejusdem Osmundi. Signum 
Rodulfi heredis Osmundi. Testes, Alveredus de la Bruere ; Goiffredus del 
Busc; Ricardus de Drincurt ; Ilbertus de Longocampo, Bernardus cocus; 
Robertus pistor. 

From these evidences we are able to deduce these facts ; 
that Ralph or Rodulf, son of the bishop, was twice married, 
and that his two sons were the issue of his first wife, Beatrice, 
as otherwise they would not have attained sufficient age to have 
been in arms as early as the year 1055, the exact date of the 
battle of Mortemer, both according to Ordericus Vitalis, who 
states it to have occurred in the eighth year after the battle of 
Val-es-dunes, in 1047, and according to Robert du Mont, who 
has inserted an account of it in his additions to the chronicle 
of Sigebert, monk of the abbey of Gemblours in Brabant, 
under that year. The account of the former writer is put into 
the discourse, which he attributes to William the Conqueror 
on his death-bed, in these words ; " in time past King Henry 
(of France) highly incensed against me dispatched a vast army 
of Franks in two divisions, in order to overwhelm our terri- 
tories by a double invasion. He himself introduced one phalanx 
into the diocese of Evreux, in order that he might devastate 
every thing as far as the river Seine, and entrusted another to 
Odo his brother, and Reginald de Clermont, and to two counts, 
Ralph de Montdidier and Guy of Ponthieu, that they might 
quickly enter Normandy by the fords of the Epte, and lay 


waste Bray and Talou, and the whole of the Roumois, with 
sword and fire, and from thence continue their ravages, until 
they reached the sea. I therefore, upon receipt of this intelli- 
gence, without delay set out to meet the foe, placed myself 
with my forces along the bank of the Seine, continually in 
front of the king's tents, and wheresoever he strove to depopu- 
late my land, with arms and iron I prepared to encounter 
him. Meanwhile I sent Robert, comte of Eu, and Roger de 
Mortemer, and other most valiant knights, against Odo and 
his legions. Who, whilst near a castle, which is called Mor- 
temer, they rencountered the French, the troops of both 
armies being ready, a terrible battle was fought with great 
effusion of blood on both sides. On the one party the Gauls 
were furious, animated with the desire of winning the land; on 
the other the Normans dealt blows in rage, burning with the 
hope of escaping defeat, and of defending themselves and their 
hearths. At length, by the divine aid, the Normans con- 
quered and the Trench fled. This battle they fought beyond 
the Seine, in winter before Lent, the eighth year after the 
battle of Val-es-dunes. Then Guy, comte of Ponthieu, was 
made prisoner, and Odo, with Reginald and others, who were 
fleet of foot, was routed. Comte Rodulf likewise would have 
been in like manner a prisoner, unless Roger, the leader of my 
forces, had favoured him ; for he had long since done homage 
to him. Wherefore in this his necessity he rendered to him a 
fair and sufficient service, in as much as he protected him for 
three days in his castle, and afterward conducted him safe to 
his home. For this offence I ejected Roger from Normandy, 
but soon after, being reconciled, I restored to him the rest of 
his honours, save the castle of Mortemer, in which he had 
saved my enemy, and this I took from him rightly, as I be- 
lieve. Yet nevertheless I gave it to William de Warren, his 
kinsman, a loyal youth." The same writer also mentions 
William de Warren as having been present at the battle of 

The word used by this writer to denote the degree of re- 
lationship between Roger de Mortemer and his nephew Wil- 
liam de Warren is simply consanguineus ; yet the continuator 
of William of Jumieges describes him as son of the first Wil- 
liam de Warren, through ignorance of his real descent, in this 
passage, at Rogerius de Mortuomari, filius primi Willelmi de 
Warrenna, monasterium sancti Victoris in proprio solo fundavit. 


Robert du Mont, in his Tractatus de Abbatibus et Abbatiis 
Normannorum et sedificatoribus earum, writes at Rogerius de 
Mortuomari, filius Walterii de Sancto Martino, frater vero 
primi Willelmi de Warrenna, monasterium in proprio solo 
fundavit, in utter forgetfulness that it was the niece of the 
Countess Gunnor, married to Nicholas de Baqueville, who was 
mother of William Martel and of Walter de St. Martin, as we 
learn from the continuator of William de Jumieges, (who by 
many is supposed to have been this identical Robert du Mont, 
who was a monk and claustral prior of Bec-Herluin, before 
being elected abbot of Mont St. Michel in 1154,) in the para- 
graph cited above. The castles of St. Victor and St. Riquier- 
en-riviere were those which remained to Roger de Mortemer 
after the offence, and near the former was a priory dependant 
upon the abbey of St. Ouen, which upon the petition of Roger 
de Mortemer and Advisa his wife, in 1074, was erected 
into an abbey, and to which the family of Warren were 
benefactors c . 

c The following charter is evidence of 
the extent of these benefactions, and fully 
corroborates the assumed descent of the 
houses of Warren and Mortimer from a 
common ancestor : 

Hamelinus, Comes Guarenne, venera- 
bili Rotomagensis Ecclesie archiepiscopo 
et decano ceterisque ejusdem Ecclesie per- 
sonis et omnibus hominibus suis Francis 
et Anglis, salutem. Sciates me concessisse 
et charta mea confirmasse pro salute anime 
mee et uxoris mee Isabelle Comitisse et 
Guillelmi filii inei, et parentum et ante- 
cessorum nostrorum, omnes donationes, 
quas Guillelmus de Guarenna et Comes 
Guillelmus, filius ejus, et homines sui de- 
derunt Deo et ecclesie sancti Victoris mo- 
nachisque ibidem Deo servientibus, tarn in 
ecclesiis quam in decimis, tarn in terris 
quam in redditibus, et in aliis donationi- 
bus ; scilicet ecclesiam de Bellencumbre 
cum decima eidem pertinente et decimam 
molendinorum et thelonei ejusdem ville. 
Quia vero ab antique prefati monachi in 
ipso redditu molendinorum videlicet et 
thelonei non amplius quam viginti libras 
habuerant, ego ex proprio dono meo con- 
cessi illis et confirmavi ut integram 
habeant decimam, sive minuatur redditus 
sive augeatur. Apud Brachetuit terrain, 
ubi presbyter manet, et quatuor acras 
terre et quatuor mansuras ; sed una de illis 
cambiata est pro alia apud Lovetot ; item 
apud Brachetuit totam decimam ovium 
mearum. Concessi etiam totus nemus 
Rogerii de Cresseio a nemore Pasnagii 

usque ad semitam de valle Hidose fovee, 
sicut idem Rogerius, presente comite 
Guillelmo etconcedente,Deo etsancto Vic- 
tori dedit et donum super altari cum illo 
posuit. Concessi etiam, sicut ipse Roge- 
rius concessit, sequentiam ejusdem nemoris 
in terram suam, ita ut monachi talem 
habeant inde justitiam, qualem ipse ha- 
bebat. Habebit idem Rogerius tres chari- 
tates per annum, unam ad Nativitatem, et 
aliam ad Pascha, tertiam ad festum Sancti 
Victoris et ad festum Sancti Martini botas 
vel duos solidos ; in unaquaque charitate 
erunt quatuor simenelli et unum sextarium 
vini. Ecclesiam quoque de Capramonte 
et medietatem ejusdem ville, tarn in terra 
quam in aqua. Ecclesiam etiam Sancti 
Audoeni de Sylva cum decima et decem 
acras terre. Apud Montem David duas 
mansuras et unam apud Monsteriolum, 
datas a Radulpho de Cresseio pro anima 
fratris sui Hugonis. Relaxavi etiam et 
concessi ex proprio dono meo redditum, 
quern de duabus prefatis mansuris, scilicet, 
Montis David, habere consueveram, vide- 
licet unam minam avene, duas bidentes et 
duas gallinas, quamdiu abbas et monacbi 
easdem mansuras in suo dominio tenue- 
rint. Quartam quoque partem ecclesie 
Sancti Helerii et decimam eidem parti per- 
tinentem, datum a Rogerio de Wasson- 
villa ; duas garbas de decima de Almaisnil et 
Capramonte de feudo meo datas a Rogerio 
et Amelio fratre ejus. Iterum apud Bra- 
chetuit duas partes decime. Quare volo 
et firmiter precipio quod predicti monachi 


Ordericus Vitalis in the fourth book of his Ecclesiastical 
History, has a paragraph enumerating the several earldoms 
given in England to his followers by William the Conqueror, 
inclusive of Walter, surnamed Gifard and William de Warren ; 

Gualterio quoque cognomento Gifardo, comitatum Buckingeham et Guil- 
lelmo de Guarenna, qui Gundredam sororem Gherbodi conjugem habuit, 
dedit Suti-egiam. 

As regards both these earldoms, the writer has anticipated 
their grants by a few years, as the title of earl is not given to 
either in Domesday Book, and we know from an authentic 
charter that the latter owed his elevation to King William 
Rufus. Gorbod, the brother of Gundreda, is mentioned in a 
preceding paragraph by this writer in these terms : 

Cestram et comitatum ejus Gherbodo Flandrensi jamdudum rex dederat ; 
qui magna ibi et difficilia tarn ab Anglis quam a Guallis adversantibus per- 
tulerat. Deinde legatione coactus suorum, quos in Flandria dimiserat, et 
quibus hereditarium honorem suum commiserat, eundi, citoque redeundi 
licentiam a rege acceperat ; sed ibi adversa illaqueatus fortuna in manus 
inimicorum inciderat, et in vinculis coercitus, mundanaque felicitate pri- 
vatus, longae miseriae threnos depromere didicerat. 

This hereditary honour in Flanders was situate in Lower 
Picardy, and attached to it was the office of defender of the 
monastery of Sithiu, dedicated in honour of St. Peter ; but in 
later times the town of Sithiu acquired another name from 
St. Audomarus, (St. Omer,) as did also the monastery from 
its first abbot, St. Bertinus. His father bore the same name 
as himself, and was witness to a charter of Baldwin, bishop of 
Therouanne, then the capital of the pagus Tarvanensis, (le 
Therouennais ou pays des Morins,) including Picardy, Artois, 
and Flanders, ratifying an exchange between him and Roderi- 
cus, abbot of St. Bertin, of certain lands for three churches 

habeant et teneant omnes predictas dona- Greinosavilla, Eliam de Almeisnil, Hugo- 

tiones bene et in pace, libere et quiete et nem de Bellomonte, Hugonem de Angulo 

honorifice sicut antecessores mei illas eis sacerdotem, Guarinum sacerdotem de 

dederunt et chartis suis confirmaverunt et Sancto Audoeno, Gualterum sacerdotem 

sicut alie ecclesie per Normanniam con- de Bosavilla. Guarinum prepositum, 

stitute melius et liberius tenent vel tenue- Guillelmum des Estaus, Rogerum Came- 

runt tempore antecessorum meorum. Et rarium et Hugonem fratrem ejus et Ra- 

ut etiam hec omnia firma et stabilia et in- dulphum prepositum abbatis et plures 

concussa in perpetuum existant sigilli mei alios. Bellencombre is in the vicinity of 

et sigilli uxoris mee Isabelle Comitisse, the abbey of St. Victor, and Bractuit, 

dignum duxi munimine roborari, istos ad- Louvetot, Cressy, Quevremont, St. Ouen, 

hibendo testes Guillelmum de Guarenna Montreuil, St. Helier, Bas Aumesnil, Vas- 

filium meum, Adam de Poninges, Guillel- sonvilleare all parishes and hamlets in the 

mum de Blossevilla, Guillelmum de same neighbourhood. 



and their appurtenances, done in the church of the Holy 
Mother of God, Mary, at Therouanne, in the year of the In- 
carnation of the Lord 1026, reigning Robert King of the 
French, Balduino vero marchionatum agente tricesimo nono, 
to which Signum Gerbodonis, advocati. Signum Ernulfi ad- 
vocati, are the only lay signatures. In 1056 a serious alter- 
cation took place between Bovo abbot of St. Bertin and Ger- 
bod, the avoue of this house, by reason of unjust exactions 
levied by the latter in the town of Arques upon their servants 
and tenants, the settlement of which Baldwin, then Comte of 
Flanders, surnamed Pius, and Insulanus from Lille, a town of 
Flanders, the place of his birth, undertook, as we learn from 
his charter, made with the consent of both parties, and to 
which was this date : 

Acta est hec confirmatio a me Balduino, Flandrensium Dei gratia mar- 
chione, anno dominice incarnationis millesimo quinquagesimo sexto, indic- 
tione nona, regnante Henrico Francorum Rege, in villa Sancti Audomari 
in basilica sancti Petri, die sancto Epiphanie, astantibus hujus rei testibus 
strenuis viris, quorum nomina subter tenentur inserta : Signum Balduini, 
incliti marchionis. Signum Drogonis, episcopi Taruannensis. Signum 
Gerardi, Cameracensis episcopi. Signum Bovonis, abbatis. Signum Led- 
uini abbatis. Signum Eustatii comitis. Signum Rogeri, comitis. Signum 
Ingelramni comitis. Signum Robert! de Bethunia. Signum Rodulfi Gan- 
densis. Signum Elgoti Attrebatensis. Signum Gerbodonis advocati. 
Signum Anselmi. Signum Alolfi de Hesdin. Signum Elvardi militis. 
Signum Huberti, militis. Signum Walteri militis. Signum Christiani, 
scriptoris hujus privilegii. 

To another charter of the same Comte of Flanders reciting 
the origin and possessions of the abbey of Bergues-Saint- 
Winox,' which having been first belonging to secular canons, 
was by him changed into a Benedictine abbey, with this date ; 
actum est hoc Bergis in solemni curia Pentecostes anno 
Dominice Incarnationis millesimo sexagesimo septimo, indic- 
tione quarta, adstante Drogone Teruanensi episcopo, we have 
these signatures ; Signum Balduini gloriosi comitis. Signum 
Adela3 Comitissse. Signa Balduini atque Roberti, filiorum ejus. 
Signum Eustachii comitis Boloniae. S. Rogeri de Sancto 
Paulo. S. Anselmi de Hesdin. S. Joannis Attrebatensis. 
S. Hugonis Anet. Signum Gerbodonis Advocati de Sancto 
Bertino. Signum Raingoti de Gant. Signum Balduini de 
Gant. S. Alardi Ernes. S. Cononis fifii ejus. Signum 



Erembaldi Castellan! de Bragis. Signa Erkenberti Prrepositi 
et aliorum multomm d . 

Gerbod the witness to these several charters, was doubtless 
father of Gerbod, earl of Chester, whose history is detailed by 
Ordericus Vitalis, and who was also a benefactor to the abbey 
of St. Bertin at St. Omer during the time of his absence from 
England with leave from the Conqueror, together with his wife 
Ada, as appears by this charter, which has this heading in the 
cartulary of the abbey ; Traditio Gerbodonis et Adse conjugum 
tercie partis sui allodii ville Ostresele. 

In nomine sancte et individue Trinitatis. Nos seculares homines semper 
huic mundo dediti, nimium illecebris inservimus hujus seculi. His eciam 
morbidis, caducis et transitoriis commodis toti inheremus ; eterna vero et 
magis desideranda, proh dolor ! bona nichil pendimus. Unde, dum cotidie 
hinc exire cogimur nudi, et nichil preter peccata portantes, terribili Dei 
nostri juditio discutiendi representamur. Tune queque terris habita non 
solum prodesse, sed obesse prevalent ; elemosinarum vero bona, si qua sunt, 
familiariter arrident. Quod ego Gerbodo et Ada, conjux mea, conside- 
rantes, atque vite perhennis sollicitudinem gerentes, nobis quod in eternum 
expediat providere, et aliquantulum Deum nobis debitorem cupimus efficere. 
Credimus enim et certum tenemus quod quicquid ecclesie servis, scilicet Dei, 
pro ejus amore deliberatur, non hominibus sed ipsi Deo donatur. Sic enim 
dictum audivimus in evangelio : Quamdiu fecistis uni ex his fratribus meis 
minimis, michi fecistis. Quod autem Deo nostro datur, nequaquam dando 
amittitur, sed denuo recipiendum sapienter ei creditur. De quo aposto- 
lus ; Scio cui credidi, et certus sum quia potens est depositum meum 
servare in ilium diem. Tune nulla erit sollicitudo eriginis aut tinee vel 
furum; nee tantumdem recipietur, sed centuplum, ut Dominus in evan- 
gelio ; omnis qui reliquerit agros in nomine meo centuplum accipiet, et 
vitam eternam possidebit. Hec ego omnia sciens, et omnia credens, alodium 
meum, hoc est, terciam partem tocius ville Ostreseld quod prius conjugi 
mee in dotalitium dederam, ea ipsa consenciente et rogante, Deo et Sancto 

d There is also a charter of Robert prima, in presentia predict! comitis Ro- 

Frison, Comte of Flanders, concerning the berti et filii ejus Roberti et procerum 

vill of Arques, which contains this recital j suorum, quos ob testimonium hie annotari 

Palustrem eciam terram que inter arabi- placuit. Signum Roberti, comitis, qui 

lem terram de Arkes et Elst ultra vetus nanc cartam scribi fecit. Signum Roberti 

monasterium, et in oriente vetus fossatum junioris. Signum Roberti, advocati. Sig- 

in silva ac inter Hindringeled et vetustam num Cononis. Signum Rodgeri, castel- 

Mere atque in occidente novum fossatum lani. Signum Thumbaldi de Ypres. Signum 

interjacet; quam pater meus Balduinus Raingeri, dapiferi. Du Cange gives this 

Comes, Gerbodone advocato concedente, explanation of the word Advocatus. "Ad- 

sancto Bertino, quia ei in corpore viventi vocati ecclesiarum, qui jura, bona et facul- 

tradita fuerit, liberam possidendam confir- tates Ecclesiarum tuebantur, an office, 

mavit, and has this date and signatures ; which was abolished at the council of 

Actum est hoc anno incarnationis Domini Rheims in 1148." 
millesimo nonagesimo tercio, indictione 


Petro Sanctoque Bertino, firma do traditione, ea scilicet ratione, ut abbas 
ipsius loci, in omni meo anniversario, meeque conjugis, refectionem ibidem 
Deo famulantibus fratribus facial, ut eo libentius ipsi fratres pro redemp- 
tione nostra ad Dei aures pulsent. Pro qua scilicet anime mee redemptione 
hanc traditionem facio, meorumque militum subsignatione firmo. 

Signum Elvardi. Signum Huberti. Signum Rameri Halreth. Signum 

This vill is on the sea coast, in the canton of Marquise, ar- 
rondissement of Boulogne-sur-mer, departement du Pas de 
Calais, and has now the name of Audresselles, and the follow- 
ing charter affords proof that the date of this grant was ante- 
rior to the year 1087, and is inserted next in the cartulary 
under the heading, Exemplar carte Johannis Abbatis de Villa 

In nomine Patris &c. Quoniam &c. Quapropter ego Johannes Sithien- 
sium abbas notum facio sanctum Bertinum in villain, Ostrasele nuncupatam, 
delatum, quatiuus altiori consilio mei et fratrum ibidem sui juris allodium 
sine aliqua contradictione sibi vendicaret, sicque ab omni controversia libe- 
rum quidem ac quietum imperpetuum permaneret ; ubi inter reliqua, 
Arnulfus atque Gerbodo frater suus, ex conventione utrinque facta et con- 
cessa, homines nostri manibus effecti, quatuor marchas argenti, unusquisque 
videlicet duas, et hoc constituto tempore, id est, in festivitate Sancti Micaelis, 
in beneficium singulis annis recipiunt ; eo scilicet pacto atque conditione, 
ut nullo ingenio, nulla ratione, in predictum Sancti allodium, causa aliquid 
usurpandi seu eciam placitandi, se aliquatenus ingerant, nee postremo quic- 
quam quod ad dampnum ecclesie respiciat umquam inibi agere presumant ; 
insuper vero omnes suos liberos ac servos, quemadmodum seipsos, a simili 
injuria compescant. Si quando autem, placito aliquo adgravato, ministeri- 
alis et custos ejusdem boni rem suis juribus in efiectum ducere nequiverit, 
tune tandem, si sibi id utile visum fuerit, ab eo vocati et moniti veniant, 
simulque, consilio et auxilio in quantum prevalent, una cum eo, salva fideli- 
tate ecclesie, omnia tractent atque disponent, terciumque nummum ex eodem 
placito provenientem, tune tantum, ejus rei gratia, habeant, ultra hoc nil 
umquam, ut dictum est, de cetero intromittentes. Facta est igitur hec 
talis conventio in presentia nostra, cunctis super hoc assensum unanimiter 
prebentibus, anno ab incarnatione Domini millesimo octogesimo septimo, 
indictione decima, regnante Francorum rege Philippo, presente Lamberto 
Hejaniensi abbate, multis quoque aliorum spectabilium personis. Quas 
videlicet in presentium subscriptione, ad corroborandum hujus rei testimo- 
nium, attitulari placuit ex nomine, hoc modo ; Balduinus de Ganda. RaZo de 
Ganera. Razo et Africus frater ejus de Moneta. Rothardus de Sotlige- 
hem et Rotneth frater suus et Sigerus de Westernhem et Rodulphus de 
Hervetingehem. Gerardus de Kimbresaca et aliis multis, quos longum est 


Quibus expletis, astante ibidem sacrosancto corpore bead Bertini, cum 
aliis reliquiis, decretum est et exclamatum, ut, quicumque supramemoratam 
conventionem aliquando violare presumeret, etemo anatheraati subjaceret, 
nisi digna penitencia reconciliatus, a tanto errato cito resipisceret. Fiat, 

Arnulf and Gerbodo named in this charter were doubtless 
the sons of Gerbodo earl of Chester and of Ada his wife, the 
original grantors of the third part of the vill of Audreselles, 
and the fact of their becoming the men of the abbot is a 
strong proof of the truth of their father's history as told by 
Oderic Vitalis, which had resulted in the loss of his title of 
avoue of the abbey of St. Bertin. Authentic evidences, thus 
proving the high rank of this family in Flanders, accord with 
the inference suggested by the text of an excellent historian, 
that Matilda, the daughter of Baldwin comte of Inlanders, had 
Gerbodo, the avoue of St. Bertin, for her first husband, and 
that the issue of this marriage were Gerbodo, earl of Chester, 
Frederic, and Gundrada wife of William de Warren. The 
second marriage of Matilda with William duke of Normandy, 
w r as in contemplation prior to the close of the year of the In- 
carnation of the Lord 1049, during which a council was held 
at Rheims for reforming the discipline of the Church and for 
the regulation of morals, under the presidency of Pope Leo 
the Ninth, commencing on the third day of October ; for in a 
record of the acts of the third day of its sitting, the following 
passage occurs descriptive of what was done on that occasion 
by the Pope. 

Excommunicavit etiam comites Engelrannum et Eustachium propter 
incestum et Hugonem de Braina, quia legitimam uxorem dimiserat et 
aliam sibi in matrimonio sociaverat. Interdixit et Balduino comiti Flan- 
drensi ne filiam suara Willelmo Nortmanno nuptui daret ; et illi ne earn 
acceperat. Vocavit etiam comitem Tetbaldum, quoniam suam dimiserat 

Such was the solemn prohibition promulgated at this council 
against this intended union, and which was so far effectual 
that until the imprisonment of this Pope, in 1053, by the 
Normans of Naples, none took place. In that year, according 
to the Chronicle of Tours, William duke of Normandy married 
Matilda, the divorced wife of Gerbodo, the mother of the 
children named above. The charter of William Warren, in 
the reign of William Rufus, who had created him earl of 


Surrey, contains distinct evidence that the wife of King Wil- 
liam the Conqueror was the mother of his wife, in the follow- 
ing paragraph : 

Volo quod sciant qui sunt et qui futuri sunt, quod ego Willelmus de 
Warrenna Surreie comes, donavi et confirmavi Deo et sancto Petro et 
abbati et conventui de Cluniaco ecclesiam Sancti Pancratii, que sita est sub 
castro meo Lewiarum, et eidem Sancto Pancratio et monachis Cluniacensi- 
bus, quicumque in ipsa ecclesia Sancti Pancratii Deo serviunt, imperpe- 
tuum donavi pro salute anime mee et anime Gundrade uxoris mee et pro 
anima domini mei Willelmi Regis, qui me in Anglicam terrain adduxit et 
per cujus licentiam monachos venire feci, et qui meam priorem donationem 
confirmavit, et pro salute domine mee Matildis Regine, matris uxoris mee, et 
pro salute domini mei Willelmi Regis, filii sui, post cujus adventum in 
Anglicam terram hanc cartam feci et qui me comitem Surreie fecit, et pro 
salute omnium heredum meorum et omnium fidelium Christi vivorum et 
mortuorum, in sustentationem predictorum monachorum Sancti Pancratii, 
mansionem Falemeram nomine, totum quicquid ibi in dominio habui, cum 
hida terre, quam Eustachius in Burgemera tenet et ad ipsurn mansionem 
pertinet. Mansionem quoque Carlentonam nomine quam domina mea 
Matildis Regina dedit Gundrade uxori mee et mihi, et hoc concessit et con- 
firmavit dominus rneus rex Willelmus in auxilium ad fundandum novos 
monachos nostros ; totum quod ibi habuimus. 

The entries in Domesday, as to Falmer in Sussex and Carl- 
ton in Cambridgeshire, describe them as held of William de 
Warene at that time by St. Pancras, and the abbot of Cluny ; 
but as regards the last-named place, it is there simply stated 
that Earl Algar had held the land. His Saxon predecessor in 
all his other lands in that county had been Tochi, the thane 
of King Edward, whence it is probable that the four hides 
and two acres so excepted were of the gift of Queen Matilda, 
as mentioned in the charter. 

Pope Leo IX. was imprisoned by the Normans from the 23rd 
of June, 1053, until the 12th of March, 1054 ; and during this 
interval the marriage of William the Conqueror with the wife 
of Gorbod took place, not in Flanders, but in Normandy. 
Baldwin, her father, himself conducted her into Ponthieu, the 
district bordering upon Normandy, where he was met by his 
future son-in-law, and at the frontier-town of the duchy, Eu, 
the ceremony of marriage was performed. William, the monk 
of Jumieges, a contemporary writer, thus narrates the attend- 
ant circumstances, in chapter 21 of his seventh book, under 
the heading Quod dux Willelmus duxit Mathildem filiam 
Balduini Flandrensis, neptem Henrici Regis. 


Jam duce juvenili robore vigente, transcensis annis adolescentiae, coepe- 
runt optimates ejus de successione prolis cum eo attentius tractare. Au- 
diens autem Balduinum Flandrife comitem quandam habere filiam regali ex 
genere descendentem, nomine Mathildem, corpore valde elegantem animo- 
que liberalem, hanc, suorum consultu, missis legatis, a patre petiit uxorem. 
Ex ejus proposito animo Balduinus Satrapa admodum gavisus, non modo 
petitam dari decrevit, verum etiam cum muneribus innumeris earn ad usque 
Oucense castrum adduxit ; ubi Dux, militum stipatus catervis, advenit, illam- 
que sibi jure conjugal! despondit, et cum maximo tripudio ac honore Roto- 
magi moenibus intulit. Genuit autem ex ea procedente tempore filios qua- 
tuor, Robertum, qui post eum ducatum Normannise aliquamdiu tenuit, et 
Willelmum, qui regno Angliae tredecim annos prsefuit et Richardum, qui 
juvenis decessit, et Henricum, qui fratribus, tarn Regi quam Duci, successit 
et filias quatuor ; de quibus omnibus, tarn viris quam feminis liber subse- 
quens, qui de gestis nobilissimi Regis Henrici inscribitur pro modulo nostro, 
Deo iuvante, pertractabit. 

As regards these last sentences they are an obvious inter- 
polation by the monk of Bee, as William of Jumieges did not 
survive more than a year the decease of the Conqueror, to 
whom his work was dedicated. William of Poictiers, another 
contemporary writer, merely describes the marriage in similar 
terms ; 

Marchio hie, fascibus et titulis amplior quam strictim sit explicabile, 
natam suam, nobis acceptissimam dominam, in Pontivo ipse prsesentavit 
socerus generoque digne adductam. Introductioni hujus sponsse civitas 
Rotomagensis vacabat jocundans. 

The Chronicle of Tours alone fixes the time of this marriage 
in the course of the year 1053, but no record has come down 
to us as to the name of the prelate or priest who, in defiance 
of the prohibition of the Pope, ventured to perform the cere- 
mony. The archbishop of Rouen, Malger, uncle of Duke Wil- 
liam, boldly launched the thunders of excommunication against 
the offending parties ; and his pretext for so doing has been 
imputed to the nearness of kindred between the married 
couple, inasmuch as her grandmother was a daughter of 
Duke Richard the Second of Normandy, and aunt of William 
the Conqueror. But it is doubtful if this was the original 
motive which induced the prohibition, and the peculiarity of 
the birth of William the Conqueror, as being illegitimate, 
certainly forbids such a conclusion, coupled with the silence 
of the Pope at the council of Rheims. There is, on the 
contrary, the clearest testimony that Matilda was already a 


mother, and the long delay between the time of her being 
sought in marriage by Duke William, when first smitten with 
her beauty and accomplishments, and the ceremony at Eu, 
was probably necessary to effect a divorce between Gorbod, 
her first husband, and his destined bride. In the course of 
the year 1055, Malger, the archbishop, was deposed from 
his see in a provincial council at Lisieux ; and according to 
William of Malmesbury, the secret cause of this proceeding 
was owing to his steadfast opposition to the marriage, rather 
than to any irregularities of conduct. 

Ferunt quidam esse arcanam depositionis causam ; Matildem, quam Wil- 
lelmus acceperat, proximam sibi sanguine fuisse. Id, Christianse fidei zelo, 
Malgerium non tulisse, ut consanguineo cubili fruerentur ; sed in nepotem 
et comparem excommunicationis jaculum intentasse. Ita, cum irse adole- 
scentis uxoriae querelse accederent, excogitatas occasiones quibus persecutor 
peccati sede pelleretur. Sed postmodum provectioribus annis, pro expi- 
atione sceleris, ilium sancto Stephano Cadomis monasterium sedificasse, 
illam beatae Trinitati in eodem vico idem fecisse ; utroque pro sexu suo 
personas inhabitantium eligente. 

The reconciliation with Rome was deferred to the time of 
the pontificate of Nicholas the Second, crowned 18th Janu- 
ary, 1059, deceased 21st July, 1061. 

The writer of the life of Lanfranc imputes to that eminent 
man a like opposition to the marriage of the Conqueror on 
the ground of consanguinity, which brought upon him the 
wrath of his sovereign, who caused the monastery of La Pre 
de Rouen, a cell to the abbey of Bee, of which he was Prior, 
to be burnt down, and pronounced against him a sentence of 
banishment ; 

Hujus tarn improvidse jussionis causam aiunt, quod idem Lanfrancus 
contradicebat nuptiis filise comitis Flandrise, quam ipse dux copulaverat in 
matrimonio, quia proxima carnis consanguinitate jungebatur.- Unde aucto- 
ritate Romani Papse, tota Neustria fuerat ab officio Christianitatis suspensa 
et interdicta. 

On his road to exile he encountered the Duke, and the 
result of the interview was a reconciliation, on condition of 
his going to Rome to make peace with the Pope ; 

Ut ageret pro duce Normannorum et uxore ejus apud Apostolicum, pro 
qua re illuc perrexerat. Igitur locutus cum Papa Nicolao ostendit, quia 
ejus sententia illos tantum gravabat, qui eos nee coniunxerant, nee separare 
poterant ; naru Dux puellam, quam acceperat, nullo pacto dimittere vellet. 
Hoc audiens et verum esse advertens summus Pontifex, dispensatione ha- 


bita, coniugiutn concessit ; eo tamen modo quatenus Dux et uxor ejus duo 
monasteria construerent, in quibus singulas congregationes virorum ac 
mulierum coadunarent, qui ibi sub norma sanctae religionis die noctuque 
Deo deservirent et pro salute eorum supplicarent. Paruit Dux Apostolicse 
dispensationi et sedificaverunt duo monasteria in prsedio, quod antiquitas 
Cadomum nuncupabat. 

These two monasteries, or rather their churches, yet remain 
in proof of the atonement to which they were feign to sub- 
mit, in order that they might merit to be admitted into the 
bosom of the Church, against whose precepts they had so 
grievously transgressed ; but no papal bull attests that this 
penance was enjoined merely for marrying within the degrees 
of kindred. 

The issue of this marriage were the four sons named above, 
and six daughters, Agatha, Constantia, Adeliza, Adela, Ma- 
tilda, and Cecilia, although Orderic Vitalis twice enumerates 
only five in his History, first in the fourth book in the order 
they are put down above, omitting Matilda, and again in the 
seventh book, where he places Adeliza before Constantia, 
Agatha, the eldest daughter, was first betrothed to Harold, 
king of England, and afterwards to Alfonso, king of Leon 
and the Asturias, in 1068, who died on her journey to Spain 
a virgin, and whose body was brought back to her native soil, 
and interred in the cathedral of Bayeux. Adeliza, the second 
daughter, became a nun in the abbey of St. Leger-de-Preaux, 
of the foundation of Humphrey de Vieilles, father of Roger de 
Beaumont-le-Roger. Constantia was the wife of Alan Fer- 
gant, comte of Brittany, married at Caen in 1075, and 
deceased, without leaving issue, in 1090. Adela was the 
wife of Stephen, comte of Blois, afterwards of Chartres, 
married at Breteuil in 1081, and by him, slain in Pales- 
tine in 1101, mother of five sons, William, Theobald, Ste- 
phen, Henry, and Humbert ; and of three daughters, Alice, 
wife of Miles, comte of Brai ; Matilda, wife of Richard, earl 
of Chester ; and Eleanora, wife of Ralph, comte of Verman- 
dois. Cecilia was abbess of the Holy Trinity of Caen, and 
according to Ordericus Vitalis, received the veil from Arch- 
bishop John, at Fecamp, in the year 1075, and, after having 
been abbess for nearly fourteen years, died on the 13th of 
July, 1127. As the truth of this assertion has been con- 
troverted by the editors of the Gallia Christiana and the 
recent editor of the above historian, it seems advisable that 


the paragraph should be inserted in order to test its ac- 

Anno ab incarnatione Domini MLXXV. indictione xiii a Guillelmus 
Rex Fiscanni sanctum Pascha celebravit, Ceciliamque filiam suam per ma- 
num Johannis archiepiscopi Deo consecrandam obtulit. Quae cum grand! 
diiigentia in ccenobio Cadomensi educata est et multipliciter erudita, ibique 
sanctse et individuae Trinitati dicata sub venerabili Mathildi abbatissa virgo 
permansit, sanctse regulse fideliter subjugata. Defuncta vero praedicta 
matre post annos xlvii regiminis sui, hsec successit, et fere xiv annis sancti- 
monialium regimen laudabiliter gessit, annoque Dominicse incarnationis 
M CC XXVII iii idus Julii de hoc sseculo migravit. Sic quinquaginta 
duobus annis habitu et ordine, studioque pio laudabiliter monacha, post- 
quam a patre oblata est Deo, servivit, annoque xxvi regni Henrici fratris 
sui obiit. 

In the charter of foundation of the Holy Trinity, dated 
18th June, 1066, a few months previous to the Conquest, we 

Preterea prsefatus comes gloriosissimus et uxor ejus cum filiis suis Deo 
eodem die obtulerunt filiam suam Ceciliam nomine, favente archiepiscopo 
Rothomagensi, cum ceteris presulibus, quatinus in eodem loco deifice, vide- 
licet, Trinitatis ipsa in habitu religionis perenniter serviret, cujus munere 
tarn prolem quam cetera bona, intelligunt se possidere. 

But as the youngest daughter of the Conqueror, it is pro- 
bable that she was then an infant, and hence the real time of 
her taking the veil was at the feast of Easter, 5th April, 1075, 
after attaining the age of fourteen years. At the time of the 
decease of the Abbess Mathildis, who had been previously 
abbess of St. Leger-de-Preaux during seven years, on the 6th 
of July, 1113, a precatory roll, called a titulus, was sent 
round to the several monasteries, beseeching their prayers for 
her, and for Mathildis, queen of the English, and for her 
daughters Adelidis, Mathildis, and Constantia, then deceased ; 
and from it alone we learn the existence of this sixth daugh- 
ter of the Conqueror and Queen Matilda, and it is doubtless 
correct, as otherwise there would have been no daughter 
bearing the name of her parent 6 . 

In conclusion of this lengthened essay, proving that Gun- 
dreda, as sister of Ghorbod and Frederic, the one the avoue 

e The Titulus Sancti Leodegarii Pratelli de morte Mathildis, priraae parthenonis 
Sanctae Trinitatis Cadomensis Abbatissae, has these verses : 

Dum sic polleret, super hoc dum fama volaret, 
Abstulit hanc nobis gemmam regina Mathildis, 
Tradens ccenobium sibi matris jure regendum, 
Quod sub honore Dei construxerat ipsa Cadomi. 


of the abbey of St. Bertin, the other a benefactor to the abbey 
of St. Ricquier, both in a territory then ruled by the comte 
of Flanders, was also a native of the same province, the fol- 
lowing charters, taken from the cartulary of the Holy Trinity 
of Caen, in the Bibliotheque du Roi at Paris, are now first 
presented to English readers, as a proper appendix to an 
account of this royal lineage of England's Conqueror. 

Ego Robertas Willelmi Anglorum Regis filius, Normannorum atque Ce- 
nomannorum princeps, pro salute anime mei meique patris et matris atque 
antecessorum meorum do concessu Henrici mei fratris ecclesie sancte Tri- 
nitatis de Cadomo et Cecilie mee sorori sanctisque monialibus ibidem 
Deo servientibus id totum quod erat mei juris extra murum Cadomi usque 
ad predictam ecclesiam ita solutum et quietum ut in meo tenebam dominio, 
Vallem Gue totam videlicet atque domos cunctas usque ad murum et usque 
ad aquam Olnule cum omnibus redditibus ; pescationem quoque aque Ol- 
nule totam, sicut Rex habebat in suo dominio. Ad hoc autem mercatum in 
villa, que dicitur Oistreban et teloneum et tantum quantum tenet territo- 
rium ejusdem ville. Hujus rei fuerunt testes et liberatores Simon de 
Camilleio, Savericus filius Cane, Radulfus capellanus de Airi, Rogerus 
Poignant, Rogerius Mala Corona dispensator, Toraldus Hostiarius. Ex 
parte Henrici filii regis affuerunt Rannulfus filius Ulgerii. Odo camera- 
rius ejusdem Henrici. Ex parte Sancte Trinitatis fuerunt receptores et 
testes Godefridus de Caluiz, Gislebertus de Caluiz, Johannes filius Gode- 
fridi Coci. Rainaldus filius Anschitilli de Herovilla et Odo ejus frater. 
Godefridus filius Herberti. Radulfus de Folebec. Odo frater Durandi 
Boisart. Arturus filius Ermenfridi. 

Signum Robert! comitis. Signum Henrici regis Willelmi filii. Signum 
Radulfi Capellani. Signum Rogerii de Curcella. Signum Gaufridi de 
Calmunt. Signum Willelmi Camerarii. Signum Robert! de Montfort. 
Signum Gualterii de Meduana. Signum Hugonis Brittonis. Signum 
Rogerii Dispensatoris. Signum Robert! Balduini filii. Signum Ricardi 
Painel. Signum Symonis de Chimilleio. Signum Saverici filii Cane. 

Cecilia filia regis Dei gratia Abbatissa sancte Trinitatis Cadomi presenti- 
bus et futuris ad quos littere iste pervenerint, salutem. Sciatis quod ego 
concessi Erengot molendinario ducere et facere molendinum nostrum, quod 
erat in Frigido Vico, super terram suam in Gamara. Et Erengot crevit 
nobis redditum molendini de uno modio frumenti et de uno modio ordei. 
Et sciendum quod molendinus non reddebat ante nisi duos modios nostre 
abbatie, et sic concessimus ei molendinum tenendum in feodo hereditarie 
sibi et heredibus suis. Ego feci molendinum de meis lignis et refacere 
debeo quando deterioraverit. Bladum de abbatia nostra debet moliri ad 
molendinum. Et Erengot et heredes ejus habebunt de nostro blado trede- 
cimum sextarium de moutura et ei computabitur in suo redditu cum dica. 
Hbc totum factum est concessu Ivonis Taillebosc salvo suo redditu. 



IN returning to the subject of the torques, which want of 
space compelled me to abridge in the preceding number of the 
Journal, I would add to the funicular types there mentioned 
the following : a small torques of gold, fabricated of a thin 
lamina of metal rudely twisted, the ends terminating cylindri- 
cally, with a conical apex. This weighs 169. 3 grs. and is 5& 
in diameter. A singular bronze funicular torques, the ends 
terminating in points, and each having a kind of elastic 
springing ring over them, with two elastic armlets, and two 
circlets nearly of the same type, and a hatchet blade, were all 
found in a low tumulus at Hollmgbury a , and were formerly in 
Dr. Mantell's collection. The German graves have also occa- 
sionally offered specimens of this type, found at Braunfels, 
and Wiesbaden b . Others from the Siebenburgen resembling 
those on the necks of the Pannonian reguli, Pinnes, and Bato, 
on the celebrated cameo of Vienna, exist in the collections at 
the same place c . 

Another funicular torques of sufficient diameter to have pro- 
bably been a girdle, was found in a tumulus d two miles east- 
ward of Com Bots, weighing 2oz. Idwt. I learn from the 
obliging information of Sir Philip Egerton, that another, similar 
to this and the Harlech tore, was found at Eridd Gilfachwydd, 
a turbary, near the Black Rock, under Cader Idris, in Merio- 
nethshire, and is now in the possession of Sir Watkyn Williams 
Wynn, at Wynnstay; and that a monster tore of this de- 
scription was found at Yscieviog near Holywell, in Flintshire, 
lying on the limestone rock when the superficies had been 
removed. This latter was not so deeply grooved in the twist 6 ; 
it contained gold to the value of one hundred guineas ; and 
is now in the possession of the Marquess of Westminster. 
The girdle, or lumbar size, is generally funicular. The British 
Celts, it will be remembered, according to the description of 
Herodian, wore iron tores round their necks or loins, which 
they prized as much as other barbarians did gold ; and these 
may be very probably the annuli ferrei ad certum pondus 

a Formerly in the possession of Dr. net beschrieben von Joseph Arneth, 8vo. 

Mantell. See Descript. of his collection, Wien. 1845, s. 47, cf. s. 92. 

8vo. London, 1836, p. 39, where a woodcut d Described by Mr. Jabez Allies, Arch- 

of all the objects found is given. seologia, vol. xxx. p. 460. 

" Wagener, Handbuch, p. 147. fig. 171. e Archaeologia, vol. xxx. p. 459, 490. 

c Das K. K. Munz-und Antiken, Cabi- 


examinati, " iron rings adjusted to a given weight," of Caesar. 
The evidence of the tumuli and kistvaens indeed goes far to 
prove the excessive rarity of iron among the Celts anterior 
to the Roman dominion. The lumbar or girdle torques may 
possibly be the torques major f , which was bestowed as a par- 
ticular military honour under the Empire, when, as I have 
already observed, those wearing tores were classed as sim- 
plares, or those who had been only once thus decorated, and 
duplares, or those who had twice received the honour, some- 
times conferred on the whole division, which was then called 
bis torquata g . Now it is far from improbable that the torques 
major was large enough for the girdle, while the torques minor 
was that for the neck. All these tores are of the same epoch 
and style, and have the usual Celtic peculiarity of terminating 
in projecting ends. 

Another funicular ornament was found at the so-called 
Danes' Ports at Connemara h , probably twisted out of its pro- 
per form ; and I would refer to this type, the straight funicu- 
lar wire described and engraved in the Archaeologia 1 , perhaps 
intended as a fibula or pin to secure the garment. 

The funicular type probably continued for a long time in 
Britain, and was the last ex- 
tinct ; for the Saxons seem 
to have adopted it from the 
Celto-Romans. One of sil- 
ver, slightly differing from 
the Roman torques, but dis- 
tinguished by the body be- 
ing composed of many small 
chains, and having the up- 
per part ornamented with 

f Scheffer. 1. c. Gruter Corpus, Inscr. 

* Orellius, Inscr. Lat. Sel. Col. 2, 8vo. 
Turici, 1828, p. 142, no. 516, alae Petrianae 
Milliar, c.r, bis torquatee, cf. Hagenbuch to 

Saxon Torques, of Silver, from Halton Moor. 

the same, and Fabretti, p. 140, 149. Prae- 
fectus alaa Moesicae Felicis torquatat. 

h Archaeol., vol. xv. pi. xxiv. No. 5, 
p. 394. 

! Ibid., vol. xvi. pi. xlii. fi 1. 


triangular stamped ornaments with pellets, was found at 
Halton Moor with coins of Canute k . 

This torques is evidently to be referred to the Saxon or Danish 
period, from the character of the art, the punched ornament 
being unknown to Roman works of the kind, and certainly not 
seen on any of those solid 
torques or armillse which __IHJt\^/^ 
can be decidedly referred 
to the Celtic races. On the 
Scandinavian antiquities 

fOUnd at Cliristiaiia 1 , and Saxon Torques. ofSilver. Detailsof Clasp. 

on the various specimens of armlets and other objects found 
at Cuerdale, such a mode of ornamentation is common. 

Torques Brachialis. In describing the ordinary funicular 
torques, mention has been made of some of a diameter so large 
as to allow of their passing round the waist ; a much rarer 
variety of this type is when the torques was adapted for the 
thick of the arm, by twisting it into a spiral, with one hook at 
each end. It seems a later adaptation, as if by a race wearing 
armillse or making their torques for the neck into a trophy. 
There are three examples 111 of this type : two found in exca- 
vating for a cottage, in 1831, between Egerton and Hampton, 
in the parish of Malpas, county of Chester, on the estate of 
Sir Philip Egerton. They are of native gold ; one is perfect, 
and of the value of 29/. 5s., it is engraved in the Archaeologia; 
the other, which is broken, and of slighter proportions, is worth 
ll/. Is. Qd. The third is in the possession of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society, and was found at Trumpington. 

This species of torques was given as a military honour; it is 
as a reward of military ambition that Aurelian speaks of it in 
his letters". Similar armlets occur among the Scandinavian 
remains . 

Annular torques. I would apply the term annular torques 
to those in which a number of rings have been twisted or 
placed on a string. They are of much rarer occurrence than 
the solid or funicular, and generally of more recent origin. 

k Ibid., vol. xviii. p. 202. A similar m Archseol., vol. xxvi. p. 47. 

gold ornament, apparently an ear-ring, be- n Vopiscus, vit. Aurel. c. 7. 

longs to Mr. Whincopp, of Woodbridge, Cf. one engraved. Sjoberg Samlingar 

Suffolk. fur Nordens fornalskare, torn. ij. 4to. 

Society of Northern Antiquaries, viii. Stockholm, 1824. PI. 43, 44. fig. 146. 


A torques found on the Polden hills, Somersetshire, much 
resembles the annular, although it is strictly funicular, con- 
sisting of an iron ring, round which were twisted five bronze 
wires. It was found with ornaments, probably Anglo-Saxon 1 *. 

Solid torques. The form of the solid torques differs consi- 
derably from the funicular or 
twisted type, and may be con- 
sidered more recent than the 
earliest funicular type, from its 
not appearing on the earliest 
monuments, and its occasion- 
ally presenting traces of funicu- 
lar origin, and also its decoration 
with ornament, which are want- 
ing in the funicular type. SoUd T r i^. K ^ m ^ 

The solid torques is generally an incomplete ring, and 
seems to be the type alluded to by Polybiusi under the name 
of fAavidrciis, who aptly designates it a \JreAXtoy ^vo-ovv, or 
golden armlet, and by Diodorus r as /cplfcoi 7ra^et9 oXo-^pvaoi, 
"the thick solid gold circlets" of the Gauls. It is the 
mun-torc of the Celts. Its earliest appearance in art is upon the 
uncertain Gaulish coins, but it has been always found amidst 
remains of an unequivocally Celtic origin, both in this country 
and elsewhere. It is generally elliptical. The open part was 
placed towards the neck in front. The ornaments are of 
the simplest description, engraved on the body and edges in 
outline, and generally consisting of lines concentric to the 
axis of the ornament, and vandyked lines at the edge. They 
have been occasionally found with dots, and the ends occa- 
sionally with a kind of cross and pellet in each quarter. 

They do not appear to have been found in this country, 
but occasionally occur in the sister kingdom. The greatest 
discovery made of them was at St. Quentin, near Karnak 8 , in 
Bretagne, under an upright stone of a semicircular druidical 
temple, where torques and bracelets to the amount of above a 
thousand pounds were obtained. From the immense amount 
found they are supposed to have been the national religious 
or sepulchral deposit of some tribe, for one alone, as Mr. Deane 

P Archaeol., vol. xiv. pi. xix. b. of a garment. 

'i Lib. ii. Cf. Suid. voce A"w{/c77s. Schol. r V. 17. 

adv. Theocr. xi. i*Avvos. Hesych. voce dp- s Deane in Archaeol, vol. xxii. pi. ii. 

pot. The /icua^Kijy was used as the border p. 1 7 ; vol. xxviii. p. 31. 


remarks in his elaborate description, was double the weight of 
that presented by the Gauls to Augustus. 

The heaviest there found was plain, open at each end, on 
which was engraved a cross and pellet in each quarter, 
weighed 4 Ib. 10 oz. 16 dwts. = 209/. 5s. 6d. Another, more 
elliptical and decorated at its centre, with concentric and van- 
dyked pattern, weighed lib. 6oz. 1 dwt. 9.89grs. = 75/. 
17s. 8d. 

Some varieties have been also found in Germany* : a thin 
torques, with circular ornaments ; another, not cylindrical 
throughout, but flat inside, to fit better to the arm, with con- 
centric and vandyked engraved lines on the exterior edge, 
and another with circular ornaments on the same place. A 
solid torques of this type, of gold, and another with a qua- 
druple row of pellets, were found near the castle of Trimles- 
ton, county Meath, Ireland". A singular object, resembling 
a solid tore, but in its ornamental decoration bearing much 
resemblance to Anglo-Saxon ornaments x , probably one of the 
very latest of the class, was found on the Polden hills, Somer- 

A second variety of the solid tore, but decidedly of the 
earlier age, is in the collection of 
the British Museum. The body 
is plain but thin, the bulbs ob- 
long, slightly concave, and deco- 
rated at the side with an engrailing. 
This has been anciently twisted 
into a knot, probably in order to 
fit a younger or female wearer, or 
perhaps intended for an armilla, 
since two more of these were found 
with it. 

So much conjecture has prevailed with respect to the bulb- 
ous termination of the torques, that some observations seem 
due here to this part of the subject. The earliest torques 
are undoubtedly penannular and bulbous : in Persian, Greek, 
and Roman art, these bulbs were fashioned into the heads of 
serpents, probably from their shape artistically suggesting the 
idea. In an inscription relative to a torques dedicated to 

1 Emele, Dr. Joseph, Beschreibung R6- u Dublin Penny Journal, 

mischer und Deutsche Alterthumer, long * Archaeol., vol. xvi. pL xix. 

fo. Mainz, 1825. pi. xx. fig. 14. 

Tore, contracted. 


^Esculapius this form is particularly mentioned ; in this case 
probably adopted because the serpent was the living emblem 
of the god. Among the Celts, who never adopted animal 
forms for their ornamentation, the bulbous termination under- 
goes several changes. It is found solid and massive, probably 
to act as a counterpoise, and retain the torques on the neck. 
Now it is peculiar to the progress of all art, that massive 
forms, either for the sake of structural beauty or economy of 
material, are gradually succeeded by lighter ones retaining all 
the essentials of the type. Hence the bulb became either 
reduced in size to a mere termination, or else, when pre- 
served, exhibited a form varying from a concave hemisphere 
to a hollow cone y . I would propose this explanation of the 
motives of a simple people with due deference to the more 
recondite and learned hypotheses hitherto given. The hollow 
conical termination is Celtic, but not peculiar to the torques. 

Beaded torques. Some of the torques found in England and 
Ireland are evidently imitations of a row of coarse or large 
beads threaded upon a thick string and tied round the neck. 
It will be remembered that the most primeval barrows occa- 
sionally contain rude beads of opaque glass with undulating 
lines, commonly called serpents' eggs, or else of a thick rough 
porcelain, sometimes reeded externally. When a transition 
took place to a higher degree of civilization among the Celts, 
and the art of smelting metals be- 
came known, the stone weapons 
and ruder decorations of those 
races seem to have been replaced 
by metallic ornaments, still preserv- 
ing their original type. The most 
remarkable tore of this kind is 
that belonging to Mr. Sedgwick of 
Skipton, and found lying upon two 
upright stones under a horizontal 
stone at the side of the hills be- 
tween Embsay and Barden. This 
tore, which was exhibited on the 

Bronze-headed Torques, found near Embsay. 

y Some varieties of the solid torques 
exist on the consular coins ; see those of 
the Manlian family already cited ; on a 
reverse of the Papian family, inscribed 
LPAPI, with the type of a Gryphon, and on 
another of theCalpurnian family, inscribed 
L.PISO FRVGI, we find a solid and penan- 

nular torques. All these differ much 
from the solid Celtic torques hitherto 
found, and indeed rather resemble ear- 
rings. Denarii of these types exist in the 
collection of the British Museum, as well 
as in that of Mr. Nightingale, who has 
forwarded me impressions of his coins. 



10th November last, before the Archaeological Institute, con- 
sisted of twelve globular beads, the part representing the string 
being slightly elastic, and capable of being detached by 
two conical pins inserted into corresponding sockets at the 
beaded ends. Like other Celtic decorations, it was ornamented 
with a rude pattern of hatched marks and an undulating line : 
this was of bronze. Another tore of the same class was found 
at Rochdale, in Lancashire, in 183 P. The beaded portion 
consisted of eleven wreathed globular beads united by a cord, 
while the string or hinder portion which went behind the 
neck represented a squared cord, ornamented with a double 
vandyked line. This measured 4;4 by 31 in. dr., was like the 
preceding of bronze, and weighed 4.75. oz. 

The solid torques, although rare in this country, is not un- 
common in the Celtic graves, and tumuli in France, and in the 
district of the Lower Rhine. The specimens found by M. de 
Ring of this class* on the necks of skeletons exhibit some pecu- 
liarities not found in Bretagne or Ireland. The terminations 
become more bell-shaped, and the wire of the body is engraved 
with a spiral groove, crossed by double bands at equal distances, 

a. Bronze Torquis, France b. Valley of the Eh. 

a. 'Jorquis, France. 6. Valley of the ! 

the whole intended to represent a twisted funicular band se- 
cured in its place by crossing bands. These are bronze (A). 
Other specimens are 
without the crossing 
bands (B). A bronze 
ring of this class, found 
at Helmstadt in Bruns- 
wick 1 ', Germany, is evi- 
dently referable to the 
same class, partly imi- 
tating beaded work : the 
leaf ornament at one side 
much resembles the work- 
manship of some bronze 

BeaiUd Ring , Helms ta It. 

* Archaeologia, vol. xxv. p. 595597. bourg, 1842 

OW T.j n i the P ssession of Mr - Dearden of *> Wagener, Handbucli, &c. No. 593, 

ivocndale. s 819 

Etablissemens Celtiques. 8vo. Fri- 


ornaments found on the estate of Lord Prudhoe at Stanwick, 
and the phalera3 and weapons discovered on the Polden Hills . 
A very singular penannular beaded torques, presenting in 
some respects a vertebrated appearance, found at Worms, is 
figured in the handbook of Wagener d . 

Brcnze Beaded Armilla. 

Another penannular object of the same class, found in the 
German graves at Ranis, ex- 
hibits a series of beads gradu- / / \ 
ally larger towards the open- 
ing 6 . 

I shall class with these 
tores the one discovered at 
Perdeswell, near Worcester f , 
described by Mr. Jabez Allies. 
It consisted of twenty bronze 
pulley-shaped beads, each alter- 
nating with a curiously twisted 
and tooled bead, the two exactly resembling the vertebra of 
an animal, and the whole like the spine of an animal or 
fish : this necklace was probably copied from one made of 
strung vertebra3. Considerable light on the nature of the 
Worcestershire tore was afforded by the drawing of another 
discovered in Lancashire in 1831. It will be remembered 
that the other half of the Rochdale torques is a square band 
with a kind of vandyked ornament ; this other half represents 
the cord, and passed behind the neck. Some such cord, or 

Bronze Beaded Torquis, Ranis. 

e Archseologia, vol. xiv. pi. xix. b. 
d Page 747, No. 328. 

e Ibid., fig. 999. 

1 Archseologia, vol. xxx. p. 554. 


probably the continuation of the iron wire on which the 
vertebrated beads are strung, must have been attached to 
the Perdeswell tore. That the British Celts were accustomed 
to wear similar decorations is evident from the testimony of 
Herodian, that the Britons wore the teeth of the seal or walrus 
strung as beaded tores. 

Gorget. This is a peculiarly Celtic ornament, and is almost 
limited to Ireland, where they are frequently found, and 
some have occasionally been discovered in Cornwall. It is 
always of gold, and consists of a thin lamina of metal, 
terminating at the ends in two round plates. Several 
notions about the adaptation of this object, more fanciful 
than correct, have been advanced. It has been supposed 
that it was worn as the Roman ladies wore the sphen- 
done g , on the top of the head, with the circular ends behind 
the ears ; or that the ends may have been tied round the neck, 
so as to use them as a gorget. One with the ends not termi- 
nating in circles has been supposed to be the ornament of the 
Hibernian Druids, representing 
the moon in the first quarter, and 
hence called by Vallancey the 
cead raire h . Another, rather 
more massive, with the cup- 
shaped terminations visible Cfn 
several Celtic decorations, has 
been called by the same au- 
thority 1 the iodkan morain, or 
collar of the celebrated judge 
of that name, which closed 
round the throat when the 
wearer gave wrong judgment, 
a virtue which would rather belong to a solid torques. 

From its greater delicacy and comparative lightness, the gorget 
appears to have been an article of female attire, rather than an 
ornament worn by Druids. They all bear marks of having been 
hammered, and their open shape and circular termination is 
evidently suggested by the bulbous torques or armilla, which 
would, if hammered out, produce the gorget. As the armilla 
and torques were worn with the bulbous ends down, and as the 

* Archaeol., vol. ii. pi. ii. p. 36, 37. As pi. x. p. 230. 

on coins of Sihtric, Ethelred and others. ' Idem in Anhaeol., vol. viii. p. lu'6. 

h Coll. Hib. Gough's Camden, vol. iv. 



open portion was originally intended to obviate the necessity of 
a clasp or tie, it is probable that they 
would be fixed with the open part in 
front. The orifice is well adapted to 
a moderate-sized female neck, and the 
material is too thin and delicate to ad- 
mit of being worn vertically on the head, 
without great liability to injury and 
difficulty of fitting. They are generally 
more ornamented towards the ends, supposed manner of making Gor 6et . 
with a single pattern slightly engraved with a point or chisel, 
with square compartments, 
lines crossing the upper sur- 
face like parts of radii van- 
dyked, and zig-zag lines. I 
think that they were worn 
on the neck, although whe- 
ther they are the actual asn 
or asian I do not attempt to 
decide. Some illustration of 
the manner in which the plain 
examples of this type were 
fastened is afforded by the 
tore found at St. Ayr, near 
Cotentin : one extremity terminated in a wire bent into a 
spiral hook, and the other had a small chain of four links 
attached to it, into which the hook might be fastened. 

jf Gorget. 

Gorget from Cotentiu. 

Gorgets are more commonly discovered in Ireland than in 
England. One published by Bishop Percy was found k in that 
country. Three of similar shape were discovered in the 
townland of Cairn Lochan, parish Magheramesk, county 
Antrim, in digging under a fallen puldan, or so called 
Druid's altar, at a depth of five feet, rolled up together 1 ; a 

k Archaeol., vol. ii. pi. ii. 

1 Dub!. Penny Journal, vol. iv. p. 295. 



fifth in a ditch near Reyhole, county Clare 1 " ; a sixth in a bog, 
county Tyrone" ; a seventh in a bog at Castlereagh ; another, 
which, through the kindness of Major Moore, I was enabled 
to lay before the Committee of the Institute, was procured 
by him in Dublin ; a ninth at Ardragh, county Donegal ; a tenth 
at Penwith, in Cornwall, weighing 2oz. 4dwts. Ggrs.p; and 
an eleventh in a circular earthwork near Penzance, in the parish 
of Madden, Cornwall, weighing 4 oz. 4 dwts. q Of those found 
in France the most remarkable is that edited by Caumont and 
Gerville, already noticed, found at St. Ayr, near Cotentin, in 
Normandy, between Alauna and the Roman camp at Monte- 
bourg r . Two others were found east of Mont Roule, in ground 
said to be evidently Roman ; and two other plain collars of 
gold, without ornament, at Tourlaville 8 . The weight of these 
collars is generally about two ounces. 

The varieties of this type are 1. the iodhan morain, 
which more resembles the corslet from Mold, and which 
weighed only 22 grs., with raised bosses in grooves, and deep 
grooved pattern, with radi- 
ated central cups, seven-eighths 
in diameter; and 2. the cres- 
cent wanting the circular ends, 
called the cead raire. 

In immediate connection 
with these are two gold orna- 
ments found in Ireland, and 
now in the British Museum, 
rather more heart-shaped than 
any of the preceding. These 
are about large enough to pass 
over a child's wrist, and the 
ends join at a. They may pos- 
sibly have been used for the 

Gorget Clasp. 

garment or the shoes 1 , both being occasionally attached by 

m Gough, Camden, vol. iv. pL x. p. 230. 
n Campbell, Philosoph. Survey of Ire- 

Dubourdieu, Survey of Down, p. 331. 
P Minutes of Soc. of Antiq., 1783, 

Gough loc. cit, now in British Museum, 
Add. 9462, and a drawing, Cat. MSS. 
fol. 8*. 

1 Now in the British Museum. Lysons' 
Magn. Britannia, vol. ii. pi. ccxxi. Cat. 

MSS. Add. 9462. fo. 8, b, for a drawing. 

' Cours d'Archeol., pi. x. p. 4. Mem. de 
la Societe des Antiq. de Normandie, 1827 
1828, p. 275. 

* Mem. de la Soc. des Antiq. de Nor- 
mandie, p. 275. 

e For the shoes being so fastened see 
Maen de Ring, Etablissemens Celtiques 
dans la Sudouest Allemagne, 8vo. Fri- 
bourg, 1842. 


this kind of brooch or buckle. Like the torques, they are not 
found in the primeval barrows, and are the decorations of a 
people more refined than the simple tribes, whose flint wea- 
pons and amber beads are discovered in the barrows. The 
corslet found at Mold, in Flintshire, and the remains of the 
northern hordes before the introduction of Christianity, bear 
much resemblance to them. At the same time they do not 
manifest any trace of Roman or Scandinavian art ; and from 
the localities where they have been found, under the upright 
puldan or supposed Druids' altars, are contemporaneous with 
the solid maniakce or collars". 

The excellency of workmanship, allied with the total absence 
of art, cannot fail to strike the mind of the enquirer who in- 
vestigates this most important and distinctive ornament of 
the Celtic and Teutonic races. A few concentric or zig-zag 
lines, or hatched marks, constitute all the varieties of deco- 
ration ; nor is there any example of the adaptation of animal 
forms which distinguishes the ornamental design of the Greek 
and Roman races. The tores of the Celts are evidently 
productions of a rude, simple, and unartistic people, and are 
evidence of their intellectual inferiority to the other great 
nations of antiquity. Reserving for another occasion, when I 
treat on the armilla and fibula of the Celts, the question 
whether the tores were circulated as money, I shall conclude by 
remarking that they formed the most esteemed ornaments, 
and along with armlets, bracelets, and shoe-rings, completed 
the personal attire of the warrior, and with a few beads of 
glass or amber, the embellishment of the female ; they were 
much employed for presents, and are mentioned by Strabo x as 
one of the principal exports into Britain from Gaul, which 
then, as now, was the emporium of fashion. 

u They are perhaps the segments of irfptavxfvia; they were imported with ivory 

Isidor. Origin, et Gloss, ad eund. whence bracelets, amber, and glass ornaments, 

called Baen. Scheffer Tor. s. 18. Cf. Solin. c. 22. Strabo calls them all 

x Falconer, vol. i. p. 276. He calls them rubbish goods. 


A GREAT step has been made in the history of Celtic 
Monuments by the researches of antiquaries among the tra- 
ditions and the monuments of ancient Britain, as well as by 
those acute observers, who, like Mr. Lukis and some of his 
contemporaries, have had the good fortune to find cromlechs 
almost untouched by the hands of the vulgar, and who have 
shewn them, by their contents, to have been places of sepulture, 
not of barbarous sacrifices and ceremonies. The quantity of 
conjecture and of guess work, that was issued during the latter 
end of the last century upon this subject, was astonishing : no 
antiquary of that time could be said to have fairly won his 
title unless he had advanced some new hypothesis, or suggested 
so'me new idea as to the destination of the cromlechs. They 
were proved to be altars, temples, houses, any thing in fact 
that their examiners, or rather those that had not examined 
them, thought proper to conjecture : the fact of their being 
in wild parts of the country went for a good deal, and the 
circumstance of the top stone sloping generally to one side or 
the other, enabled the clear-sighted to see streams of blood 
running off them from the quivering limbs of unhappy victims. 
Even bones were found near them sometimes under them 
and (the victims having been slaughtered above, at least in 
the imaginations of the enquirers) they w r ere of course the 
remains of the wretched creatures who had been immolated to 
the false gods of our heathen ancestors. Capital theories ! 
excellent discoveries ! until in some luckless hour, an observer 
more far-sighted than the rest bethought himself of digging 
into a tumulus, and then he disinterred not a body, but a 
cromlech full of bodies : and another dug under a cromlech 
divested of its original earthen envelope, and he too found 
bodies; in fact they turned out to be enormous coffins, or 
cistvaens, or vaults, (if it were not an anomaly so to style them,) 
houses in good truth, houses not of the living, but the 
dead: the true \cuvov x trQ)va f Homer; the "narrow 
home" of a later poet. In few instances has the value of 
accurate searching enquiry, and of good common sense, in 


antiquarian affairs been more strikingly demonstrated : and 
we consider the public to be most especially indebted to Mr. 
Lukis for his interesting researches in this line in the 
Channel Islands. 

There are numerous cromlechs extant in the Isle of Anglesey, 
though, we believe, not so many above ground as Bingley 
(a second hand and superficial observer) would have us 
suppose. He assigns twenty-eight, according to the number 
furnished by his informants, for he never went near most of 
the localities, upon which he places them; but several of them 
he puts down under different names twice or thrice over : 
and in some instances they have no existence. It is probable 
that the number of cromlechs actually visible in Anglesey 
may approach to twenty : but we suspect that there are many 
others, which have never seen light since their first interment, 
and we know that the ranges of the Caernarvonshire and 
Merionethshire mountains are full of them, subterraneous, if 
not on the surface, for we have found and seen many 

The judicious Pennant mentions none but those that he had 
actually seen, and hazards few conjectures as to their use and 
destination; all other writers follow either Pennant or Bingley. 

One of the most stupendous cromlechs, if it be a cromlech, 
in this or any other island, is that which is commonly so 
called on the lands of C. Evans, Esq., at Hen Bias, not far 
from the Mona Inn in the middle of the county. Here there 
are two rocks, each about seventeen feet high, by nearly as 
many in thickness and breadth, standing upright ; and between 
them, partially resting on that to the eastward, is another 
flattish mass, a little smaller in size, which certainly looks as 
if it had slidden from off the tops of its neighbours. There 
are no other rocks within a mile or two of the place, except at 
a small range of rocky hills separated from it by a stream : 
and we can hardly imagine how such great masses, of nearly 
5000 cubic feet each, could have been moved in remote ages. 
We are inclined to look upon this assemblage of rocks, which 
however tradition calls "the cromlech," as the disintegrated 
ruin of some hill which once existed here. The only thing that 
staggers us in this hypothesis is a further tradition of smaller 
stones, apparently forming a kind of avenue, having once 
stood close by. If this tradition be allowed to have authority, 
and tradition is very often no unsafe guide, then this 


cromlech should be called the father of all others : for it is a 
true giant among pigmies. 

The most celebrated cromlech in the island is that of Plas 
Newydd, of which we have given a view. It is a double 

cromlech as about one half of these monuments always are 
and is interesting from its fine preservation and highly 
picturesque position. We are not aware of any excavations 
having been made beneath it : but there is every appearance, 
from the formation of the ground, of its having been once sur- 
rounded by a earn or heap of stones; what the second and 
smaller cromlech meant in these cases, we do not know ; 
probably it served as the tomb of the wife, or the son, of 
the deceased chieftain. Rowlands mentions a large earn or 
mound of stones as not far from this cromlech, but grown 
over, even in his days, by a luxuriant vegetation of wood. 
There are so many points of the undulating and richly wooded 
grounds of the Marquis of Anglesey's seat, corresponding to 
this description, that we do not know how to fix upon the 
precise locality, but we have little doubt, from the words of 
the author of the " Mona Antiqua," that, could this mound be 
excavated, we should find in it a sepulchral chamber con- 
structed in the true cromlech fashion. On a farm in this 
immediate neighbourhood at a spot called Bryn Celli, is a 
tumulus with a passage opened right through it, this passage 
descends towards the middle of the mound, and then again 
mounts to upper air : in the middle we come to a chamber, 
if it can be so called, which is nothing more nor less than the 
interior of a cromlech; Gough, in his addition to Camden, 
gives an account of it, and it is there mentioned as having 




been found to contain human bones j at present it is a refuge 
for sheep in wet weather. 

A remarkably fine remain of this nature is the cromlech at 
Llanfaelog of which we append a representation ; the cromlech 

still standing is composed of one flat on several upright stones ; 
the flat top being about 12ft. by 9ft. in breadth, and from 
2 ft. to 3 ft. in thickness. By its side lie the fallen remains of 
a much larger cromlech, the upper stone of which is not less 
than 15 ft. in length ; underneath the upright one are still to 
be seen numerous small stones, and the ground rises gently 
toward the upright supports on all sides ; but on referring to 
Pennant, vol. ii. p. 238, we find him saying (in speaking of 
cromlechs) " others again are quite bedded in the Carnedd or 
heap of stones, of which instances may be produced in Llan- 
faelog, in this island, in that of Arran, and in the county of 
Meireonedd." If then this cromlech could have been so 
stripped of its covering since the end of the last century, what 
may we not expect to have taken place in other instances ? 

Another cromlech, we have been informed, quite surrounded 
with stones and earth, has been found in the same parish by 
the Rev. C. H. Hartshorne. 

A smaller cromlech, on gently rising ground, is still stand- 
ing at Bodowyr, a few miles south-west of Plas Newydd. 

The next in size and importance to that on the Marquis of 
Anglesey's grounds, are those at Presaddfed near Bodedern. 

Of these too we give a view, by which it will be seen that 
one of very large size is still erect, while another close to it is 
partially fallen down ; the former offers a shelter of at least 


12 ft. square to the farmer and a party of six or eight 
labourers, whenever they are overtaken in their work by a 

sudden shower; the cattle commonly take refuge under it, 
and it is surrounded by a great number of small stones, 
affording a strong presumption that here too there was once 
a earn. 

A large erect cromlech occurs at Llugwy, and more than 
one fallen cromlech on the neighbouring elevated lands : 
under the former human bones have been lately found. A 
double cromlech, thrown down since 1800, is to be seen at 
Trefor ; one is near Holyhead, and there are several others. 

In all these cases the cromlechs are composed of stones 
found in their immediate neighbourhood ; thus, those at Plas 
Newydd, Bodowyr, and one at Llanidan, are of limestone 
rock found there in situ : those at Llanfaelog and Presaddfed 
are of the peculiar porphyritic breccia which accompanies the 
schistose formation of those districts. The cromlechs at 
Llugwy and in its vicinity are of limestone, and at Trefor of 
chloritic schist, thus affording the inference that they could 
not have been brought from any considerable distance. The 
immense rocks at Hen Bias are of the limestone of that spot, 
on which indeed they stand. 

On the hills of Caernarvonshire may be found numerous 
earns (or carneddau) opened by some previous examiners, 
(tradition says, by robbers in search for gold,) and in the 
midst are still to be seen the upright stones of the coffin or 
tomb, with the upper slanting stone (or cromlech) thrust off 
and lying by their side. We apprehend that Wales is full of 
such remains, and could they be exhumed, under proper au- 
thority, the result would be very valuable for the advancement 
of our archaeological knowledge. 


We have never heard of celts, or pottery-ware, or other 
articles having been found near any of these cromlechs ; but 
the search for these matters can be said to have only just 
commenced, and we may yet discover them. 



IT is well known that it was the practice of the northern 
chieftains of Ireland to entrust their defence rather to water 
than to stone walls, in other words, they ensconced themselves 
rather in islands than in castles ; to the latter, indeed, they 
appear to have had a particular prejudice, witness the old, 
though, I fear I must add, apocryphal, story of Mac Mahon 
and De Courcy, in Hanmer's Chronicle of Ireland : " Courcy 
had builded many castles throughout Ulster," says Hammer, 
"and especially in "Fern, where Mac Mahon dwelt ; this Mac 
Mahon with solemne protestations vowed to become a true 
and faithfull subject, &c. Whereupon Courcy gave him two 
castles with their demeanes to hold of him ; within one 
moneth after this Mac Mahon brake downe the castles, and 
made them even with the ground. Sir John de Courcy 
sent unto him to know the cause ; his answer was, that he 
promised not to hold stones of him, but the land, and that it 
was contrary to his nature to couch himselfe within cold 
stones, the woods being so nigh." 

At a later period we find further and undoubted illustra- 
tions of this custom; thus, in the year 1567, one Thomas 
Phettiplace states in his answer to an enquiry from the lords 
of Queen Elizabeth's council, as to "what castles or forts 
O'Neil hath, and of what strength they be?" "For castles I 
think it be not unknown to y r honors he trusteth no point 
thereunto for his safety, as appeareth by the raising of the 
strongest castles of all his countreys, and that fortification that 
he only dependeth upon is in sartin freshwater logfies in his 
country, which from the sea there come neither ship nor boat 
to approach them ; it is thought that there, in y e said fortified 
islands, lyeth all his plate, w ch is much, and money, prisoners and 
gages ; w ch islands hath in wars tofore been attempted, and 
now of late again by the Lord Deputy there, Sir Harry 


Sydney, w ch for want of means for safe conduct upon y e 
water it hath not prevailed a ." 

These fortified islands were generally artificial, and upon 
them were constructed wooden huts or cabins, called in Irish, 
Crannoges ; the largest of this description in Ireland is said 
to have been on an island in Lough Allen, in the county of 
Leitrim ; it was the residence of Mac Anaw, (now Forde,) one 
of O'Rourke's sub-chieftains : the following notices of cran- 
noges occur, among others, in the annals of the Four Masters. 

"A. D. 1240, Turlogh, son of Hugh O'Conor, escaped from 
the crannog of Loch Leisi, (in Roscommon,) in the harvest, 
having drowned the persons who were guarding him, viz., 
Cormac O'Muireadhaigh, (Murry,) and two of the O'Mearans. 

"1436, The crannog of Loch Laoghaire, (near Clogher, in 
Tyrone,) was taken by the sons of Brian Oge O'Neill. O'Neill 
and Henry (O'Neill,) came to the lake there, and they sent for 
Maguire, (Thomas Oge,) and when he had arrived they com- 
menced making vessels to carry them to the crannog, on which 
the sons of Brian Oge were ; the sons of Brian then agreed to 
surrender the crannog to O'Neill, and make peace with him. 

"1455, Turloch, son of Philip Mac Guire, went upon Loch 
Meilge, (between Fermanagh and Leitrim,) and took and 
plundered a crannog which Mac Flannchaidhe had upon it. 

" 1512, Crannag Mac Samhradhain, (Mac Gauran's cran- 
nog in Tullyhaw, co. Cavan,) was assaulted by Philip Mac Guire 
and his sons, assisted by the sons of Thomas Mac Magnus 
Mac Gauran, but they did not succeed in capturing Mac 
Gauran, who was in it. 

" 1560, Teige O'Rourke was drowned in the autumn, when 
going to sleep on a low secluded crannog, in Muinutir Eolais, 
(Mac Randall's country.) 

"1601, Crannog Meic Cnaimhiu," (Mac Nevin's crannog?) 
is mentioned this year. 

The county of Monaghan, formerly Mac Mahon's country, 
studded as it is with small lakes in every district, contained 
many of these crannogcs ; they are particularly noticed in the 
early maps of the county b as " The Hand" with the addition 
generally of the name of the chief who resided in each ; at 
Monaghan we have " The Hand, Mac Mahons house," repre- 
sented as a mere hut, occupying the whole site of a small 

From an original letter in the State 15, 1567. 
Paper Office, Whitehall, under date May h In the State Paper Office. 


island in one of the lakes adjoining the present town. The 
residence of Ever Mac Cooley Mac Mahon, chief of the 
celebrated district of Earney, in Mac Mahon's country, in the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James L, was at Lisanisk, (close to 
the town of Carrickmacross,) and is marked in Jobson's map, 
made in 1591, as " The Hand, Ever Mac Cooley s house " the 
foundations of this ancient residence were discovered in the 
autumn of 1843, seven feet below the present surface of the 
earth, in the little island at Lisanisk, and two feet below the 
present water level of the lake, a double row of piles were 
found sunk in the mud; they were formed of young trees, 
from six to twelve inches in diameter, with the bark on ; the 
area inclosed by these piles, from which we may judge of the 
size of the house, was sixty feet in length, by forty-two in 
breadth ; vast quantities of bones of various animals, particu- 
larly deer, were also found here, but I believe no ancient Irish 
weapons, or other remains, as in the instance of a neighbour- 
ing crannoy discovered on the lake of Monalty, about half a 
mile from Carrickmacross, in the autumn of 1844. The 
water of this lake having been lowered a few feet for the 
purpose of improving the drainage of the surrounding country, 
a canoe or boat, formed out of one piece of oak, and measur- 
ing twenty-four feet in length, by three feet at its greatest 
breadth, and thirteen inches in height, was brought to light, 
close to a low island on the southern side of the lake ; on this 
island, which appears decidedly to have been artificial, from 
the remains of piles and transverse portions of oak timber 
which are found there, a great variety of curious remains, 
though of very unequal degrees of antiquity, have been 
discovered. The following list comprehends not only these 
relics, but also another set of a similar description, which 
have been found on an island on the adjoining lake of 
Lough na Glack. The soil of this last island is mixed with 
stones and bones, and is evidently to a considerable depth 
artificial ; there are also, as in the former instance, consider- 
able remains of large piles of timber. 

The objects of greatest antiquity found on these islands, are 
stone celts of the common type, a rough piece of flint, appa- 
rently intended for an arrow-head, and stones with indenta- 
tions on either side, evidently formed for slings. 

Of bronze weapons and ornaments there are numerous 
specimens, viz., three bronze celts with loops on the sides, 



remains of the stick were found in one 
of them ; a very perfect small dagger of 
bronze, one foot in length ; two bronze 
arrow-heads, double pointed ; a bronze 
gouge or chisel, rarely found in Ireland ; 
the head of a bronze hunting spear ; part 
of a bronze sword or dagger; a bronze 
cap, apparently the end of a wooden hilt 
of some weapons ; the bronze handle of 
a javelin or spear, with loop attached, for 
the purpose of a leathern thong or string 
being fastened to it, to recover after pro- 
jection. [This thong or string is called in 
ancient manuscripts suaineamain, a name 
still preserved by the fishermen in the 
south of Ireland, as applied to the bolt- 
ropes of their nets.] The boss of a shield, 
of bronze ; a bronze knife, which appears 
to have been gilt ; a bronze knife or 
dagger, measuring ten inches and a half 
in length ; a smaller one, seven inches in 
length ; a bronze bolt, with loop, to which 
a thong is supposed to have been attached, 
measuring sixteen inches and a half in 
length; this was found sticking in the 
mud, close to the island on Lough na 
Glack ; another, twelve inches in length, 
has been since found in the island itself. 
Walker, in his description of the weapons 
of the Irish, says that " in very early times 
the fiadhgha or crannuibh was used in 
the chase, a thong was affixed to it, by 
which it was recovered after having 
pierced the wild beast d ." 

Javelin, with loop. 

c Sir Samuel R. Meyriek, to whom a 
sketch of one of these bifid heads was sub- 
mitted, remarks in a letter to Mr. Way, 
" The bronze arrow-head appears to have 
been formed on the same principle as those 
of the Boisgemans, or Boschmen, L e. 
Woodlanders, in Southern Africa, part of 
which being poisoned, on withdrawing the 
arrow remained in the wound, for in this 
way only can I account for the division at 
the point, and the perforation above it." 

d Sir Samuel Meyriek observes, " This 
very interesting specimen of the javelin 

is new to me. The javelin used by the 
ancient Britons, either in close encoun- 
ter, or to throw and recover by means of a 
thong affixed, was called Aseth, and its 
blade appears to have been long and slen- 
der, whence the proverb Aseth ni flyco nid 
da, ' the Aseth that will not bend is not 
good.' It may be remembered that the 
javelins which the Velites in the Roman 
army threw, but did not recover, had their 
blades so flat and thin as to break in what- 
ever they struck, that they might not be 
used a second time." 


Of bronze ornaments found on these islands 
there are the following. Several bronze rings of 
different sizes, two of them with transverse spring 
openings, others hollow, and probably parts of 
armour or horse trappings ; two bronze needles, 
one of them with the eye entire ; a bronze pin, 
the head hollowed like a cup, and bearing a striking 
resemblance to the ends of the golden ornaments 
often found in Ireland ; several bronze pins like 
modern shirt pins, some of them ornamented, 
another with a hole in it to which a string was 
probably fastened ; two large pins of the common 
type ; parts of several bronze fibulae or brooches, 
with fragments of several bronze instruments, 
rivets, &c. ; a small circular bronze bell, like a 
sheep-bell ; three harp keys of bronze of different 
sizes. Harp keys are often found associated with 
military remains in Ireland ; in illustration of this 
subject I may mention an intercepted letter from 
Brian O'Rourke to MacMahon, in October, 1588, 
and preserved in the State Paper Office. Mac 
Mahon, it appears, had sent for a harp as well as B .on/ e ria 
some military weapons, O'Rourke answers, " We 
do assure you that we cannot send you the same, for that there 
is not a good harp in our country, but we will provide a good 
harp to you, and we will send two great spears and two 
skeins to you, of the best that is made in our country." 

Of other ornaments found on the island on Lough na Glack, 
I may particularly mention several amber and blue glass 
beads, three bone pins, and a comb apparently of ivory. 
Of iron instruments, an iron dagger, measuring with the hilt 
fifteen inches ; several iron coulters of ploughs, of very primi- 
tive form, seven inches in length ; parts of iron instruments, 
the use of which it is impossible to determine ; a long 
gun barrel, three feet eight inches in length, of that sort, I 
believe, formerly called a calliver; part of the lock of a 
pistol ; many large bullets of lead were also found ; I may 
add to this list a pair of quern stones, found in the Monalty 
Island, some burnt corn, the refuse probably of the primitive 
thrashing and winnowing of the ancient Irish, which con- 
sisted in merely setting fire to the corn when reaped ; remains 
of coarse broken earthenware vessels, and bits of thick dark 
glass ; an earthen pot, shaped like a hat ; another of Dutch 


manufacture, with the figure of a man's head below the spout, 
used in Ireland during the seventeenth century, and called 
grey -beards; some small Dutch tobacco pipes; cut oval 
stones, apparently intended for pounding in mortars ; several 
circular stones, with holes in the centres, often found with 
ancient remains, and considered in Ireland to belong to the 
ancient spinning wheels ; also several stones, or hones, of dif- 
ferent shapes and sizes, for sharpening weapons and tools ; a 
brass token, nearly defaced, probably of the reign of Charles II. 
From the great variety of these remains, extending from 
the remote period, when weapons of stone and bronze were 
used, to the fire-arms of the seventeenth century, it cannot be 
doubted that these Islands or Crannoges, were for many ages 
the resorts of petty chieftains, probably of the Mac Mahon 
Sept, and afterwards, perhaps, of gangs of freebooters or 
Tories, although the traditions of the neighbourhood have not 
preserved the memory of the fact. E. p. s. 




THE Isle of Man at present contains but few ancient speci- 
mens of ecclesiastical architecture. Among the churches now 
in repair and use, I am only acquainted with one (Kirk M ang- 



hold) which exhibits any remains of mediaeval work ; and 
ruins retaining any decided features are far from numerous ; 
on which account it is the more necessary to mark the pecu- 
liarities of such as still exist. 

Of these the most important is the cathedral of St. Ger- 
man in Peel castle ; a building smaller and less ornamented 
than many village churches in England ; while its command- 
ing situation, and the adaptation of its style to the castellated 
buildings which surround it, and of which indeed it forms a 
part, invest it with a grandeur not exceeded by edifices of far 
higher architectural pretensions. 

St. Patrick's Isle, of which the whole accessible area is con- 
tained within the wall of Peel castle, forms a termination to a 
bold promontory, being connected with it by a causeway, 
lately built, not as I conceive with a view to the convenience 
of access, so much as the security of the harbour, the entrance 
into which is between the castle and the town. The rock 
is of rather a slaty texture, in most parts very rugged and 
precipitous, and pierced with several deep caverns. On the 
highest part of the island, not far from its centre, stands a 
round tower, of the same character with those peculiar to Ire- 
land. Like them it has a door at some distance from the 
ground, and wider at the bottom than at the spring of the 
arch. There are also four square-headed openings near the top, 
and another lower down. The material of this tower is prin- 
cipally red sand-stone, laid in pretty regular courses of thin 
but long or wide blocks ; the jointing is wide, 
and filled with a hard coarse mortar, which has 
been less acted upon by the atmosphere than 
the stone itself. The door faces the east, and 
the top window the cardinal points, accord- 
ing to the orientation of the cathedral. In 
the round tower at Brechin, in Scotland, the 
door faces the west; but I do not suppose Ma8 ,^ r e ra f t^. U D d oor wer ' 
the builders of these structures were guided by any rule on 
this head. 

Had I been acquainted with the very interesting accounts 
lately brought before the public of the ancient oratories in 
Cornwall, I should have paid more attention to the building 
that stands to the south of the round tower. This has the 
same orientation with the cathedral, but there is now an 
entrance under the east window, and a partition wall from 


north to south, where the rood-screen would be placed. The 
material of this building is of stone, similar to that of the rock 
on which it stands. A very little red sand-stone is introduced. 
The masonry is irregular, and wide-joint- 
ed, the mortar being softer than that of 
the round tower, and of a wholly different 
texture. There are other buildings of 
much the same character within the area 
of the castle, but they retain no architec- 
tural feature which may determine their Masoory of lhc Gabled Bulldin4 on 
style and date. Some of the windows *Z.*g t l%S?Z. 
seem to have been circular, the voussoirs being very thin and 
deep, similar to those seen in Roman remains, the material 
being slate or schist. 

a On referring to the ecclesiastical history of the Isle of Man, 
we shall be led to admit the probability that the remains of 
very ancient places of worship may yet be found in it. And 
I may add, that the feelings of the inhabitants who regard 
such ruins as marking the burial place of their forefathers, 
favour the success of the antiquary in his researches. St. 
German, whom St. Patrick left as bishop in 447, built a 
chapel to every district of four quarter lands throughout the 
island, which consisted of 771 quarter lands, each containing 
about 400 acres. This is referred to in a Manx ballad of the 
early part of the sixteenth century. " For each four quarter- 
lands he made a chapel, for people of them to meet to prayer. 
He also built German church in Peel castle, which remaineth 
there until this day." From the same authority we learn that 
Manghold, who was bishop in 498, divided the island into 
regular parishes. 

Whether the original cathedral of St. German occupied 
the site of the present, or whether its remains are to be sought 
for among the other relics that are scattered over this interest- 
ing area, it would be difficult to ascertain, as the present 
building exhibits nothing earlier than the work of Simon, who 
succeeded to the bishopric in 1226, and began to rebuild 
the cathedral. His part is evidently the chancel, which is a 
pure and simple specimen of the then prevailing style. From 
its character indeed we might have pronounced it to be earlier; 

a I have been indebted throughout for search, and abounding with curious and 
historical information, to Train's History valuable references, 
of the Isle of Man ; a work of great re- 


but we must take into consideration the nature of the build- 
ings with which it had to assimilate, as well as the remoteness 
of the district; besides the fact that England was not the 
country with which at that time the island was most inti- 
mately connected. Its dynasty was Norwegian ; its sovereigns 
paid homage to the king of Norway at his own court, and its 
bishops appear generally to have received consecration from 
the archbishop of Drontheim. The last of the Norwegian line 
was Magnus, who died A.D. 1265. 

From the drawings I have seen of the cathedral at Dron- 
theim, a great part of it seems to belong to the same period 
with our own Early English ; it would be interesting to com- 
pare it with any specimens of that style at Kirkwall, lona, and 

XT 6v31 . 

The east end of St. German's ranges with, and actually 
forms a part of the wall of the fortress. It has a beautiful 


triplet, with labels in the interior, and with just sufficient 
mouldings to shew that architectural embellishment was not 
wholly neglected. The side windows are tall, and not very 
acutely pointed ; the bays which they occupy are divided from 



South-eastern Pier of Central Tower. 

each other by flat buttresses, of only a few inches in projec- 
tion ; these on the north side die into the wall itself at the 
distance of about five feet from the ground, the lower stage of 
the wall being thicker than that above it. The arrangement 
of the east end is similar ; the chancel has consequently at a 
little distance the appearance of a Norman building. 

The central tower is of a 
later date, though its eastern 
arch is Early English ; in 
England we should pro- 
nounce it to be transition ; 
the archivolt of the arch, as 
well as the manner in which 
the square abacus is fitted 
to the octagonal engaged 
pillar, indicates a peculiarity 
in style. The north arch of the tower has the character of the 
early Decorated ; the moulding of the 1 
architrave has in its section a very flow- 
ing line ; but from the decay of the 
stone it is impossible to obtain the de- 
tails with any degree of exactness. The 
south arch has two plain chamfered 
orders, probably of a later Decorated. 
The architrave of the western arch is 
much decayed, but appears to have had some Decorated 
moulding beyond the mere chamfer. 

The transepts bear also a Decorated character, but have 
much later insertions. The annexed cut shews 
an alteration. The present open window stands 
in the centre of the transept front, and under it 
I is a door with a re- 

markable jamb mould- 
ing. The south tran- 
sept has a western 
door, near which is a 
niche for holy water; T^^^^T) 
and on the opposite wall, nearly 
facing the door, is a bracket, pro- 
bably for a figure. None of the 

Archivolt of the Eastern Jamb of the North -11 f x 

Door, Transept, windows have any remains 01 tra- 

olt of the Northern Arch of 
ral Tower Half the Section 

Arch of Central Tower 

cery to enable us to judge of their character. 



The masonry of the chancel is on the 
whole better and more regular than that of 
the transepts. Both seem to have been 
plastered inside and out. 

The nave is exceedingly rough in its 
masonry, except the mere dressings. It has 
had a south aisle, but its piers and arches 
are built up, openings being left in which 
late windows are inserted. The piers, as 
may be seen from a portion of one of them 
which has been uncovered, are massive and 
cylindrical ; the arches of two chamfered orders, the archivolt 
of the inferior order being of great width. They have 
labels on both sides ; their style might be Early English. It 
is remarkable that there is no arch from this aisle into the 
transept, the end of it being principally occupied by the stair- 
case turret of the central tower. 


The north side has no traces of any aisle ; its windows are 
single trefoil-headed lights, the top being cut out of one piece 
of stone (see next page). On this side is a small door, now 
walled up. The west end exhibits no feature by which we can 
judge of its date, all the mouldings of the window, if it has 
ever had any, being destroyed ; and the masonry is of the 
roughest. On each side of the nave are remarkable blocks 



Window on the North side or' the Nave. 

or corbels at regular dis- 
tances, as if for brackets to 
support a timber roof. They 
are perfectly plain, and do 
not seem to have been cut 
into their present form. 

The central tower, which 
is square, and has a large 
square staircase turret at the 
south-western angle, is of 
very rough masonry, and 
chiefly built with the stone of the island; but with dress- 
ings of old red sand-stone, of which there is a quarry at no 

great distance. The annexed 

cut representing part of the 

turret, will give a fair idea of 

the masonry of the whole. The ; 

belfry windows are of the 

rudest construction, being j 

formed simply by four oblong 

pieces of sand-stone, and these 
not very carefully shaped. On each face of the tower there is, 
besides the usual belfry window, another opening near one of 
the angles, and at a lower level. 

In England, where the tower of a church is often the most 
ornamented part, we do not very frequently meet with the 
plain rectangular belfry window. But in Scotland and 
Ireland this feature is more common. The tower was there 
probably used as a place of security 15 , and consequently 
partook of a castellated character, and had its openings 
few, simple, and unadorned. In New Abbey in Galloway, 
a large and carefully finished church of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, the tower has plain square-headed windows. They 
also occur in the abbey of Pluscardine, near Elgin, though 
in this instance they are surrounded by a curious string or 

The parapet to the central tower of St. German's cathedral 
is so much mutilated that we cannot clearly ascertain the ori- 
ginal finish ; though it is probable it had plain battlements 
like those of the transepts. Nor has the tower itself such 
architectural features as to fix its date with any certainty. 

b See Wilkins. 

Masonry from Tui 
Central Tower 

Belfry Window of the 
Central Tower. 


The eastern arch, as we have observed, is Early English, and 
not unlikely to be the work of Bishop Simon, or his immediate 
successor. But the manner in which the south aisle is stopped 
by the turret, leads me to doubt whether the tower, in its pre- 
sent form, be not altogether an insertion into the original 
design of Bishop Simon's cathedral, and planned and executed 
about a century later. 

Beneath the chancel is a fine ciypt ; its vault is not 
supported in the usual manner by insulated pillars, but 
by arched ribs, springing from short pilasters in the wall; 
of these there are thirteen, at small intervals, of one cham- 
fered order. The vault is a pointed barrel one. The en- 
trance into this crypt is by a passage of steps within the 
thickness of the soiith wall of the chancel. The present 
doorway has a plain square jamb, and seems to have been 

We have in England two striking examples of the combina- 
tion of miltary and ecclesiastical structures, Porchester, and 
Dover, in both which cases the church within the walls is much 
more than a mere garrison chapel, as was probably that in the 
White Tower, in London ; nor was the fortress a mere defence 
to the church or monastery. Peel castle and cathedral offer a 
similar instance. That the little Isle of St. Patrick was 
devoted to purely ecclesiastical purposes, at the time of the 
first introduction of Christianity into the Isle of Man, is not 
impossible; but its position was too important to allow 
it to remain long unoccupied as a military station. The very 
name it bears, supposed to have been given by the Scots 
after their conquest of the territory, implies that it was then 
a fortification. On more than one occasion it was used as a 
state prison ; and the crypt under the chancel is pointed out 
as the dungeon in which Eleanor, the wife of Humphrey, 
duke of Gloucester, was imprisoned. 

The tower and other parts of the castle about the entrance, 
which is south of the cathedral, seem to belong to the early 
part of the fourteenth century ; the masonry is strong arid 
careful, though not very regular, and the blocks of stone 
larger than those used in other parts of the building. (See 
engravings on opposite page.) From the difficulty of access, 
this part must have been very defensible before the general 
use of artillery. The rest of the wall is of a much later 



Window in outer Porch of Entrance Gate. 

Masoory of the Entrance Gateway. 
A. 1 foot 5 inches high ; 2 feet 4 inches long. 




Length of the chancel internally, exclusive of the thick- 
ness of the tower arches .... 
Tower from east to west, inclusive of the tower arches . 
Length of the nave, exclusive of the tower arches 

Total length inside ..... 

Width of chancel internally .... 

Nave. About the same. 

North transept ..... 

South transept ..... 

Length of north transept (inside) 

Length of south transept . . 

Total width at the intersection 

Height of the staircase turret of the central tower, in- 
cluding the battlements . . . .66 

N.B. Something must be allowed in all the measure- 
ments of height, in consequence of the accumulation 
of the ground about the base. 

Height of the chancel wall inside . . .18 

Nave, ditto. . . . . . .17 

Thickness of the wall in the face of the north transept . 2 

The south wall of the chancel is nearly of the same thickness. 

Width of crypt . . . . .15 

Length of ditto. . . . .29 

t. VOL. III. I 



















FT. IN. 

Circumference externally near the base . .44 6 

Diameter internally at the height of the door . .59 

Height of the bottom of the door from the ground . 6 9 

Height of the doorway from its floor to the crown of 

the arch ...... 5 6 

Width of the doorway at the floor . . .23 
spring of the arch . . . .18 

I was told that the total height of this tower is 50 feet ; 
but from the size and number of courses I think it can hardly 
be so much. The tower is perfectly detached from other 
buildings. Its top has a parapet of later date. There is no 
staircase in the inside. 

The present dilapidated state of these interesting and pic- 
turesque ruins demands attention. The western arch of the 
tower is evidently in a precarious condition. A judicious 
application of mortar or cement might preserve much of the 
rough masonry, which has probably been covered with a coat 
of plaster. A stone, on which is a Runic inscription, might 
also be extracted from among the rough stonework which 
blocks up one of the arches of the nave ; it would perhaps be 
found to contain some good ancient sculpture. 

I confess it was with no pleasure that I heard a report of 
the intended restoration of Peel castle and cathedral. With- 
out doubt, if it had remained in a perfect state, it would have 
more beauty and interest than at present ; yet I fear that even 
a judicious restoration would destroy many characteristic 
features, which in a building that stands in a manner alone, 
are the more valuable. I cannot judge what may be the im- 
portance of the spot in a military point of view, but its incon- 
venience of access renders it the least suitable position in 
which to build or restore a church for the use of the neigh- 
bouring population. The main land with which the causeway 
connects it, is a mere pasture. The ruins of the cathedral can 
be approached from Peel town only by crossing the mouth of 
the harbour, often a concern of some difficulty, if not of danger, 
or else by a bridge at a considerable distance from the town. 
There can be little doubt that this difficulty of access was the 
cause of the desertion and ruin of the church. 

I conclude by heartily recommending the archaeologist to 
study these remains well, and examine them closely, before 
they are swept away either by decay or restoration, j. L. PETIT. 


THE name of William of Wykham has always been held in 
the highest estimation in connection with the mediaeval archi- 
tecture of this country, and his works are referred to and 
valued as forming an important era in the history of that 
art. This interest has been considerably increased in conse- 
quence of the recent visit of the Archaeological Institute to 
Winchester, and the investigations which took place on that 
occasion with reference to Wykham and his works, under two 
of its most distinguished members, (Professors Willis and 
Cockerell,) a circumstance which will doubtless render any 
addition to the list of his acknowledged works an acceptable 
contribution to this interesting subject. Under this impres- 
sion I presume to bring under the notice of the Institute what 
I consider to be a genuine and beautiful fragment still existing, 
though in a very dilapidated state, within the precincts of the 
castle at Windsor. 

Before however entering upon the description of this frag- 
ment, I will premise, that as the great change in the style of 
the pointed architecture from the Decorated to the Perpendicular 
took place during the time this prelate presided over the royal 
works, there is every reason to believe that this change was 
owing in a great measure to his genius and instrumentality. 
I am induced to form this opinion from the fact of there being, 
I believe, no well authenticated example of the latter style 
previously to his period, whereas a progressive change was 
going on which appears to have commenced with that period, 
and ended before his death in the complete establishment of 
the new style to the exclusion of its predecessor a . I am aware 
an opinion is entertained that the west windows of the nave of 
Winchester Cathedral are the work of Bishop Edington, Wyk- 
ham's predecessor, and that documentary evidence is in favour 
of this opinion. To me however it appears quite incredible 
that windows so ultra Perpendicular in all their forms and 
details, and which are not supported by one single analogous 
well authenticated example, not only of the same period, but 
for a period long subsequent, can safely be referred to Eding- 

a Edington died 1366, when the Deco- disappeared, and the Perpendicular style 
rated style had scarcely passed its zenith. was fully established. 
Wykham died 1 404, when it had altogether 


ton. I am more disposed to suspect that the evidence referred 
to does not convey the full truth, and that something yet 
remains to be discovered, which by transferring them to a 
period more in accordance with their style, will relieve us from 
a most perplexing difficulty, in judging of dates by the ana- 
logies of style ; a principle which has long been established, 
and which in most cases we have reason to hope and believe 
has led to correct conclusions. Such a complete revolution 
however in the style of the pointed architecture, as I have 
above referred to, could scarcely have been effected in so 
short a period, had it not been encouraged by the powerful 
example and influence of a distinguished practitioner in the 
art of architecture, and we know of no contemporary whose 
influence was so great, or so likely to fully accomplish such a 
change, as this prelate. 

Of Wykham's acknowledged works there remain at the 
present time the two noble foundations at Oxford and Win- 
chester, and the adaptation of the style which I conceive he 
had introduced upon the existing Norman nave of Winchester 
Cathedral. It is further on record that he was largely em- 
ployed on the works carried on under his patron Edward III. 
at Windsor : but owing to the great changes which have taken 
place in this royal fortress and palace, particularly within the 
present century, little remains of an architectural character 
which can be ascribed to this prelate. Some of the vaultings 
in the basement may probably have formed the substructions 
on which his more finished works rested ; but beyond these 
almost everything has disappeared. I cannot help thinking 
that the north transept of Merton College Chapel, Oxford, 
may be safely added to the list of his works, as it certainly 
belongs to the same period, has some details which correspond 
exactly with those of his college in that University, and is 
beyond all question one of the most beautifully designed ele- 
vations, both in its general arrangement and particular details, 
to be anywhere met with. This however is mere conjecture, 
as we have no documentary evidence to establish the fact. 

As Wykham's great works at Windsor are said to have 
added much to his reputation as an architect, the architectural 
antiquary naturally pries most anxiously into every part of this 
vast fabric, in the hopes of detecting some out of the way 
morsel indicative of the genius of its architect, but in vain ; 
either such fragments do not exist at all, or they are so com- 


pletely buried in the more modern alterations as to be beyond 
the reach of redemption. The cloister of St. George's Chapel, 
represented in the accompanying drawing, furnishes however, 
in my opinion, one exception. This cloister consists of a 
quadrangle, of four compartments on each side, looking into a 
court placed at the east end of the chapel, and on the north 
side of Wolsey's tomb-house. Each of these compartments is 
filled in with tracery, the general characters whereof belong 
to the Perpendicular style, but there are two or three touches 
which belong decidedly to the preceding or Decorated period, 
and which I conceive therefore to bring it justly within the 
denomination of transition work. The four solid angles of .the 
quadrangle have on each of the internal return faces a panel 
filled in with a canopy of light and beautiful design; the style 
of these canopies belongs most unquestionably to the time of 
Edward III. ; they abounded in St. Stephen's Chapel, West- 
minster, and are rarely, I believe I might say never, to be met 
with subsequently to Wykham's period. These canopies taken 
in connection with the transition character of the tracery, and 
the further connection of Wykham with the buildings at 
Windsor, convince me that this cloister is the genuine work 
of the great architect. Beyond these particulars it has little 
to recommend it to attention, the ceiling is plain, and the 
doors leading into it have no particular merit considered archi- 
tecturally, but the little that remains of Wykham's work gives 
great value to this solitary specimen at a place which is so in- 
timately connected with his fame. In stating, however, that 
there was little to attract attention beyond Wykham's screen, 
I ought to have made an exception in favour of some arches 
of an earlier date, partly buried in the more recent erection of 
the wall of Wolsey's tomb-house, which are very good in their 
details, and perhaps some of the earliest work remaining at 
Windsor. The same observation applies also to the door of 
entrance from the cloister into St. George's Chapel, with its 
beautiful and elaborately wrought covering of iron work. 

As before stated, this cloister, at least the portion of it which 
I have ventured to ascribe to Wykham, is in a state of great 
dilapidation ; I fear I may add, that it is not altogether free 
from danger, as the foundations have in part very much given 
way. It is therefore most desirable that some steps should be 
taken before long, to preserve it from further injury and ulti- 
mate destruction. E. B. 


THE four vessels, of which we present our readers with an 
engraving in the present number of our Journal, were found 
in the year 1838, at a very great depth in the ground, in 
making an excavation for a cellar near the extreme boundary 
of the walls of Trinity College, Oxford, formerly Durham Hall 
or College, adjoining to the premises of Balliol College, in- 
closed for the use of scholars about the year 1290, when there 
was a grant of the land for that purpose from the abbess of 
Godstow. There is therefore every reason to believe, from this 
and other circumstances, particularly from a coin being found in 
one of the larger vessels, that they were placed there deliberately 
about the time of the original foundation of the walls, accord- 
ing to the common custom still observed on the commencement 
of any great undertaking of this kind. Such at that time must 


have been considered the inclosure within lofty walls of several 
acres of arable land, for such it is described to be in the 
charter, with a view to the extension of academical education 
then contemplated, after the noble example recently set by 
Walter de Merton. A chapel and library, eastward from this 
spot, soon followed from the munificence of two successive 
bishops of Durham, Richard de Bury, and Thomas de Hatfield; 
and, before the expiration of the fourteenth century, the erection 
of four additional establishments for general study, within the 
walls of the city of Oxford, effected an entire revolution in the 
character of the University, elevating it from aularian poverty 
into collegiate magnificence. These circumstances are here 
briefly noticed, that we may bear in mind the rapid progress 
that may be supposed to have been made in every thing, since 
the time when these rude vessels may be presumed to have 
been manufactured, and even from the time when they seem 
to have been deposited in the earth as relics of a former period. 
They are of different heights and dimensions. The largest 
differs only in a slight degree from the sesquipedal measure of 
the ancient ampulla, for the knowledge of which we are 
indebted to a playful line of Horace ; being in height about 
17 inches and a quarter. It differs from the original ampulla 
or diota, in having only one handle instead of two. 

Specimens of medieval pottery are supposed to be of very 
rare occurence. The smallest fragments of Samian ware, and 
the minutest relics of ancient art, connected with our classical 
predilections, are carefully preserved ; but the rudeness of the 
execution, or the coarseness of the material, has generally 
consigned to oblivion even the sacred vessels of our barbarous 
ancestors. Yet our Saxon forefathers had their imperfect 
imitations of Roman ware such as their ampulla, lecythus, 
lagena, or flagon, legitha, and crocca, or crohha ; which Dr. 
Bosworth does not hesitate to interpret as " chrismatories." 
He considers them, however, as many learned antiquaries do, 
to have been small vessels ; though it is reasonable to suppose 
that they might have been of different dimensions, large or 
small, according to their intended use and application. There 
can be no mistake in this matter ; as the smaller vessel, in the 
incorporation of our language with the Norman French, was 
properly distinguished by the diminutive word cruette, or 
cruet . 

So amulet, from ampulette ; amula, and amulula, Latino Barb., &c. 


Much may be said on the subject of chrism and chris- 
matories, large and small ; but we forbear to enter into the 
subject at any great length at present. In the mean time, 
whether such rude vessels as these Trinity jars and cruets were 
ever used for any sacred purpose, or not, as receptacles for 
chrism, &c., must be left as matter of opinion. No argument 
can be derived from their large size ; when we consider that 
the chrism was solemnly hallowed, or consecrated, only once a 
year in early times, namely, just before Easter, and by the 
archbishops of the provinces ; that many thousands were 
sometimes confirmed in a day, when the use of chrism was 
always a principal part of the ceremony, as also in baptism, 
extreme unction, &c. ; from all which we may conclude, that 
many vessels, and in all probability of many different sizes and 
dimensions, must have been required for the ordinary services 
and ministrations of the Church ; and some of them may have 
been of homely materials and rude workmanship. 

William of Malmesbury b , in his Life of St. Wulfstan, the 
Saxon bishop of Worcester in the eleventh century, having 
occasion to mention that, even in the latest period of his life 
the bishop frequently confirmed two or three thousand per- 
sons or more in a day, records it as a subject of astonish- 
ment to all, that whilst so many as eight officiating clerks 
sunk under their task by turns in carrying round the chris- 
matory during the ceremony, the prelate himself persevered 
to the end without the least fatigue. His journey to York 
before Easter is described by the same historian as a solemn 
embassy by command of King William I., and the archbishop 
Thomas, for the purpose of consecrating the chrism. The 
vessels, therefore, in which this whole year's - consumption of 
chrism was preserved, and from which it was poured into 
smaller vessels for immediate use, must have been very differ- 
ent from those diminutive phials, in which a very smah 1 portion 
of the consecrated oil was inclosed, to be used as an amulet, 
or charm, like the sainte ampoule, to cure or guard against 
diseases. J. i. 

b Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol. ii. p. 258. 

Original Bocununts. 

THE following inventory of the effects of Reginald Labbe, an individual 
who belonged, probably, to the agricultural class of life, and died in 1293, 
is communicated by W. S. Walford, Esq., who possesses the original. It 
appears to have been prepared by the executors, in the usual course, after 
probate of the deceased's will, for the satisfaction of the ecclesiastical court; 
and affords a curious view of the circumstances of a husbandman or 
small farmer at the close of the thirteenth century. 

Reginald Labbe died worth chattels of the value of thirty-three shil- 
lings and eight-pence, leaving no ready money. His goods comprised 
a cow and calf, two sheep and three lambs, three hens, a bushel and a 
half of wheat, a seam of barley, a seam and a half of fodder, a seam 
of ' dragge,' or mixed grain, and one halfpenny worth of salt. His ward- 
robe consisted of a tabard, tunic and hood, and his ' household stuffe' seems 
to have been limited to a bolster, a rug, two sheets, a brass dish, and a tri- 
pod, or trivet, the ordinary cooking apparatus of those times. Possessing 
no ready money, his bequests were made in kind. A sheep worth ten-pence 
is left to the high altar of the church of Neweton, and another of the same 
value to the altar and fabric-fund of the church of 'Eakewode,' possibly Oak- 
wood. His widow Yda received a moiety of the testator's cow, which was 
valued at five shillings, and Thomas Fitz-Noreys was a coparcener in its calf 
to the extent of a fourth. It is worthy of note, that the expenditure of the ex- 
ecutors upon the funeral, the ' month's-mind,' and in proving the will of 
Reginald Labbe, consumed something more than a third of all he left behind 
him, being in the relation of 11s. 9d. to 33s. 8d. Some of the items are 
curious. One penny was paid for digging his grave, fwo-pence for tolling 
the bell, sixpence for making his will, and eight-pence for proving it ' with 
the counsel of clerks,' in other words, under legal advice. We may safely 
multiply these sums by fifteen, perhaps by twenty, to arrive at the value of 
money in the thirteenth as compared with the nineteenth century, and by this 
process we shall find that the lawyer or clerk who prepared the will re- 
ceived a fee not greatly disproportioned to the modern charge for such pro- 
fessional assistance. The mourners bidden to the funeral, some of whom pro- 
bably bore Reginald's body to its resting place, were refreshed with bread 
and cheese and beer, to the amount of six shillings : the same homely fare 
at the ' month's-mind' cost the estate two shillings and eight-pence. The 
scribe who prepared this account for the executors was remunerated with 
three-pence, a large sum having regard to the brevity of the document. 

T. H. T. 


Inventarium bonorum Reginald! Labbe defunct! anno domini M. CC. 
nonagesimo tercio die quo obiit. 

Imprimis j. vacca precii v.s. Item j. vitulus precii iij.s. Item ij. oves 
et iij. agni precii xlj.e?. precium capitis x.d. Item iij. galline precii vj.e?. 
Item, j. busellum. di. frumenti precii xv.d. j. summa ordei precii v.s. iilj.d. 
Item, j. summa di. pabuli precii vj.s. Item, j. summa drag, precii iiij.*. 
Item, j. taberd et j. tunica precii xij.d. Item, j. collobium precii xij.t/. 
Item, j. bolster, precii xij.e?. Item, j. tapetum et ij. linteamina precii x.d. 
Item, j. patella enea precii iij.c?. j. tripod, precii. ob. Item, sal precii ob. 

Summa xxxiij.s. viij.rf. 

Walterus Noreys et Yda relicta diet! defuncti, executores testament! 

ejusdem defuncti computant in expensis die sepulture ipsius. In 

bella pulsanda, ij.d. In cera, x.d. In j j.d. ob. In sepulcro 

ejus fodiendo, j.d. In pane, iiij.s. ij.e?. In cervisia, xvj.e?. In caseo, vj.ef. 
In testamento faciendo, vj.c?. 

Summa vij.s. viij.e?. ob. Ecclesie 

Est porcio diet! defuncti, xvj.s. x.d. ob. qa. 

Expense "I lidem computant in expensis die mensis diet! defuncti. In 
[redd.] J pane, xvj.d. In servisia, viij.e?. In caseo, viij.e?. In ex- 
pensis de probacione testamenti, cum consilio clericorum viij.c?. In obla- 
cionibus ad vj. missas, vj.c?. 

Summa iij.s. x.d. 

Legata soluta] lidem computant solutum secundum legata, videlicet ad 
Summum altare Ecclesie de Newe[ton] a j. ovis precii x.d. Item, solutum 
altari et fabrice Ecclesie de Eakewode b j. ovem precii x.d. Item, vicario de 
Neweton, vj.c?. Item, clerico suo, ij.d. Item domino Simoni capellano, 
\j.d. Item, solutum Yde uxori mee c totam partem ipsius unius vacce 
precii [v.*.] pro medietate. Item, solutum Thome filio Noreys quarta pars 
j. vituli precii . Item, solutum Yde relicte diet! defuncti pro 

residue, iij.s. ob. q a . Summa vj.s. j.d. 

Summa, ix.. ij.d. ob. 

In stipendio clerici pro compoto isto faciendo, iij.rf. 

a Perhaps Newton-Valence, near Alton, b Oakwood, near Dorking, Surrey. 

Hants. c Sic in orig. 

Archaeological Entdltgence* 


Mr. George Grant Francis sent for exhibition several weapons of the 
early British period, found in South Wales, and preserved in the Museum 
of the Royal Institution at Swansea. Amongst these was a fine bronze 


sword, discovered in Glamorganshire, of the kind termed by Sir S. Meyrick, 
cleddyv, the hilt of which, as he observes, was commonly formed of horn, 
hence the adage, " he who has 
the horn has the blade." It 
measures in length 23 in., the 
widest portion of the blade mea- 
sures If in., and the weight is 
23 oz. A similar weapon, of 
precisely the same length, found 
at Fulbourn, Cambridgeshire, is 
to be seen in the armoury at 
Goodrich Court 3 . 

Mr. Francis sent a stone axe 
from the same collection, the 
form of which- is rather unusual ; 
it was found at Llanmadock, in 
Gower; its length is 6 in., and 
weight 23 oz. 

Other interesting specimens of 
Celtic weapons have been re- 
cently exhibited at the meetings of the Institute by Mr. Whincopp, of 
Woodbridge, from his extensive collection of remains discovered in the 

8 Skelton's Goodrich Court Armoury, 
pi. xlvii. See other examples in Gough's 
Camden, iii. pi. 34 ; Pennant's Scotland, 

ii. pi. xliv. ; Leitfaden zur nordischen Al- 
terthumskunde, p. 45, where the form of 
the hilt is shewn. 


eastern counties. Sir Philip Egerton also sent several examples found 
on his property in Cheshire. 

To the series of tores described in Mr. Birch's paper, may be added 
one found at Wraxall, which must be considered as presenting a new 
type. From the cast of it exhibited by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, it 
appears to be wrought with a waved pattern, and to have been originally 
ornamented with jewels, or vitreous pastes. 

The Rev. John Baldwin transmitted through Mr. Beck, Local Secretary 
for Lancashire, two small earthen vases of unusual fashion, discovered 

under a cairn near Roose, a hamlet at the southern point of the peninsula 
of Furness. No description of the cairn itself has been preserved, but it 
was evidently a place of sepulture, as the remains of a body which had 
been burnt on the spot, and small pieces of charcoal, were found in it. One of 
these vases appeared to present some features of general resemblance to the 
vessels discovered by Sir Richard Hoare in the ban-ows in Wiltshire, and 
considered by him to have been used as thuribula. The other was of ruder 
fabric and shape, the only ornament on it being a scratched zig-zag or 
chevron pattern round the upper edge of the vessel. These vases had been 
placed at the head of the body, which was towards the west, and contained 
nothing but earth. After cremation, earth to the height of a foot or more 
had been heaped over the remains, which again was covered with stones to 
the quantity of between two and three hundred cart loads. 


Mr. Tucker, Local Secretary for Devonshire, exhibited six tessons of 
brick, which were found in digging the foundations of the union workhouse at 
Colchester in 1837. Mr. Birch observed that these subjects were evidently 
modern fabrications, and that he had no doubt an ingenious system of de- 
ception and forgery was practised in respect of them. It was quite certain 
they were neither Roman nor medieval ; indeed, an inscription or cartouche 
on one of them was copied from Champollion's Letters from Egypt, pub- 
lished in 1 833, before whose time it was unknown. A sword and dagger, 
with iron blades, and hilts of horn, with Latin inscriptions on them, said 



to have been found at the same place, were also exhibited by Mr. Tucker. 
Mr. Birch considered these to be the work of the same forger. 

Extensive excavations are now in progress on the site of the Roman 
town of Segontium, at Caernarvon, under the direction of the Rev. R. R. 
Parry Mealy. Foundations of buildings, coins, and other Roman re- 
mains, have been discovered, of which we hope to give a more de- 
tailed account, after they have been submitted to the inspection of the 

Mr. Samuel Tymms, of Bury St. Edmunds, communicated for examina- 
tion a fragment of a glass vessel, supposed to be of Roman date, discovered 
at Lavenham in Suffolk. The annexed representation shews its dimen- 
sions; in the central part was enclosed a small quantity of liquid, 
half filling the cavity ; it was slightly tinged with a pinkish colour, and 
seemed to deposit a whitish sediment. The glass was of a pure white 
crystalline texture. Stow relates that amongst 
numerous Roman remains found when the 
field anciently called Lolesworth, now Spittle- 
field, was broken up about the year 1576 to 
make bricks, " there were found divers vials, 
and other fashioned glasses, some most curi- 
ously wrought, and some of chrystall, all 
which had water in them, nothing differing in 
clearnesse, taste, or savour from common spring 
water, whatever it was at the first. Some of 
these glasses had oyle in them very thick, and 
earthly in savour V In the Museum of Anti- 
quities at Rouen a small glass vial, accounted 
to be Roman, is preserved, hermetically sealed 
and half full of liquid. 

Among the specimens of Roman pottery recently submitted to the Com- 
mittee may be noticed a fragment found at the camp at Winklersbury, near 
Basingstoke, Hants, stamped 
with the name ALBINVS, ex- 
hibited by the Rev. E. Hill, 
student of Christ Church, 
Oxford; and two vases of 
late Roman manufacture, 
found in the parish of Tub- 
ney, Berks, near a barrow 
in the vicinity of the old 
church. They were trans- 
mitted by the ReV. Dr. Vases found at Tubney 

White, of Magdalene College, Oxford. We may also here mention a 
Roman brick found in digging the foundations of the Post Office, St. 

b Survey of Lond., b. ii. c. 5. p. 177, ed. 1633. 


Martin's-le-Grand, impressed with the letters P.P.BR. LON. The initials 
P.P.BR. probably indicate the name of the manufacturer, the letters LON. 
the place of manufacture, Londinium, as the LON. on the third brass coins 
of Constantine the Great has been thought by numismatists to mark Lon- 
don as the place of mintage. This brick was exhibited by Mr. J. W. 
Burgon, and others similarly stamped have, we believe, been found in the 
soil of London. 


Mr. J. O. Westwood exhibited drawings of two remarkable crosses. 
One represented, in full dimensions, the west side of the Great Cross now 
standing by the road side in the village of Carew, Pembrokeshire ; it has 
lately been placed on a solid stone foundation, and as the adjoining road 
has been lowered, and is rather narrow, the cross appears quite gigantic. 
Mr. Westwood stated that the east side of this monument had been inac- 
curately figured by Fenton and Donovan, but that he could not learn that 
the west side had ever been represented. The letters of the inscription 
are incised, but the patterns are in relief. The space on the right of the 
inscription has never been inscribed. The ornament on the summit of the 
cross is defaced on the west side, but appears, from a slight portion re- 
maining, to have been of an interlaced ribbon pattern : on the east side, it 
is inscribed with a cross, each limb being formed of three incised lines. 

The other drawing represented, also of the full size, the east side of the 
Great Cross at Nevern, which, with the kind assistance of the Rev. I. Jones, 
Mr. Westwood had been enabled to rub and delineate on all its sides, which 
are equally ornamented. The east, south, and north sides have not been 
figured : the inscription, however, is given in Gibson's and Cough's 
Camden, but unexplained. The west side also presents an inscription 
within a narrow central fascia. The errors in some of the patterns, as 
represented in the annexed cut, are rather curious, and shew the manner 
in which the workman executed his design. Mr. Westwood observed 
that these crosses exhibited only two of the principal types, characteristic 
of ancient British and Irish work : the spiral pattern and the interlaced 
dragon design being never found in Wales, where, also, all the crosses, 
unlike those of lona, the Isle of Man, and Ireland, are almost invariably 
destitute of figures. It is extremely difficult to assign a precise date to 
these two crosses, either with reference to the very unintelligible inscriptions 
upon them, or the style of their ornamental work, because it is well known, 
that in places but little influenced by external circumstances, the same con- 
ventional forms have subsisted for many centuries : as, for instance, in 
Ireland, where the hand-writing of the fourteenth or fifteenth century is 
very similar to that of the eighth or ninth, or, to approach more closely 
to the point in question, in the isles on the west of Scotland, where the 
crosses retained till a very late period their primitive style of art. How- 
ever, as there is so near a resemblance between the work of these two 
crosses, and that on some of the stones in South Wales, which can be well 



Cross at Nevera. 
East side. 

Cross at Care w. West side. 


determined to be of the fifth or sixth century, and as there is a remarkable 
difference in several important respects between these and the Penally 
crosses, which clearly exhibit a Norman influence in their design and 
workmanship, there may be some reason for believing that the Nevern 
and Carew crosses are not more recent than the ninth or tenth century. 

The purpose with which these early sculptured crosses were erected, 
has not been clearly ascertained ; in some instances they may have been 
sepulchral memorials, but this does not appear to have been invariably their 
intention. The curious inscribed memorial found at Lancaster in 1807, 
bears a striking resemblance to the crosses noticed in South Wales. A 
representation of this monument, somewhat deficient in accuracy, has been 
given in the Archseologia, and it will suffice to refer our readers to the 
learned dissertation by Mr. Kemble which accompanies it. For the sake of 
comparison with the sculptured crosses of Wales, the annexed represen- 

Eunic Cross at Lancaster. 

tations are presented to the readers of the Journal : they are taken 
from accurate sketches, and a cast from the Runic inscription, which have 
been communicated to the Institute by Mr. Michael Jones. This cross was 
found in 1807, in digging a grave in the churchyard of St. Mary's, 
Lancaster : the portion thus rescued from oblivion measures 3 feet in height, 
and the breadth of the cross when the arms were perfect, appears to have 
been 1 foot 9 inches. The inscription is in Runes, and in the Anglo-Saxon 
dialect ; it was explained by Mr. Kemble as signifying, " Pray for Cynibald 



and Cuthbert, or for Cynibald son 
of Cuthbert." Mr. Jones stated that 
he had sent a cast from this re- 
markable inscription to Professor 
Finn Magnussen of Copenhagen, who 
had proposed the following reading 
and interpretation of the Runes. 


CUTH) BUKMN ; Oremus nancisci 
quietem Cynibaldum celebrem Cas- 
tellanum." He supposed that the 
person commemorated had been the 

FKRfi hflfUBHty 

Saxon Burghman, or Governor of the town of Lancaster. The Professor 
also expressed his opinion that this memorial had been sculptured in the 
eighth or ninth centuiy. 

Several Northumbrian stycas of Ethelred and Eanred were communi- 
cated by Mr. John Richard Walbran; they were discovered near the 
Elshaw, or Ailcey Hill, a large tumulus not far from the cathedral of Ripon, 
where a considerable number were found in 1695, according to Thoresby c . 

c Ducatus Leodiensis, 56. It is believed 
that the stycas found in 1695 were pre- 
served in Thoresby's Museum, respecting 
which and its dispersion Mr. Walbran has 
comm unicated these interesting particulars. 
"It is impossible to discover the majority of 
the articles that composed Thoresby's Mu- 
seum. His wife retained possession of it until 
her death, which occurred fifteen years after 
that of Thoresby ; but as the articles had 
been chiefly stowed away in a garret per- 
vious to the weather, many of them were 
spoiled and broken, others lost, and some 
stolen, for she was careless of their preser- 
vation. After her death in 1742, the col- 
lections in natural history were found 
either damaged or destroyed. Dr. Burton, 
the author of the 'Monasticon Eboracense,' 
had such of the geological specimens as 
were not spoiled, together with the shells. 
The insects were worth nothing. The bo- 
tanical specimens were all thrown out. 
The warlike curiosities were also thrown 
out The mathematical instruments were 
sold for 7s. 6d. Such of the curious ' house- 
hold stuff,' as remained unspoiled by damp 
and rust, was sold for 6s. to a brazier ; for 
Mrs. Thoresby had suffered many of these 
articles to be purloined. The few statues 
and carvings were broken and mutilated. 
Of the seals, Dr. Burton acquired one ; 
others were given to Dr. llawlinson. 
The amulets could not be found. Some 
of the engravings were lost, others stolen, 

and many spoiled ; Wilson got some, 
and Mr. Thoresby, jun., others. The 
valuable collection of coins, together with 
the manuscripts, various editions of the 
Bible, and the autographs, were sent to 
Mr. Thoresby's eldest son, Ralph, who 
was the incumbent of Stoke Newington. 
He died in 1763, and his effects were sold 
soon after. The coins produced above 
450. I have not heard who were the 
purchasers, but in 1778 Mr. John White, of 
Newgate Street, London, had many of them. 
The printed books were bought by T. Payne 
of the Mews-gate, and retailed by a marked 
catalogue. Mr. White purchased a curious 
MS. collection of English songs ; Horace 
Walpole, a MS. collection of Corpus 
Christi plays, the same, I believe, that 
was sold at the Strawberry-hill sale 
for 220. 10s., (it was lot 92, 6th day,) 
where there were sold several other MSS. 
from Thoresby's collection. Walpole also 
purchased at the younger Thoresby's sale 
the valuable case of the watch presented 
by the Parliament to Fairfax, after the 
battle of Naseby, the unique enamel work 
of which was executed by Bredier alone. 
This, it may be remembered, Mr. Bevan 
purchased at the Strawberry-hill sale (17th 
day, 1841) for 20 guineas. Many of the 
autographs and some MSS. came into the 
hands of the late Mr. Upcott ; among 
others, Thoresby's Album, and the Diary 
and Letters published by Mr. Hunter; a 




The bronze matrix of the singular seal of which a representation is 
annexed, was discovered about the year 1812, in a ruined tower of the 
castle of Giez, in Tou- 
raine. A cast in plaster 
was presented to Mr. 
Way by Monsieur Louis 
Dubois, one of the Con- 
servateurs of the collec- 
tion in the Louvre, who 
stated that a little gold 
figure of St. George, 
possibly a knightly deco- 
ration, and a small triptic 
of gilt brass, were found 
with the seal. According 
to local tradition, the cas- 
tle of Giez had been at 
one period the abode of 
the duke of Bedford, but 
the seal, which appears 
to be a kind of rude imi- 
tation of the mayoralty 
seal of the city of Lon- 
don, is certainly a work 
of a later time. This 
matrix can scarcely be 
considered as a forgery, 
fabricated for any illegal 
purpose ; the assimilation 
is merely to be traced 
in the general arrange- 
ment of the design, the 
details being changed in 
many respects, which may 
be seen by comparison 
with the original mayor- 
alty seal, made towards 
the close of the fourteenth 
century. The matrix is 

now almost wholly defaced, the most deeply sunk portions of the design 
being alone preserved ; the annexed representation is taken from an 
impression in its perfect state. Stowe relates that the old seal was broken 

few other MSS. were purchased of the 
younger Thoresby's executors by Mr. Wil- 
son, the recorder of Leeds, and are now 

in the possession of Mr. Wilson of Mel- 


in 4 Richard II., 1380, by Richard Odiham, chamberlain of the city during 
the mayoralty of Sir William Wahvorth, and its place supplied by a new 
matrix, on which were represented St. Peter and St. Paul, with the Virgin 
and Child above, and a shield of arms of the city beneath, supported by two 
lions, and on either side a sergeant of arms, in a tabernacle surmounted by 
an angel d . In the spurious seal it will be observed that besides the altera- 
tion of all the architectural details, in which no Gothic character is retained, 
the figure of St. Peter is changed into that of a king, and under the 
sergeants are introduced two escutcheons, that on the dexter side being 
charged with two lions, probably intended for the ancient bearing of 
Normandy, the other with the three lions of England, omitting altogether 
the quartering of France. The legend is precisely the same on both 

The annexed cut represents an impression from the brass matrix of a 
personal seal of the fourteenth century, discovered 
in a field at Newnham Murren, near Wallingford. 
It is now in the possession of Mr. J. G. Payne, of 
Wallingford, who forwarded it for the inspection 
of the Committee. From the legend * s' IOH'IS . 
DE . DYFFORDE. and the armorial bearings on the 
shield, it seems probable that it may have been the 
seal of John de Ufford, who was summoned to 
Parliament in 34 Edward III., A.D. 1360. He 
was the son and heir of Ralph de Ufford, brother of Robert, first earl of 
Suffolk. In 27 Edward III. he had a grant in fee of the manor of Great 
Belstead, co. Suffolk, parcel of the possessions of the alien abbey of 
Aumale 6 . In 33 Edward III. he was appointed one of the Commissioners 
of Array for the county of Norfolk f . He died in 1361, holding at the 
period of his decease the manor of Great Belstead, and lands at Burgh, 
Glemham, and Chipenhale, co. Suffolk, and at West Lexham and Postwick, 
co. Norfolk s. Mr. Davy, of Ufford, who has obligingly supplied several 
instances of the name having been written ' de Dufford,' selected from the 
Leiger Book of Blythburgh Priory, observes that the Uffords derived their 
arms, sa. a cross engrailed or., in the first quarter a mullet ar., from the 
family of Peyton, settled at Ufford, Glover in his ordinary assigning this 
coat to Peyton. On the other hand it is stated in Bloomfield's history of 
Norfolk, that the Uffords bore this device by permission of the family of 
Hovel. The presence of the lions on this seal can only be explained by 
assuming them to have been introduced as ornamental details; it does 
not appear that the Uffords ever used a lion as a crest or cognizance. 
Mr. Payne also forwarded for inspection another brass matrix, found at 
Clapcot, near Wallingford : the device appeared to be a badger under a bush 
or tree ; the legend reads *s' IOH'IS . DE . GILDEFORD., date about the end 

rt Survey of London, Caudlewicke St. Ward, p. 237, ed. 1633. 

f Pat. 27 Ed. III. p. 2. m. 8. f Feed. iii. 455. * Esc. 35 Ed. III. no. 87. 


of the fourteenth century. A seal with a similar device is in the possession 
of R. Weddell, Esq., of Berwick. 

Mr. Orlando Jewitt exhibited a drawing and impression of a brass seal 
of the fourteenth century, found near Abingdon, Berks. The device is 
the figure of St. Margaret, trampling on a dragon, her usual emblem, 
with the legend * SAVNCTA MARGARETA. This seal is of pyramidal form, 
hexagonal, and terminates in a trefoil, precisely resembling in shape the 
seal of John de Ufford before described. 

The curious seal, here represented, communicated to the Institute by the 
Marquess of Northampton, was found about five years since in a field near 
to the collegiate church of Stoke by Clare, 
Suffolk. It is now in the possession of Mr. 
Barton, of Woodbridge, and appears to have 
been used as a secretum, or privy seal. The 
device is an antique intaglio, a cornelian set in 
silver, with the legend IESVS : EST : AMOR : 
MEVS, the setting being apparently work of the 
fourteenth century. The device represents a 
genius holding in his hand a head, probably a 
mask, and about to deliver it into the hands 
of a little faun, who is seen skipping before him. 
It has been conjectured that this antique had 

been chosen as a device by one of the deans or members of the 
church of Stoke, which was dedicated to St. John the Baptist, from a 
supposed assimilation to the Scriptural history of the delivery of the 
head of St. John by the executioner to the daughter of Herodias. The 
legend is of frequent occurrence on medieval seals and ornaments, and 
pdssibly was regarded as a charm. Amongst the bequests of William of 
Wykeham, occurs a monile, or pendent ornament, probably attached to a 
pair of beads, on which were graven the same words. On the reverse of the 
seal there is a little ring, and an ornament chased in the form of a leaf. Two 
privy seals of similar fashion found near Luddesdown, in Kent, have been 
communicated by the Rev. E. Shepherd, both being composed of antique 
gems, mounted in silver of medieval workmanship. One bears the device 
of a lion, with his paw resting on a bull's head, and the legend SVM LEO 
QOVIS EO NON NISI VERA VEO, the other exhibits an eagle displayed, with 
the motto CONSILIVM EST QVODCVQE CANO. Probably the bird was con- 
sidered to be the ominous raven. Another similar medieval appropriation 
of an antique gem, an engraved onyx, was communicated by Mr. Hans- 
brow, of Lancaster : it was found at " Galla Hill," in Carlisle. In every in- 
stance there was a little loop or ring on the reverse of the seal, near the 
upper extremity of the oval. 

Several curious specimens of the ring-shaped brooch, discovered in 
various parts of England, may be regarded with interest by the readers of 
the Journal. This kind of fibula was worn from times of remote antiquity, 
it was perhaps less commonly used by the Romans than the bow-shaped 



fibula, and ornaments of the like nature, contrived with an elastic acus, or 
tongue, which fell into a groove, or was kept in its place by a hook or fast- 
ening. The ring-brooch served as a fastening in a different manner ; the 
acus was simply hinged, not elastic ; it traversed the tissue which had been 
drawn through the ring, and when the portions of the garment thus con- 
nected were drawn back, the acus was brought back upon the ring, and 
kept most securely in place. Brooches of this fashion occur amongst 
Etruscan and Roman remains 11 ; they have been found in Saxon places of 
burial in this country, and were commonly used during the Anglo-Norman 
period and later times. In Gloucestershire, and, probably, other parts 
of England, ornaments of this form were commonly worn as late as the 
last century. The medieval ring-brooches are interesting chiefly on account 
of the legends or ornaments engraved upon them, which occasionally appear 
to have been talismanic, but usually express the love of which such little 
gifts were frequently the token. Of the former kind is the beautiful brooch, 
set with gems, and curiously formed with two tongues, or acus, formerly in 
the possession of Col. Campbell, of Glen Lion, and inscribed with the 
names of the kings of the East, CASPAR . MELCHIOB . BALTAZAB, considered, 
as Keysler states, to be a charm against epilepsy 1 . In this class also the 
brooch in Mr. Jewitt's possession, and discovered near Oxford, may be 
included, which bears the name JESVS NAZARENVS, so frequently used in 
the preservative charms worn during the middle ages. 

The curious specimen here represented was found in the neighbourhood 
of Rochester, and communicated to the Institute by 
the Rev. Edward Shepherd, Rector of Luddesdown. 
On one side are inscribed the words J< 10 svi : 
ici : EN LIV : DAMI ; Je suis id en lieu d'ami ; on 
the other a series of letters, which, at first sight, 
are wholly inexplicable, and appear to have some 
cabalistic import ; when taken, however, in alter- 
nate order, the names of the donor and his mistress 
are found to be incorporated in this singular love- 
token. tJlBOBERDT 


The final letters may designate the surname, or 
possibly signify d vous. This ornament is of pure 
gold, and appears to be of the fourteenth century. 

Another gold brooch, of the same period, found 
in St. John Zachary burial ground, and now in 
the possession of Mr. W. Hunt, has the following 
legend on one side, CELE KI vvs 'AVEZ ENCLOS, 
and on the other, vvs SALV EN YMEBNE LA os. 

h There are several bronze fibula in the 
British Museum, apparently of Roman 
date. See also Monti'. Ant. Expl., vol. iii. 

pi. xxx. ; and the fibula of bronze found 
at Cirencester, Archaeol., vol. x. pi. xit. 
1 Pennant's Scotland, vol. i. p. 103. 



A ring-brooch of bronze, in the possession of Mr. Edwards, of Win- 
chester, is inscribed with the words POVEBT 
PERT COMT, poverty loses, or mars, respect k . 
In the curious collec- 
tion of antiquities be- 
longing to Mr. Whin- 
copp, of Woodbridge, 
there is a silver ring- 
brooch, contrived in- 
geniously so as to 
remedy the inconveni- 
ence which attended the use of these fastenings, in drawing the tissue of 
the garment through a ring of small size. The ring was formed with 
an opening on one side, and the acus, which was not hinged, but moved 
freely to any part of the ring, having been with ease passed through 
the tissue, was brought through the opening between the volutes. It 
was then brought round until, the point resting against the ring, it 
was firmly secured, and the volutes prevented its slipping accidentally 
through the opening. The ring-brooch was an ornament worn by both 
sexes : it appears on the sepulchral effigy of Richard, Cceur de Lion, at 
Rouen, as well as on that of Berengaria his queen, at Le Mans : it 
served to gather up the fulness of the surcote on the breast of the knight, 
as shewn by one of the effigies in the Temple church, but usually was used 
to close the little opening on the neck, in the robes of either sex, termed 
the vent, or fente, which served to make the collar fit becomingly, as 
shewn by many effigies of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 

A singular silver ring, of which a representation is here given, so as to 
shew the whole of the ornament developed, was brought for exhibition by 
Mr. Talbot. The interlaced plaited work seems to resemble some orna- 

ments of an age as early as the Saxon period : but the ring is probably of 
a later date, and it is chiefly worthy of notice on account of the singular 
impress of the two feet, of which no explanation has been offered. It is 
probably to be regarded as one of the emblems of the Passion, or as a 
memorial of the pilgrimage to the Mount of Olives, where the print of the 
feet of the Saviour, which miraculously marked the scene of His Ascension, 
was visited by pilgrims with the greatest veneration. 

k On a brass ring of the same period, 
discovered at Newark Priory, Surrey, and 
communicated by Dr. Bromet, are in- 

scribed, in similar letters, the words PO- 



Amongst numerous specimens of the work of the Limoges enamellers, 
communicated to the Institute, the small armorial 
scutcheons, some of which are here represented, 
appear not undeserving of notice. Two discovered 

among the remains of Newark 

Priory, Surrey, were brought by 

Dr. Bromet ; one charged with 

the cross flory between five mart- 
lets, the bearing attributed to Ed- 

Iward the Confessor, and assumed 

by Richard II. in conjunction with 

the arms of England ; the other 

argent, three fusils in fess gules, 
the bearing of Montacute. Mr. John G. Nichols exhibited several of 
these scutcheons, formerly in the collection of the Dean of St. Patrick's, 
on one of which was a lion passant on a field azure, within a tressure fiory ; 
on another a fleur-de-lis ; on another appeared a 
dragon on the obverse, the reverse being paly, dimi- 
diating a bearing seme of fleurs-de-lis. Another curious 
example is in the possession of the Rev. Walter Sneyd ; 
two are in the collection of Mons. Sauvageot, at Paris, 
one of which, bearing the arms of France with a label 
of three points, each charged with three castles, is re- 
markable as being furnished with a loop, or attach- 
ment, at the side. Enamelled scutcheons of this 
fashion and dimensions are appended to the conse- 
crated rose, presented to the Count of Neufchdtel by 
the Pope, in the thirteenth century, now in the posses- 
sion of Col. Theubet. These ornaments appear, how- 
ever, to have been appended to the trappings or harness of horses, and one 
specimen belonging to Mr. Nichols has preserved the adjustment by which 
it had been attached to the leather. In a MS. preserved in Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, there is a drawing which represents a charger thus capa- 
risoned ; the peytrell, or breast-band, has a row of these scutcheons ap- 
pended to it all around the horse's breast 1 . 

Mr. Figg, of Lewes, sent a drawing of the effigy found February 13, 
within the grounds of Lewes Priory, nearly on the top of the north side 
of the railway slope. He stated that the mail had evidently been gilt ; 
the surcote was covered with a white ground, and the blue coloured upon 
that ; the armorial bearings with a black substance, and coloured a reddish 
yellow to receive the gilding. The belts were both coloured vermillion, 
with gilded ornaments, and the lining of the surcote was vermillion. This 
effigy much resembles that in the Temple church, as shewn in pi. 9 of 

1 The shelf mark of this MS. is R. 16. 2. 



Effiy found at Lewes. 

Richardson's Monumental Effigies, which is supposed to represent Robert 
de Ros, surnamed Fursan, who died in 1227. 

Unfortunately, the head and the greater part of the legs of this effigy 
are missing; but what remains of it 
shews the legs were crossed, the left over 
the right. This portion of it is 2 ft. 
9 in. long, of Wealden marble, and well 
cut. It represents a knight of the time of 
Henry III., and bears a general resem- 
blance to the effigy in the Temple church, 
referred to by Mr. Figg. The hauberk 
is of what is called ring mail, the rings 
being set edgewise, and not interlaced. 
The courses of the rings run horizontally; 
those of each course inclining, as is usual, 
in the opposite direction to the next. The 
sleeve of the hauberk is somewhat loose. 
The surcote, which no doubt was long 
as well as full, retains at places, and 
especially about the shoulders and on the 
left side between the waist and sword 
belts, portions of blue on a white ground ; 
and within a fold, at the lower part towards the left side, is a cross botone 
2^ in. long, probably once gilt, no portion of the gold remaining on it. The 
surcote is confined round the waist, but the waist belt does not appear. 
The shield is much broken : no colour or device is perceptible upon it. 
Between it and the body is the greater part of the sword ; the pomel of 
which came nearly as high as the arm-pit. The right hand, covered 
with a muffler shewing a thumb but no fingers, rests on the breast. 
Judging from such details as remain, the execution of this effigy may 
be referred to the middle of the thirteenth century, or a few years 

Mr. M. A. Lower has conjectured, on the authority of the blue and 
the cross upon the surcote, that the arms were those of the great family 
of Braose, " azure, crusille or, a lion rampant crowned of the second," 
and that the effigy represented John de Braose, who died 1232, by a 
fall from his horse. The costume and supposed date would agree with 
this, but there is no evidence of his being buried at Lewes, and 
Mr. Blaauw suggests that, as he died at Bramber, he would more 
probably have been buried, as his father was, in the neighbouring monastery 
of Sele, founded by his ancestor. 

The well-known arms of the Beauchamps would also account for the 
cross, and there was probably a Robert de Beauchamp buried at Lewes ; 
his widow Dionysia granting the monks a yearly sum to pray for his 
soul; but as he belonged to the Beauchamps of Hacche, in Somersetshire, 



their arms were entirely different, " vairy." The effigy might 
be connected with the Warennes by considering it as one of 
the Barr family, whose arms were " azure semee of cross cross- 
lets, two barbies hauriant endorsed, or." John, the 8th Earl 
de Warenne, at the invitation of King Edward I., married in 
1305, Joanna, daughter of Henry, Earl of Barr, by the Princess 
Eleanor, the king's daughter. He died 1347, and was buried 
under a raised tomb near the high altar of the priory church at 
Lewes, not far from the spot where the effigy was discovered. 
This earl bore the arms of Barr on his seals ; in one case 
surrounding his own chequers, in another on separate escut- 
cheons. (Watson's Warren, v. i. pi. 2.) If the costume is too 
early to agree with the earl, it is possible that some one of 
the Barr family in a preceding generation may have been 
buried at Lewes. 

Mr. Blaauw, Local Secretary, brought for the 
inspection of the Institute the lid of the leaden 
cist, recently discovered at Lewes, on which is 
A inscribed the name of GUNDEADA, the supposed 
" daughter of William the Conqueror. The accom- 
panying engraving of this inscription has been 
executed from a drawing carefully reduced. 
Judging by the character of the letters, and also 
by the fretted cord-moulding which ornaments 
the cist itself, it can scarcely be referred to a 
date more ancient than the first half of the 
thirteenth century. Mr. Blaauw also exhibited 
a careful rubbing of the incised slab, in memory 
of Gundrada, which once formed part of the 
Shirley monument in Isfield church ; it is of the 
same period as the cist. The expression " Stirps 
Gundrada Ducum" is most important; it confirms 
the conclusion of Mr. Stapleton, as to the parent- 
age of Gundrada, and proves, in some degree, that 
when this memorial was executed, the real 
descent of the consort of William de Warenne 
was well known. 

The annexed representation of an altar-tomb (see woodcut, 
next page,) discovered in the church of St. Stephen, Bristol, in 
May, 1844, is engraved from a drawing furnished by Mr. J. 
G. Jackson. 

In repewing the church, and on removing the wall lining, a recessed and 
canopied altar-tomb was discovered under one of the windows in the north 
aisle. The male effigy is habited in a close tunic buttoned down the front, 
and reaching to the thighs. A studded belt encircles the waist, buckled, 




and the end hanging downwards towards the knee, but no sword is 
attached. From the right side, however, there appears to have been sus- 
pended some weapon or implement. No vesture is indicated on the thighs 
or legs ; the markings of the toes appear, but a sandal is worn, having a 
button shewing between the great and first toe. The female has a square- 
shaped head dress, with a cloth passing round the chin. A cloak is 

Monument, St. Stephen's. Bristol. 

fastened at the neck, and falls across the upper part of the arms, and 
a flowing garment under this cloak reaches to the feet, which rest upon 
a dog, those of the male being placed upon a lion, the head of which is 
gone. The tomb is divided into six compartments by ogee-headed niches, 
each containing a figure so much mutilated as to allow of no certain 
delineation of form or dress. Four of these retain portions of their original 
colour, but from the two nearest the head of the figure, this appears to 
have been removed, as are also all the devices from the shields between 
the canopies. The tomb is surmounted by a large ogee-headed canopy, 
enriched by rosettes, which run down the jambs to the plinth. The 
ceiling is formed into two compartments by a single rib, having a large 
boss in the centre, and terminating on floriated corbels. The two figures 
are well executed, but the decorative part is coarsely finished. The label- 
finial, and angular buttresses have, it is believed, been added since the dis- 
covery. The base of the monument stands 2 feet below the present floor of 
the church. 



It has been conjectured that the effigies on this tomb represent John 
Shipward, mayor of Bristol in 1455, and Catharine his wife. He died in 
1473, and was buried in the church. The east window formerly contained 
painted glass, and under two figures was the following inscription : " Orate 
pro animabus Johannis Shipward et Catharinse Uxoris ejus, qui 
Johannes istam fenestram fecit, et fuit specialis benefactor hujus ec- 
clesise." It has however been urged, that the very existence of the above 
described inscription and the effigies renders it improbable that there 
was any other monument to Shipward ; none is named by Barrett, or 
Camden, the former of whom gives moreover a list of monuments. 

On the 1st of June in the same year, the single 
effigy here figured was discovered in the south wall 
of the church, from whence it has been removed 
and refixed on the north side, and westward of the 
above described monument. It has an inscription on 
the north side of the slab, but this being next to the 
wall is unfortunately invisible. 

The Rev. W. H. Gunner, of Winchester, Local 
Secretary, communicated an impression of a sepul- 
chral brass, of the fifteenth century, in the church 
of Wyke, Hants, representing the figure of St. 
Christopher, a subject which is not of usual occur- 
rence on sepulchral memorials. (See woodcut in 
next page.) 

Dr. Bromet exhibited a rubbing from a credence- 
table on the south side of the chancel of Brabourne 
church, Kent. It is of black marble, and is sculp- 
tured with a cross inscribed in a circle, flanked with, 
apparently, the matrices of inscriptions on brass. 

Dr. Bromet submitted also a rubbing from a brass 
in Godalming church to the memory of John Barker, 
Esq., who died in 1595. It is remarkable as shewing 
the form of sword-hilt and the cutlace or dagger of 
that period. 

Mr. Gunner called the attention of the Committee 
to an interesting crypt, which he presumed to be of 
late Norman work, in the cellars of the Angel Inn, 
in the High-street, Guildford. Mr. Gunner stated that he was not aware 
that any notice of this relic of antiquity had been published, except in 
a local work. 

This crypt is 35 ft. in length by 19 ft. in breadth. It is divided 
down the centre by two piers supporting the groining of the roof, 
which consists of cross-ribs and springers, without bosses at the points of 
intersection. The soffits of the arches are quite flat, with the edges plainly 
chamfered. The piers are without imposts or capitals : the ends of the 
vaulting ribs dying off in them, but resting on corbel-heads in the walls. 

St. Stephen's. Bristol. 


Its present height is about 10 ft., the 
span of the arches lengthwise 9 ft. 
3 in., breadthwise 8 ft. 3 in. The 
present height of the piers is 5 ft. 7 in 
to the spring of the arch, and their 
circumference about 4 ft. 6 in. The 
bases appear to have been cased in 
later times with a thick coating of 
cement, as they are out of all propor- 
tion to the rest of the pier, both in 
size and height. The crypt is en- 
tered from the north (through a cellar, 
in which are large remains of ancient 
masonry) by a doorway with a pointed 
arch, the height of which is 6 ft. 4 in. 
The thickness of the wall in this part 
is 5 ft. Mr. Gunner was informed 
that another crypt, of smaller dimen- 
sions, existed under a house on the 
opposite side of the street, higher up 
the hill. The popular opinion is that 
this crypt belonged to the castle of 
Guildford, but its situation is with- 
out all the exterior defences of the 

Mr. Boutell, Local Secretary, and 
Secretary of the St. Alban's Architectu- 
ral Society,communicated the discovery 
in the easternmost extremity of the 
south aisle of the abbey church at St. 
Alban's, of the remains of two windows, 
which had long been built up exter- 
nally into the main wall of the church, 
and which appear to have communi- 
cated between the church and some 
lateral chapel now destroyed, in a 
manner similar to the arrangement of Brass - w y ke church, Haut*. 

the chapel between the buttresses of King's chapel at Cambridge. On 
opening the ground, now forming part of a public way, the foundations 
of the destroyed chapel were found, and also an enclosed vault. The 
windows thus restored to the abbey church are each of two lights, cinque- 
foiled in the head, and the stonework still retains its original colouring, 
the blue, green, scarlet, black, and gold, being both distinct and vivid. 
In the casement-moldfi, the legend " Domine miserere" occurs painted 
in a fine bold black letter, and alternating with large flowers. And in 
a similar molding at the eastern extremity of the remains, is a group of 

lere \ittl) toill'm Complpn 
Sc 2lnnes f)ts toife p e a&Uricfye 
toill'm tteccssiU t?' nj Bap of 
mapf p e pere of oure lortJ 
mc.c.c.clixxxbiii. Qlzo u)is fcc 
?e fccBis p 1 >e satD toill'm f>nu) 
Boton to tfjis (Hjurdf) of JKRtfee 
D* is to sap frcst BeBpcadon 
of p e fcuuf) xl 8 & to mafee 
mtoe tellia to p e sam 
x ; also gabe to iv 
of B e grettcst bell bj". biif.B. 
8c for p e itstimonjjall' of tfje 
Brtiicacfon of p e sam CDfjurd) 
bj* bin. ft. on toftos soulcs 
ifju fiaue mercp 3lnun. 



five roses, with their stalks and leaves, cut in 
high relief, and still very perfect: these roses 
were evidently coloured red upon their outer 
leaves, their enclosed centres being white ; and 
indeed there is a strong probability that the 
entire flowers were originally coloured white, 
the red portions appearing to have been laid 
over the white. This is a very curious circum- 
stance, as the chapel was probably the work 
of abbot Wallingford, who succeeded to the 
abbacy in the year 1 476, and died very shortly 
after the battle of Bosworth-fiekl, having pre- 
sided over this monastery from the commence- 
ment to the close of the Yorkist ascendency. 
An engraving of these remains, coloured exactly 
after the original stonework, will very shortly 
be published by the St.Alban's Architectural Society. 

We most readily avail ourselves of the opportunity afforded by 
Mr. Boutell's interesting communication, to supply an accidental omission 
in the eighth number of the Archaeological Journal, and to acknow- 
ledge the friendly disposition exhibited towards the Institute by the 
recently formed Architectural Society of St. Alban's. To their liberality 
we were indebted for the loan of the admirable wood engraving of the 
fresco representing the incredulity of St. Thomas, recently discovered in 
the abbey church, presented to our members in that number of the Journal. 
The Committee of the Institute regard with much satisfaction the recent 
formation of this and similar local associations, for the praiseworthy 
object of preserving and elucidating antiquarian remains, and their satis- 
faction is greatly increased by the consideration that these societies, and 
first among them the Architectural Society of St. Alban's, have mani- 
fested the most kindly feeling towards the Institute, and volunteered 
their most cordial co-operation in promoting its views. The first anni- 
versary of the St. Alban's Society will occur on June 17, and, being 
held in a place so replete with interest to the lover of Medieval Architec- 
ture, an agreeable and instructive meeting may be expected under the Earl 
of Verulam's presidency. 

Mr. W. S. Walford communicated a letter from the Rev. C. Boys, of 
Wing, on the remains of coped coffin-lids on the churchyard walls of 
Lyddington in Rutlandshire, and Castor in Northamptonshire. As we 
shall recur to this subject at a future time, it will be sufficient to observe 
at present, that Mr. Boys found the remains of seventeen coped slabs at 
Lyddington, on which ornament could be distinctly traced, and two at 
Castor. Mr. Boys forwarded sketches of two of the coped lids at 
Lyddington. One of these was sculptured with an elaborate cross- 
flory ; the other presented an example of that peculiar style of monu- 
mental effigy which occurs during the fourteenth century ; a tre foiled 


aperture is cut in the slab to shew the head and bust of the body sup- 
posed to lie beneath, the remaining surface of the stone being decorated, 
as in this case, with a cross, or with armorial bearings, as on the tomb 
of Sir William de Staunton, in Staunton church, Notts. Other ex- 
amples of this fashion occur at Brampton, in Derbyshire, and at Aston 
Ingharn, in Herefordshire. 

Mr. Wykeham Archer exhibited drawings from the frescoes recently 
discovered in Carpenter's Hall ; and from the statues of King Lud and his 
two sons, formerly in niches on the eastern front of Lud-gate. Sir Richard 
Westmacott observed, that although these statues had been considered as of 
great antiquity, he thought, from their pseudo-classical costume, that they 
were not older than the seventeenth century. But Dr. Bromet was of opinion 
that, from their style, their heads were as old as A.D. 1260, when Stow says, 
Ludgate " was beautified with images of Lud and other kings," and which, 
having been smitten off at the Reformation, were, in Mary's time, replaced, 
and so remained till 1586, in which year the gate was newly built, with the 
images of Lud and others, as before. He thought it probable, however, 
that the bodies and limbs of these statues are not older than 1666, when 
the gate, which had been damaged by the fire, was again repaired ; and 
having been used as a prison until 1761, was finally taken down, and its 
statues deposited in the small churchyard adjoining, whence they were 
removed to their present situation, in the gardens of the Hertford villa in 
the Regent's Park. 

Amongst various antiquities and curious objects, communicated by 
Mr. George Grant Francis, Local Secretary for South Wales, from the 
collection of the Royal Institution at Swansea, was a die, supposed to have 
been found near that town, formed of coarse whitish clay, coated with a 
blue glaze. Each of the six sides bore a letter, 
as here represented, indicating the amount of 
gain or loss ; this object having evidently been 
used as a plaything in place of the te-to-tum, 
and thrown with the hand or with a dice-box, 
the T denoting turn again, the A all, N 
nothing, &c. It has been conjectured that 
this may be the plaything formerly termed a 
Daly. " Daly or play, tessura, alea, decius." 
Promptorium Parvulorum. Horman says, in the Vulgaria, that " men 
play with three dice, and children with four dalies astragulis vel talis. 
Wolde god I coude nat play at the dalys, aleam. Cutte this flesshe into 
daleys, tessellas." In the British Museum there is preserved a die, having 
eighteen rectangular faces, six of which are marked with the following 
letters, TA LS SZ NG NH ND, and the intervening sides are 
marked with picks, like an ordinary die, up to the number twelve. The 

m Engraved in Stothard's Monumental Effigies. There is an open trefoil which 
displays his feet also. 



eight corners, being canted off, form triangular facets, which bear no marks. 
This object is supposed to be of German origin. 

A curious, and singularly beautiful, gold ornament, supposed to be of 
early British workmanship, was found 
in the year 1836, by a peasant girl, 
whilst cutting turf on or near Cader 
Idris, Merionethshire. Nothing was 
discovered with it, to assist in deter- 
mining its date or use. The annexed 
representation is of the exact size of 
the original, communicated to the Insti- 
tute by the Rev. R. Gordon, and the 
ornament itself is in the possession of 
the Rev. J. H. Davies, Sodington, 
Worcestershire. It consists of two 
small cups, elegantly ornamented with 
filagree, and connected by a slender 
central wire, on which slide two small 

disks, which serve as coverings of the cups. It has been conjectured 
that it had been used in place of a fibula or fastening of some article of 

The Rev. John Wilson, Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, exhibited 
several fragments of encaustic tiles, which were found with other objects, 
including part of an iron spur and a silver penny of Edward III., in the 
parish of Oddington, in Oxfordshire, upon removing some old foundations 
in a large pasture field on the "Grange Farm." What the buildings had 
been was totally unknown, but as the traces of them were visibly marked 
by the inequalities of the turf, the removal of part of what was left took 
place in consequence of the tenant's wish to use the stones for other pur- 
poses. Mr. Wilson observed, that the discovery of these fragments of tiles 
afforded, in conjunction with other circumstances, a clue to that which has 
hitherto been a desideratum the true site of the monastery known to have 
existed in the parish of Oddington. 

Sir Robert Gait, Knight, Lord of the manor of Hampton, now called 
Hampton Gay, possessed, we are told n , a fourth part of the village of 
Ottendun (villa de Ottendun) ; and going to Gilbert, abbot of Waverley, 
the earliest Cistercian house in England, desired and obtained leave to 
build an abbey, of the same order, in the village of Ottendun, which 
accordingly he raised at his own charge, and endowed it with five virgates 
of land, which made the fourth part of a knight's fee, and called it, from 
the name of an adjoining wood, Ottelie. The abbot and convent of 
Waverley added to the endowment one hide in Norton ; and Editha, wife 
of Robert de Oyley, Avith her husband's consent, gave out of part of her 
own dowry in Weston, bordering upon Otmoor, that demesne which lay 
on the corner of their wood, and continued on without the intermixture 
n Kennett, P. A. i. 12(5, and authorities there cited. Monast. v. 401. 


of any other lands ; the quantity of which was thirty-six acres. The 
words of the grant, as given in the Monasticon, are these : " Notum sit 
omnibus sanctse matris ecclesise filiis, quod ego Editha Roberto de Oily 
conjugali copulo juncta, consilio et vohmtate ejusdem Roberti mariti mei, 
de duario meo de Weston, dedi in perpetuam elemosinam Deo et sanctse 
Marise et fratribus in Oteleia secundum institutionem Cistercii virentibus, 
dominium illud, quod extremitati nemoris illorum absque alterius teme 
intermixtione continuatur ." 

We do not find the precise date of Sir Robert Gait's house ; but as the 
foundation of Waverley Abbey was laid Nov. 24, 1128, in the twenty- 
ninth year of Henry the First?, and Gilbert succeeded John, the first abbot 
thereof, who died within the year of his appointment 1, it could hardly be 
earlier than 1130; and the fraternity having been removed by Alexander, 
Bishop of Lincoln, to the neighbourhood of Thame, in the same county, 
(some ruins of their house there now belonging to the Baroness Wenman, 
are engraved by Skelton in his Antiquities of Oxfordshire,) and their church 
dedicated to St. Mary on July 21st, 1138 r , the monks must have dwelt 
a very short time at Oddington ; at the utmost, not more than seven or 
eight years, and probably less. Their buildings would, consequently, be 

With respect to the situation of these, Leland 8 indefinitely remarks, 
" in this Ottemar was the foundation of Tame abbey ;" and Bishop 
Kennett, in quoting the observation 1 , seems to imagine that the abbey 
was in Otmoor itself, the corner nearest to the village of Oddington ; " the 
religious," he proceeds to say, " always affected such low places, out of 
pretence to the more solitary living, but rather out of love to fish and fat 
land ; and this site upon the moor was fitter for an ark than a monastery." 
The spot which the Bishop indicates, is generally thought to have been 
by a small pond below the old rectory house, pulled down some years 
since ; but the error in this is so obvious, that it is surprising a writer of 
such eminence, living, as he did, some time in the neighbourhood, should 
have made it ; for no traces of buildings have been found there ; and if 
we refer to the particulars of the foundation we shall discover no pro- 
bability of any wood called Ottelie, or any other, having been near ; 
and instead of the land of Weston adjoining it, that parish lies quite in 
another direction. 

The pasture field, in which the remains were found, corresponds, on the 
contraiy, in every point with the spot chosen by Sir Robert Gait, and 
referred to in the charter of Edith. It is a very large piece of ground, near 
the farm house, running along the edge of Weston parish, and is even now 
in so rough a state as to be nearly as much " a lea" as it ever was. The 
name of the farm, " The Grange," implies that it was once monastic 
property. The field itself adjoins Weston parish and wood, which latter 

' Monast. v. 404. P Monast. v. 237. q Monast. v. 237. 

1 Keimett, P. A. i. 128. Monast. v. 403. IV. 191 a. * P. A. i. 128. 


may have been, and probably was, part of that anciently called Ottelie, and 
the dowry lands of Edith in Weston might therefore very well run up, 
" without the intermixture of any other lands," to the " nemus" or grove of 
the monks, which would be that growing about their habitation. There 
are also remains of buildings here, and fragments of them are of an eccle- 
siastical description. For all these reasons, it seems extremely probable that 
the site of the original monastery at Oddington was at the Grange Farm, 
under Weston wood, and not on the border of the moor, below the de- 
stroyed parsonage house. 

One remark may, perhaps, be permitted on a point of etymology. Sir 
Robert Gait is said to have called his new foundation Ottelie, from the 
name of an adjoining wood. Of this word, the latter part, lie or lea, 
would probably describe the nature of the ground where the building was 
placed; so that we have Otte\eft for the name of the wood ; and Whitaker, 
in his History of Manchester, interprets Otta-dini to denote the people in 
the woods, so that Otte would seem to be the general British term for a 
wood. If this conjecture be well founded, Ottelie would signify, the lea 
or open ground before the wood ; Ottendun, now Oddington, the hill or 
rising ground amongst the woods, the village being, in fact, on rising 
ground, above the general level of its immediate neighbourhood ; and 
Otmoor, the mere or lake of the wood, or fringed with wood, a description, 
which, as far as can be judged, could very correctly apply to it in former 

The portrait of Queen Elizabeth appears to have been placed in certain 
churches, probably from veneration for her memory, and according to Stow 
it was designated in the churches of London as the Monument. It is 
doubtful whether this practice was sanctioned or enjoined by any authority, 
and it does not appear to have been generally adopted. Mr. Jabez Allies 
communicated a description of a portrait of the Queen, found by him in the 
old farm-house, called the Lower Berrow, in Suckley parish, Worcester- 
shire ; which, as he had reason to believe, had been formerly suspended in 
the church. It exhibits the usual magnificence of costume, and is thug 
inscribed, " Posvi Devm adiutorem mevm. JEt : svse 59. Nata Gronewi- 
ciae, Ao: 1533, Septem: 6." Under her left elbow appears an open book, 
with a quotation from Psalm xl. 11. This portrait was painted in the year 
1592. Mr. Allies remarked that great discrepancy is found in the state- 
ments of various historians in regard to the day of Elizabeth's birth, here 
recorded to have taken place Sept. 6." Mr. Allies stated, at the same time, 
that at a cottage in the hamlet of Alfrick, he had noticed a basin of free- 
stone, resembling a holy-water stoup, which, as he conjectured, had been 
brought from the parish church of Suckley, or Alfrick Chapel ; it was 
ornamented with two sculptured heads, one apparently intended as a 
representation of the Blessed Virgin. 

" According to Sandford, Rapin, and Hume, Elizabeth was born on Sept. 7, other 
writers give the 8th. 



BY the CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, The Series of their Publi- 
Series of their Publications, vols. I. VIII. By the REV. C. LUKIS, Specimens 
of Church Plate, 4to., 1845. By W. J. THOMS, Esq., F.S.A., Anselme, Le 
Palais de L'Honneur, Paris, 1668, 4to. By ALBERT WAY, Esq., Tacitus 
Ernesti, 2 torn., Leipsic, 1772 ; Memoires de Philippe de Comines, 5 torn., 
1723, 8vo. ; Menestrier, La Nouvelle Methode du Blason, 1750, 24mo. ; 
Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum, abridged edition, 1718, fol. ; Camden's 
Remaines, 1605, 4to. ; Palgrave's History of the Anglo-Saxons, 1831 ; 
Cotgrave's French and English Dictionary, by Howell, 1650, fol.; Hall's 
Chronicle, reprint, London, 1809, 4to. ; Brayley's Graphic Illustrator, 
1834, 4to. ; Britton and Pugin's Illustrations of the Public Buildings of 
London, 2 vols., 1825-1828. By the REV. DR. HOOK, An Ecclesiastical 
Biography, vol. i., 1845. By EVELYN P. SHIRLEY, Esq., M.P., Some 
Account of the Territory or Dominion of Farney, in the Province and 
Earldom of Ulster, 1845, 4 to. ; "Inventorie of all the Goods, Cattails &c. 
of Sir Rauff Shirley," of Leicestershire, Knt., A.D. 1517, 4to. By GEORGE 
GRANT FRANCIS, Esq., of Swansea, Some Account of Sir Hugh Johnys, 
Deputy Knight Marshal of England, temp. Henry VI. and Edward IV., 
1845, 8vo. By JOHN RICHARD WALBRAN,. Esq., The Pictorial Guide 
to Ripon and Harrogate, 1845, 12mo. By JABEZ ALLIES, Esq., F.S.A., 
Essay on the Ignis Fatuus, or Will-o'-the-Wisp and the Faries, 1846, 
8vo. By the AUTHOR, A Lecture on the Ancient Customs of the City 
of Hereford, by Richard Johnson, Town Clerk, 1845, 12mo. By JOHN 
MARTIN, Esq., Librarian to the Duke of Bedford, Heraldry of Fish, by 
Thomas Moule, 1842, 8vo. By MR. W. A. CHURCH, Patterns of Inlaid 
Tiles, from Churches in the Diocese of Oxford, 1845, 4to. By the 
AUTHORESS, The Art of Fresco Painting, as practised by the old Italian 
and Spanish Masters, by Mrs. Merrifield, 1846, 8vo. By the AUTHOR, 
Xanthian Marbles : The Nereid Monument : an Historical and Mythologi- 
cal Essay, by William Watkiss Lloyd, 1845, 8vo. By the REV. J. L. 
PETIT, Train's Historical and Statistical Account of the Isle of Man, 2 
vols., 1845, 8vo. By the REV. GEORGE MOUNTJOY WEBSTER, D.D., 
Mona Antiqua Restaurata, by Rowlands, 1723, 4to. By J. WINTER 
JONES, Esq., Gorii Opuscula Varia, 2 torn. 1751, 8vo. By CHARLES 
NEWTON, Esq., Whitaker's Ancient Cathedral History of Cornwall, 2 vols., 
1804, 4to. ; Liber Psalmorum, Lat. et Ang. Sax., ed. B. Thorpe, 1835, 
8vo.; Murphy's Tacitus, 1830, 8vo. ; Knight's Normans in Sicily, 1838, 
12mo. ; The Poetical Works of Lewis Glyn Cothi, 1837, 8vo. ; A Glossary 
of Provincial Words used in Herefordshire, 1839, 12mo. ; Nicolas's 


Synopsis of the Peerage, 2 vols., 1825, 12mo. ; Architectural Notes on 
German Churches, by Professor Whewell, 1835, 8vo. ; Chronicon Ricardi 
Divisiensis, (printed by the English Historical Society,) 1838, 8vo. ; Ash- 
mole's History of the Order of the Garter, 1715, 8vo. ; Lewis's Illustra- 
tions of Kilpeck Church, 1841, 4to. ; Select Papyri, in the Hieratic charac- 
ter, from the Collection in the British Museum, parts I. II. and III., fol. 
By the AUTHOR, History of the House of D'Oyly, by William D'Oyly 
Bay ley, pt. I., 1845, 8vo. By the AUTHOR, Avranchin Monumental et 
Historique, par Edouard Le Hericher, Honorary Member of the Institute ; 
Avranches, 1845, 8vo. By ME. J. H. PARKER, Barr's Anglican Church 
Architecture, 1846, 8vo. ; A Companion to the fourth edition of the 
Glossary of Architecture, 1846, 8vo. By the EDITOR, " The Athenaeum" 
for the months of January and February, 1846. By the EDITOR, Archseo- 
logia Cambrensis, No. I. 

Views of Castle Ashby Church, Northamptonshire, and of the castles of 
Gennezano and Tivoli in Italy. Presented by the MARQUIS OF NOR- 

Cast of a portion of an inscription on a screen formerly in the church of 
Llanvair-Waterdine, Shropshire. (See Archaeological Journal, vol. ii. p. 269.) 

Cast of part of the armorial bearings of Sir Humphry RadclifFe, second 
son of Robert, first earl of Sussex, from his monument over the altar of 
the church of Elstow. Presented by JOHN MARTIN, Esq. 

Specimens of pottery, of late Roman manufacture, discovered at Alton, 
Hants. Presented by the REV. BRYMER BELCHER. 

Antiquities discovered in Ireland, including celts of stone and bronze, a 
bronze harp-key, a wooden mether, brooches and various personal ornaments. 
Presented by EVELYN PHILIP SHIRLEY, Esq., M.P. 

Tracings of painted glass in the library of Queen's College, Cambridge. 
Presented by SEYMOUR E. MAJOR, Esq. 

Numerous impressions from sepulchral brasses. Presented by JOHN 
BRANDRAM, Esq. ; Mr. W. A. STEABLER ; and R. P. PULLAN, Esq. 

A collection of casts and impressions of ancient seals. Presented by 

A small collection of impressions of conventual and personal seals, chiefly 
foreign. Presented by W. F. VERNON, Esq. 

A collection of engravings and etchings of cathedral, abbey, and collegi- 
ate churches, from the drawings of John Buckler, Esq. Presented by 

Lithograph of a sculptured stone, formerly in the old chapel burying- 
ground at Auldbar, Brechin, mentioned by Pennant, and described in 
Pinkerton's Correspondence, ii. p. 412; Lithograph of the font at Auldbar. 
Presented by PATRICK CHALMERS, Esq. 

Representations of specimens of the ancient ring-money of Ireland. 
Presented by EDWARD HOARE, Esq., of Cork. 


A tinted engraving from the fresco painting of the incredulity of St. 
Thomas, recently discovered in the abbey church, St. Alban's. Presented 
by the REV. C. BOTJTELL. 

The annexed engraving is a corrected plan of the shape and arrange- 
ment of the foundation tiles, discovered during the recent excavations on 
the site of the Roman villa at Wheatley, near Oxford, and described in the 
Archaeological Journal, vol. ii. p. 354. It has been ascertained that these 
tiles are certainly flat, as Dr. Buckland described them to be, the curve in 
one of them which deceived the experienced eye of Mr. Orlando Jewitt, 
being merely the result of the baking. 

The Central Committee of the Archaeological Institute regret, that in 
preparing the List of Members for the eighth number of the Archaeological 
Journal, the names of the following gentlemen were inserted, contrary to 
the wish subsequently intimated by them to the Secretaries of the Institute. 

Anthony, Redmond, Piltown, Ireland. 
Ashmore, Thomas, Bishopsgate Street. 
Bateman, Thomas, Yograve. 
Bridger, Edward, Finsbury Circus. 
Burkitt, A. H., Clapham Rise. 
Culhane, Dr., Dartford. 
Edwards, Dr., Huddersfield. 
Elliott, James, Dym church. 
H alii well, Rev. Thomas, Wrington. 
Ilammon, Henry J., Threadneedle Street. 
Hut chins, Rev. A. B., Andover. 

Jackson, Joseph, Settle. 
Keate, Edwin, Kensington. 
Lindsay, John, Cork. 
Price, E. B., Cow Cross Street. 
Rogers, S. S., Douglas. 
Rosser, W. H., F.S.A., Pentonville. 
Sandys, Charles, Canterbury. 
Smart, T. W., Cranborne. 
Stothard, H., Charter House. 
Sydenham, John, Greenwich. 
Waller, John G., Charles Street. 
Wickham, H., Strood. 

Notices of N*fo publications. 

PROVINCE AND EARLDOM OF ULSTER. By Evelyn Philip Shirley, Esq., 
M.A., one of the Knights of the Shire for the County of Monaghan. 
Pickering, 4to. 

THE Barony of Farney, so termed from the ancient Irish designation, 
"the plain of the Alder-trees," the aboriginal growth which covered the 
low marshy lands and margins of standing waters in an extensive district 
of central Ireland, was a division of the ancient territory of Oriel, or 
M'Mahon's country, which was subdivided into five baronies in the reign 
of Elizabeth. Mr. Shirley has collected from the most ancient records 
the annals of Donegal and of Ulster, commencing as early as the fourth 
century ; the few scattered evidences relating to the habits of the earlier 
inhabitants, records which tell only of rapine and bloodshed, of internal 
strife and lawless aggressions. The existence of earthen forts, or Lis, 
crowning every eminence in the district of Farney, to the number of 220 
and upwards, as also of the curious remains of abodes of petty chieftains, 
placed for security on natural or artificial islands in the numerous loughs 
of that country, and termed Crannoges, bear a striking testimony to the 
truth of the " Annals of the Four Masters," and other early memorials of 
Irish history, upon which attention has as yet been insufficiently bestowed. 
Amongst these a curious record exists in relation to the rights of the tribes 
and chiefs of the district, and the privileges claimed by the king and people 
of Oriel : it is found in the " Book of Lecan," compiled about the twelfth 
century. The subsidies payable by the monarch of Island to the king of 
Oriel, and other subordinate reguli, and their liabilities to their inferior 
chieftains, are therein detailed : the chief of Farney appears to have been 
entitled to six loricas, and as many cups, shields, swords, women-slaves and 
chess-boards. The introduction of the game of chess at so early a period, 
in a country torn by rapine and disorder, might have been questioned, 
although Mr. Petrie is possessed of two chess-men discovered in Ireland, 
considered to be of no less ancient a date than the eleventh century, but 
the fact appears to be established by the curious record now for the first 
time published. The indefatigable research of Mr. Shirley has brought to 
light many curious memorials relating to the occurrences of the period 
antecedent to the Norman invasion, as well as of succeeding centuries ; and 
the history of Farney, although properly forming a monograph of a limited 
district, may be viewed by general readers with interest as a faithful picture 
of the civil strife and fatal disunion by which the prosperity of this fertile 
land was blasted. The Lis of the primeval inhabitants gave place to the 
more scientifically constructed fortresses of de Courcy, and the Anglo- 
Norman occupants, but still Avas each man's hand upraised against his 


neighbour, and the oppression of the more civilized invader tended only 
to aggravate miseries which had arisen from anarchy and barbarism. 

It is, however, a remarkable fact, which can only be appreciated by 
examination of such collections of Irish antiquities, as the Museum of the 
Royal Irish Academy, that certain decorative arts, the craft of working in 
bronze and other metals, of producing elaborate ornaments of filagree or 
enamel, appear to have flourished in Ireland at a remote period, even amidst 
the aggravated miseries of that ill-fated country. These ornaments present 
great variety in form and design, and are for the most part marked by a 
peculiar character, distinguishing them from objects considered as of con- 
temporary date, found in other countries of Europe. Several vestiges of 
the earliest period are yet to be traced in the barony of Farney, such as 
the remains of Druidical circles, trenches with a double row of great stones, 
about 40 feet in length, to which the popular name of the " Giants' graves" 
has been applied, and various 
stones of memorial, with which 
certain traditions are connected. 
The maul or hammer-head, form- 
ed of horn-stone, one of the best 
specimens which have been found 
in Ireland, and of which a re- 
presentation, reduced to one half 
of the original size, is here pre- 
sented to our readers, is remark- 
able on account of its peculiar 
form, and the skilful precision 
with which so hard a substance 
has been fashioned and polished. 
This object was found in a bog 
near the banks of Lough Fea a . 

In another of those great treasuries of remains illustrative of the habits of 
the primitive inhabitants of the country, a curious boat, formed of the hol- 

lowed trunk of an oak tree, was found ; it measured 12 feet in length, and 
3 feet in breadth, and was furnished with handles at the extremities, evidently 
for facility of transport from one lough to another, in a district where so 

a Hatchet-shaped weapons, or imple- 
ments formed of flint or other hard stone, 
are of frequent occurrence ; but the form 
of the specimen ahove represented is very 

uncommon. See Remarks on Stone Axes 
and Hammers, by Bishop Lyttleton and 
Pegge, Archaeol., vol. ii. pp. 118, 124, 


large a portion of the surface was covered by waters, which, as it has been 
observed, served to secure the insulated dwelling-places of the chieftains of 
Monaghan from hostile surprise. 

The numerous objects formed of bronze, which have been found in 
Ireland, display remarkable skill in the art of casting and working that 
metal. The beautiful specimen, of which a representation is here given, 

was found at a fort in the Chase at Lough Fea ; it is a bridle, the bit being 
formed of iron, in which respect it is unique ; several bridles of bronze, 
with elegantly foliated ornaments of similar design, have been found in 
Ireland, but in no other instance in a perfect state, with the bit of iron. 

Another curious specimen of skill in the working of metals was disco- 
vered in the barony of Farney, in the year 1834. It is a vessel in the form 
of a caldron, made of six plates of hammered bronze, riveted together with 
pins of the same metal, the heads of which are shaped into points, and serve 
to ornament the exterior surface of the vessel. Its dimensions are 60 inches 
in circumference, at the widest part, by 1 1| inches in height. The culinary 
vessels found in Ireland have usually three feet, being intended for use on 
an open hearth ; the caldron here represented was obviously adapted only 
for suspension over the fire. It was found twelve feet below the surface of 
a bog. (See woodcut in the next page.) 

Amongst the ancient customs of the Irish, illustrated by Mr. Shirley's 
careful researches, the remarkable usage observed at the election of a chief- 



tain, by the ceremony of placing him on a certain stone, may deserve espe- 
cial notice. This usage appears to have been retained so late as the sixteenth 
century b . Spencer, in his View of the state of Ireland, says that " They 
use to place him that shalbe their captaine, upon a stone alwayes reserved 
for that purpose, and placed commonly upon a hill : in some of which I have 
seen formed and ingraven a foot, which they say was the measure of their 
first captaines foot, whereon hee standing, receives an oath to preserve all the 
auncient former customes of the countrey inviolable ; after which, descend- 
ing from the stone, he turneth himself round, thrice forward and thrice 
backward." On the hill of Lech, or of" the Stone," near Monaghan, may 
still be seen the inauguration stone of the Mac-Mahons, under which the 
golden chair of the kings of Ireland is traditionally believed to have been 
deposited : the impression of a foot was effaced by the owner of the farm 
within the present century. The usages observed at the installation of 
chiefs are noticed at great length in " the Customs of Hy-Fiachrach," 
given in the valuable series of publications by the Irish Archaeological 
Society ; but this custom of the Mac-Mahon sept has not been noticed. 
Possibly the singular stone, marked with the print of a gigantic foot, tradi- 
tionally attributed to Fingal, and still to be seen in the neighbourhood of 
Oban, in Argyllshire, may be the vestige of some similar inaugural custom. 
We must refer our readers to the pages of Mr. Shirley's interesting 
work for the detailed account of the superiority assumed by the O'Neils 
over the Mac-Mahon sept, and the settlement of Monaghan by Sir William 
Fitzwilliam, in 1590, compiled from the valuable evidences which are pre- 
served in the State Paper Office. The history of Farney, under the various 
measures devised during the reign of Elizabeth, for the amelioration of the 
distracted state of the country, the relation of the expedition of the earl of 

b Ross Mac-Mahon, as appears by Sir 
William Drury's despatch, Feb. 1578-9, 

was chosen chief of his sept, by this custo- 
mary ceremonial. See p. 73. 

Published "bf John Henry Parker. 0-iford. March 


Essex, and events of subsequent times, are carefully detailed, and illustrated 
by documents drawn from sources of information hitherto almost unex- 

At the close of the volume an alphabetical list of names of the townlands 
of the barony is given, which may well serve to shew the value of such 
minor evidences, too frequently neglected by topographers. The popular 
name of some close, of an ancient track-way, or of some remote dell or 
eminence, traditionally preserved, or noticed in the title-deeds of estates, 
may often supply a link in the chain of evidence which has in vain been 
sought elsewhere by the local historian. 

by the Architectural Society of that Archdeaconry. Number 1 . HICHAM 
FERRERS. -r * r 1 

The Churchyard Cross with the Bede house and Vicarage. Higham Ferrers. 

THE subject of this work can hardly be considered as one of mere local 
interest. The county of Northampton comprises specimens illustrative of 
the progress of Ecclesiastical architecture in England from the rudest and 
earliest efforts to the last decline of the art. Within sight of each other are 
the supposed Saxon tower of Earl's Barton and the beautiful Perpendicular 
church of Whiston, of the sixteenth century ; and within a short distance 
of these, in the district which is now undergoing the careful survey of the 
Northamptonshire Architectural Society, are some of the finest examples 
known of the intermediate styles. Many of these churches are remarkable 
for a fine outline ; and some of them have details of a richness and delicacy 
of execution not easily surpassed. Although they are mostly parochial, 



they present much variety of character. The central tower is not a com- 
mon feature, but of western towers we meet with almost every variety : 
the broach spire, of which Raunds is a magnificent example ; the steeple, 
with the parapet, pinnacles, and flying buttresses, as at Higham and Rush- 
den ; the octagonal lantern, seen at Fotheringhay, Lowick, and Irthling- 
borough ; the square tower, plain, embattled, or finished with a rich capping 
of pinnacles, as at Tichmarsh, present themselves to the eye in succession. 
One of the only four round churches in the kingdom belongs to this county. 
As we look into the interiors, we find in some of the churches new and 
interesting features. The pierced straining arch occurs in more than one 
instance, with excellent effect. There are also a few bell-gables, which 
might be copied to advantage. The late Norman belfry at Northborough, 
and the three-arched gable at Peakirk, may be noticed. It should be re- 
membered also, that the county of Rutland is comprised within the arch- 
deaconry, and consequently forms part of the plan of this work. We need 
scarcely observe, that it is equally celebrated for fine churches with its 

The church which has been selected for the first number of the series is 
in some respects one of the most curious and interesting. Its double nave 
and chancel form an arrangement almost unique ; and the tower and spire, 
though restored in the seventeenth century, after partial destruction, may 
be regarded as authentic, and they are very beautiful specimens of the style 
in which they were originally built. At the entrance, under the tower, " the 
inner doorway is double, being divided by a shaft or pier, an arrangement 
not uncommon in cathedral or conventual churches in this style, but rarely 
met with in parochial buildings. The heads of the two openings are low 
segmental arches having their architraves, as well as the jambs on each 
side, richly ornamented with foliage and small figures : within is a small 
shaft or rather bowtell, with a distinct base, but running uninterruptedly 
into the architrave without any capital. Between the jamb mouldings of 
the two openings, in the centre of the pier formed by them, is a small shaft 
which blossoms, as it were, into a rich capital of foliage without any astra- 
gal ; this supports a large square abacus, the upper moulding of which is 
continued as a string-course over the heads of the two arches, and supports 
the base of a flat trefoil-headed niche ; the statue is gone, and the lower 
part consequently left quite bare, but the upper part is diapered. The 
remainder of the tympanum on each side the niche is filled with circles 
containing sculptures of events in sacred history, five on each side : the 
interstices are filled with foliage." 

Mr. Freeman, to whom the description of this church has been entrusted, 
notices carefully the junction of the old work with that of the later re- 
storations, and the difference of the masonry; this is a matter which, 
in every case, demands our strictest attention, as it may often enable us 
to supply tests of authenticity ; and the modes of construction by which 
old work is made available, even in the carrying out of new designs, are 
not among the least interesting subjects. The researches of Professor 



"Willis at Canterbury and Winchester have opened a new field to the archi- 
tectural antiquary. It may be doubted whether the bulging of the spire is 
a mark, as Mr. Freeman supposes, of the lateness of its erection. Several 
spires, especially in Lincolnshire, are so much sugar-loaved, that we must 
look upon them as so designed and constructed originally, as no possible 
alteration could account for their present form. Of these we may notice 
Caythorpe in Lincolnshire. 

The Decorated windows in this church are principally of the reticulated 
character, which is nowhere uncom- 
mon, and is very prevalent in Nor- 
thamptonshire. This kind of Deco- 
rated window is the one most suc- 
cessfully imitated in the present 
day. Some of the windows have 
ogee heads, a feature somewhat pe- 
culiar to this district. Of the porch, 
" the outer doorway has shafts with 
good moulded capitals, and very 
beautiful foliaged terminations to 
the label ; the inner doorway, though 
mutilated, is a good example of the 
style, and from the use of the square 
abacus, although there is no other 
vestige of Norman character about 
it, would appear to be early in the 
style, and therefore, in all proba- 
bility, the most ancient feature of 
the church. It has four shafts to the 
jambs, and the architrave is well, al- 
though not very richly, moulded. The gable of this porch is not low, but 
has been higher than at present, as appears from the gablet, which is 
adapted to a considerably higher pitch than now exists." 

The church of Higham Ferrers is rich in monumental brasses, and has 
an example of tile-pavement, which is valuable, from the few which remain 
of original arrangement. " The steps which led to the High Altar remain, 
they are covered with indented and encaustic tiles, laid in various patterns, 
one of these being a lozenge formed by a square black tile, scored in 
squares, as a centre, surrounded by four narrow yellow bordering tiles, 
having a small black one at each angle. Another part of the steps is laid 
down with lozenge-shaped tiles. 

" The tiles used here are different from those generally met with ; the 
device or pattern is generally pressed into the soft clay, and the impression 
so produced is filled up with a light-coloured clay previous to the tile being 
glazed ; but in these the outline only of the pattern is pressed into the clay, 
and the whole surface is glazed over of one uniform colour. 

" In the upright part of the steps, or risers, as they are called, three 

d 1'riesta Door. 



patterns of coloured tiles (a lion passant and two heraldick antelopes) are 
used, but these are formed like the rest, the outline of the figure is indented, 
and the figure itself painted on the surface before glazing. These tiles are 
used with two other kinds in a regular alternation as follows : a painted 
tile, a square black tile divided with indented lines into nine squares, the 
centre one being yellow, a narrow yellow bordering tile with two indented 
flowers, the black tile as before, and lastly a painted tile." We under- 
stand that the Society propose to give an engraving of this remarkable 
pavement in the next number. 

" The Font, which is Early English, stands on two circular steps and an 
octagonal base in the north 
aisle. Its shaft is square, 
rounded at the angles, and very 
deeply depressed at the sides, 
so as to give the appearance of 
four shafts around a central 
column. Both the bases and 
capitals of these quasi shafts are 
rudely moulded, and on them 
rests the octagonal bason, of 
unequal faces, and a little wider 
at the top than at the bottom. 
Three of the faces are sculp- 
tured, that facing east with a 
Maltese cross, with the top of a 
staff attached to the lower mem- 
ber, and foliated rays issuing 
from the centre." 

The very careful and accu- 
rate description of the church 
is followed by three or four 
pages called the " Architectural 
History" of it, much of which 
must be considered as Mr. Free- 
man's theory rather than as 
authenticated " history," and we could have wished that some other title 
had been chosen for this essay. For instance, Mr. Freeman asserts as 

matter of "history," that "about 1340 further alterations were made 

Another north aisle was added, the pointed windows of the original aisle 
being removed into the north wall, but to adapt them to its smaller height, 
they were converted into square-headed ones." This statement is opposed 
to the evidence of the building itself : the sections of the mouldings of the 
capitals in this aisle, given in p. 15, are of earlier character than any of the 
others, rather than later, and the alleged alteration of the windows is very 

The other buildings worth notice are the chapel, westward of the church, 

The Font, Higham Ferrers. 


now used as a school. The bede-house, which stands to the south of the 
church, and has some fine late Perpendicular work, with a beautiful bell- 
niche at the west end, and the college, the front of which is seen in the 
street. These works are by Archbishop Chichele. 

We hope this first number fairly represents the future character of the 
work. From the beauty and variety of the subjects on which those who 
have undertaken it are engaged, there need, at no point, be a falling off of 
interest in the matter ; while the names of Mackenzie, Le Keux, and 
Jewitt are a sufficient guarantee that the artists will do justice to the sub- 
jects. We are indebted to the Society for the specimen plate and wood- 
cuts, which-' will enable the Members of the Institute to judge of their 
execution. The faithful and accurate description which Mr. Freeman has 
given of Higham Ferrers church, will be an excellent guide to his com- 
panions in the same field ; and it is to be hoped that the exertions of this 
and other Societies will shortly enable the ecclesiastical antiquary to form 
a clear estimate of the local merits and peculiarities of our medieval 

R. SUNTER, York. 

ALL that we have just said in approbation of the first brochure of the 
Northamptonshire Architectural Society, is applicable to this work, which 
is one of the most elaborate of the numerous publications occasioned by 
the present taste for and general study of Ecclesiology. The monastic 
ruins of Yorkshire are among the most valuable examples of art remaining 
in this country, and, owing to the sequestered sites of most of them, have 
preserved a freshness and sharpness of detail which we seek in vain among 
similar remains in the midland and southern counties. Although litho- 
graphy is not generally successful in rendering details with clearness 
and fidelity, the drawings in this work, executed by Mr. G. Hawkins, 
are certainly equal to any specimens of that process which have fallen 
under our notice; the architectural features of the several buildings are 
represented with great accuracy and clearness, and the general views 
present faithful pictures of some of the most picturesque spots in the king- 
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the subject; wisely avoiding minute antiquarian detail, which the more 
curious reader may find in the works of Dugdale and Burton, the Rev. 
author has furnished a pleasing and instructive narrative of the history of 
each building illustrated. We wish this publication every success, and 
trust the enterprising publisher will receive the encouragement he de- 


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Archaeological -Journal* 

JUNE, 1816. 



THE village of Pytcliley occupies a slight ridge about six 
miles northwards of the river Nen, (or Antona,) the frontier 
line adopted by Ostorius Scapula (c. A.D. 50) between 
the Romans and the Britons. It is near Wellingborough, a 
market town on the same side of the river, opposite to 
Irchester, or " Chesters," one of Ostorius Scapula's forts. 
The whole country of the Coritani on this their south frontier 
was then and long after a dense forest. Numerous Roman 
coins of all dates of the Christian era have been found in the 
parish of Pytchley, and many traces more or less distinct of 
human operations at early periods occur. The name also, 
still pronounced Pites-ley, is significant : it is ' spelt in 
Domesday book Pihles-lea, Picts-lei, and Piles-lea, and in 
old records Pightsly ; and one cannot avoid remembering that 
the Welch or British name of the Picti was Peithi and Fichti ; 
and their present and ancient Scottish name Peglds, Peiglits, 
and Pihtes. 

Two ancient cemeteries occur in the parish, neither of 
which, so far as I can learn, has ever been publicly noticed ; 
the one (apparently pagan) is in a field near a barrow, and 
about 350 yards northwards of the church and village ; the 
other is under the present church and churchyard. The 
present paper is confined to the cemetery under the church- 
yard, and was in part read at the last October meeting of the 
Architectural Society of the Archdeaconry of Northampton. 

VOL. III. p 


The venerable church of Pytchley having become much 
dilapidated, has within the last few years been undergoing 
extensive repairs ; in the course of which numerous kistvaens, 
or rough stone coffins, situated in general 6 or 8 feet below 
the present surface of the churchyard, have been brought to 
light. Unconnected as they are with the modern interments, 
which are seldom above 4 or 5 feet deep, I have ventured to 
consider the place that they occupy as an ancient cemetery, 
which but for the recent excavation of new and deeper 
foundations for some of the church walls, might have re- 
mained a second thousand years unknown. 

I have called them kistvaens: this word has been much 
restricted in archaeology to something nearly synonymous 
with cromlech, but has been also used to signify those coffins 
or rather tombs which consist of four stones, three being 
placed upright on their edges, and the fourth as a covering 
slab on the top. The poetry called Ossian's, says, in address- 
ing a deceased warrior, " Four stones with their heads of 
moss are the only memorials of thee." When these stones 
are large and above ground, as in Kits Cotty House in Kent, 
they are not graves but tombs : sometimes however they are 
small, under cairns or heaps of stones, and barrows or mounds 
of earth, and these probably are the only true kistvaens among 
them ; nor does any reason appear why the name should be 
confined, as it has sometimes been, to that class which are 
constructed of only four stones. Like cairns and barrows, 
the larger kind were designed for memorials or sepulchres, to 
be seen ; and it is of this kind only that the Gaelic poem 
speaks, for such only as were above ground would be moss 
grown : but the kistvaen is properly the receptacle for the 
body, and is not intended to be seen. Some northern 
writers have stated that the kistvaen of a man had three 
principal or upright stones, and that of a woman only two. 
May not this be part of an ancient northern custom, 
which in the church of Icolmkill was kept up nearly to the 
end of last century, of burying males and females in different 
parts of the churchyard ? 

The word hist (spelt cist and cistd) is found in Welch, 
Irish, and Gaelic, in Suiogothic and Saxon, as well as in 
Latin, Greek, and other languages of the same great western 
family of mankind. Its meaning is nearly identical in all 
except the Greek ; and whilst in general it is pronounced kist, 


in Latin it is cista, and in our own language has been softened 
into chest, by a process similar to that of modern Italian, and 
observable in many other of our words ; as in kirch, or kirk, 
which has become church. In the lowlands of Scotland it is 
still pronounced Jcist, and retains in common use its original 
meaning of a burial chest. Among old-fashioned families in 
the lowlands of Scotland, that part of a funeral which precedes 
the removal of the body from the house is a religious service, 
and is still called in remote districts the histening, or kistin</ t 
and in other places the chesting, or the coffining. 

But of old, the kisting took place in the grave-yard, and 
not in the house, for coffins, in our sense of them, were not 
used. The body, wrapped in the shroud or grave-clothes, but 
not enclosed in any coffin, was carried forth upon aferetrum or 
bier, as is described in the history of the son of the widow of 
Nain (Luke vii. 1 1 1 5) ; and when it had arrived at the cave 
or place of sepulture, .it was there lasted, or kistined, that is, 
placed in a recess or receptacle hewn from the rock, or in a con- 
structed kistvaen : and after the interment was completed, and 
"the dead was buried out of sight," then some monument 
which was meant to be seen, might be raised at will. Urn- 
burial, which presupposes burning the dead, probably only 
prevailed in Britain while the Romans ruled : it does not 
seem to have been customary here before their arrival, nor 
after the population had become Christian : instances have, it 
is said, been discovered where Saxon Christians in England 
must have been interred by burning ; yet as a general rule, 
when a nation has become Christian, burning the dead has 
ceased. The kistvaens in Pytchley were therefore probably 
either prior to Roman dates, or subsequent to the prevailing 
of Christianity. 

Kistvaen simply means stone coffin : vaen being, as it appears, 
merely the softened pronunciation of maen (stone), a Welch 
word which does not exist, in that form at least, in Irish or 
Gaelic : although the word kistvaen is in common use through 
Scotland to signify the rude receptacles made of several rough 
stones, which are there commonly found under cairns or heaps 
of loose stones. Those which (like Kits Cotty House in Kent) 
are above ground and in the nature of monuments, are in 
Scotland called clacli or clachan, and not kistvaens. The 
Gaelic word used for ordinary coffins is cobhain (pronounced 
coffain} t and it is usually restricted to a wooden chest or ark ; 


being probably identical with its kindred Greek term KO<J>IVO<;, 
a hamper or basket, which is also the meaning of /cum), the 
Greek form of hist. It is not improbable that when first a 
loculus (small place) or box began to be used for the dead, 
those first employed might be literally what the Greek words 
describe, wicker or wattled work : for such as were laboriously 
excavated from a single trunk of a tree, like that lately found 
at Gristhorpe, near Scarborough, must have been far too ex- 
pensive for common use. 

Fosbroke (Encyc. 770, 777.) states that Pausanias considers 
kistvaens as of Cyclopean origin, and that they occur in 
Greece, and even in Palestine, of four uprights and one top 
slab. Our own medieval stone coffins are of a kind essen- 
tially distinct from what has obtained the name of kistvaen. 
They are coffins made of stone and afterwards removed to the 
grave; and from the Archaeological Journal, vol. i. page 190, 
it appears that interments in such stone coffins took place 
in Le Maine so late as the 17th century. 

But to recur to the subject which these observations are 
designed to illustrate. It was well remarked, some years since, 
by an anonymous writer, in a periodical, that we know little 
of the usual modes of burial among our countrymen in days 
of old, for barrows, cairns, and cromlechs, must have been far 
too expensive to have been within the reach of any but the 
wealthy or noble. I have never seen this difficulty fairly met ; 
but possibly, what I have now undertaken to communicate 
may have some bearing on the subject. 

The church of Pytchley, like many more in this county, 
consists of architecture of almost every date and style, en- 
grafted upon an early Norman building. One cylindrical 
pillar, having its height and circumference nearly equal, re- 
mains in the north side of the nave, with a very rudely, 
though elaborately carved capital, of the first part of the 
12th century, and standing between two semicircular arches, 
to which the pointed Early English arches that complete the 
row are awkwardly jointed. As this pillar, which had evi- 
dently been often repaired, was in so mouldering a condition 
that it might probably have caused serious injury to the 
whole fabric, we strongly propped up the arches and capitals 
springing from it, and took it down even to its founda- 
tion, (two feet below the pavement,) and excavating until we 
reached the solid rock, we succeeded in rebuilding a new shaft, 


and replacing, without accident, the superincumbent capitals 
and arches, &c., upon this rebuilt shaft. But the operation had 
brought to light the startling fact that the original Norman 
builders of the pillar had laid their foundation in ignorance of 
a hollow kistvaen or coffin of numerous rough slabs, directly 
below, and at an interval of perhaps a foot of soil, which hav- 
ing only partially sunk in at the thorax from the weight placed 
upon it was by no means solid. 

Pytchley church belonged, even before the Conquest, to 
the abbey of Peterborough ; and it appears probable that the 
Norman edifice, of which this pillar was part, was erected 
during the great church building era of that monastery, while 
Martin, Waterville, and Benedict were successively abbots, 
viz., from A.D. 1133 to A.D. 1194. The existence of these 
kistvaens, therefore, was not then even traditionally known, 
and consequently they are not later than Saxon times. 

We had also to rebuild the east wall of this north aisle, and 
in doing so we discovered that the modern window was once 
a magnificently Decorated one, which had been defaced by some 
Goths of the last century, and that this Decorated window had 
itself superseded two beautiful splayed lanceolate windows of 
Early English style : and again that the stones of these last 
had previously formed part of a circular window with Norman 
work nearly in the same part ; and out of the wall we saved 
a curious and beautiful Norman piscina, the carving of which 
corresponds with the Norman capital already mentioned. The 
wall had formed part of the original Norman church, but had 
required continual repair or rebuilding ; the cause of which, 
on sinking the new foundation down to the rock, we found to 
consist in three or four kistvaens, across which the Norman 
builders had laid their original foundation at an interval of 
two feet of soil, evidently unconscious that they were building 
on an unsound basis. But besides this corroboration of such 
history as the Norman pillar had already told us, we met with 
another significant fact : below the foundation, though above 
the level of the kistvaens, there were common graves ; in one 
of which was the skeleton of a beheaded person lying at full 
length, the head placed upon the breast, one of the neck 
bones having apparently been divided. This would indicate 
a long period to have elapsed between the use of the kistvaens 
and the erection of the Norman building, during which the 
locality had been used by the villagers as a burial ground, in 


ignorance of the tier of kistvaen interments below : and used 
so long that the Norman masons found the soil sufficiently 
solid to build upon, even above the second era of graves. 
These graves of the upper tier, which had already become 
solid within a century or less from the Conquest, must in a 
Saxon, or perhaps a British village, have been Saxon. And 
as when they were dug, the still deeper kistvaens were un- 
known or forgotten, and belonged to a mode of sepulture then 
passed away, we are thrown back upon the times before the 
foundation of the kingdom of Mercia thrown back upon the 
Romanized British period for their date. 

In rebuilding the Decorated chancel-arch, which had evi- 
dently been rebuilt in a bad style more than once before, 
and of which the north capital had sunk seven inches below 
the level of its south companion, we found the cause of its 
sinking was a kistvaen of a person about twelve years old, 
nearly two feet below the foundation. In underpinning 
various parts of the church walls which were leaning, numer- 
ous instances appeared in which the walls had been built 
across or along the kistvaens according to their position ; or 
where from any cause the foundation had been unusually 
deep, a kistvaen had been sometimes cut through and part 
left untouched. In all instances, the kistvaens had evidently 
been unknown or unnoticed by the Norman masons ; and yet 
the churchyard had been well filled at the time : for holes 
were found filled with large accumulations of crumbling bones, 
apparently made by the sides of the Norman foundations and 
coeval with them. 

Like many other country churches it had a coating of green 
mould or moss for five or six feet up the walls inside, and in 
winter and rainy weather the water soaked in from the outside 
and stood in pools in the remote corners of the church floor. 
Possibly this constant wet may have assisted to preserve the 
ancient bones from entire decay. The enormous accumula- 
tions of soil outside of the walls have now been removed down 
to the level of the floor : and a drain (in some places nine feet 
deep) has been carried across the churchyard, and has effec- 
tually dried the church. But these removals and drains, 
narrow as they were made for the sake of avoiding graves, 
have sufficed to disclose numerous kistvaens; in general so 
deep that the deepest modern graves were some inches, and 
ordinary graves two or three feet above them. Ancient 


foundations also were found, of which all trace had dis- 
appeared from the surface, and which modern graves had cut 
through, but which had been originally laid in ignorance of 
the kistvaens. The whole churchyard had evidently been a 
populous burial-ground in the days of kistvaen interment* : 
for small as the aggregate space was which we had altogether 
opened, twenty kistvaens at least were disclosed. We found 
also in the south-east corner that a narrow pathway, paved 
with round pebbles about the size of large apples, had 
crossed the churchyard about six feet below the present 
surface, leading from what was the ancient highway, towards 
the place where the chancel-arch now stands. In other places, 
less distinct lines, which the labourers called gravelled walks, 
presented themselves at the like depth, passing under the 
present nave. Every thing combined to prove that a cemetery, 
arranged with care and kept with neatness, had occupied the 
present churchyard so long before the Norman Conquest, that 
the existence of its kistvaens and its paved paths was unknown 
to the Norman builders. 

Most of the kistvaens which we discovered were of course 
necessarily removed or mutilated in our endeavours to save 
the sacred edifice, though wherever it was possible we re- 
placed the bones of the removed part in the part which was 
allowed to remain. Two however were nearly saved, one by 
throwing a slight arch over it, and the other by turning the 
course of the drain. This last, though by no means the best, 
or that which I should have selected for preservation, has been 
marked and guarded by a low sunk wall, and covered with 
heavy slabs, so as to be hereafter accessible without great 
labour, and I hope that no future churchwarden will sweep it 
away for the sake of the slabs. 

It is a hollow, 5 feet 11 inches long, and about 10 inches 
deep, rudely excavated in the coarse and friable yellow lime- 
stone gault, or kale, (as it is here called,) which lies imme- 
diately over the limestone rock. The excavation is somewhat 
in the shape of a human body, rounded at the head, swelling 
at the shoulders to 13 inches, and at the elbows to 17, and 
contracting again to a few inches at the toes. Its sides are 
not upright, but incline to one another as they descend, the 

* It bad probably been tbe cemetery of at present have no covering slabs rtmain- 
a large district ; at Mont Majour near Aries ing. 
were graves excavated in the rock, which 


upper part being 13 inches wide where the lower part is only 6, 
and these "sides are formed of the kale, except where it was 
not firm enough, and there they are made of rough thin stones, 
varying from 8 to 15 inches long, set edgewise at the general 
slope, and standing a little above the sides, small rough 
stones being laid flat along the top of those parts where the 
kale only is the side, in order to bring the whole to a level. 
Across the opening were laid five or six rough slabs of 
common stone to form a covering, some of which had broken 
in by the superincumbent weight. 

Such is the general outline of the one preserved, but others 
were more correctly and beautifully accommodated to the shape 
of the body, and where the kale was firm, excavated clean and 
exact, without any upright stones, and having merely the 
large covering slabs. Some had no excavation in the kale, 
but were made of rough thin stones set edgewise, so much 
inclined as to touch at the bottom those which formed the 
other side, and correspondingly wide at top, each end being 
formed of a single transverse stone set edgewise. Some, and 
those such as were nearest the surface, had no covering slabs, 
but merely edging stones. The varying dip of the kale 
stratum would in some instances account for these differences, 
both as to depth and construction, but they evidently depended 
also on some other causes ; and it was difficult not to believe 
that there existed something like a chronological series among 
the kistvaens, from the rudest form of rough stones, to the 
neatest and most finished excavation, and thence onwards to 
the time when the covering slabs were dispensed with, and 
the use of kistvaens was passing away. The cemetery had I 
think been very long in use. 

In all the kistvaens the following points uniformly presented 
themselves to our notice. 1 . The skeletons were lying east 
and west, or nearly so ; the feet being to the east, as is usual 
in our own times. 2. They were lying on their right sides, 
the left shoulder and leg being considerably higher than the 
others ; which explains why the coffins are so narrow, and 
especially at the bottom : the faces were thus looking at once 
towards the east and towards the south. 3. The arms were 
crossed in a peculiar way; the right arm across the breast, with 
its hand touching the left shoulder ; and the left arm straight 
across, so that its hand touched the right elbow. 4. The legs 
were not crossed, but the feet merely touched each other. 


In our various excavations many Norman coins were found, 
though always near the surface : one of Henry III. was the 
earliest. A few small, much defaced, Roman copper coins, 
apparently only of late and debased coinages, were turned up 
in the churchyard, though many, and some extremely beautiful, 
of all periods, (even prior to Claudius,) have been found in the 
fields of the parish. Fragments of coarse unglazed British 
and also of Roman pottery, have occurred in the deeper 
churchyard excavations. Close to, or within one kistvaen, was 
found a rude amethyst, or pink crystal oblong eardrop, about 
an inch long ; it is perforated lengthwise, but is without metal. 
The kistvaen under the Norman pillar contained apparently 
the skeleton of a lady with an infant in her arms : about 
that kistvaen I myself picked up small pieces of charcoal, 
which no doubt had some connection with the interment, and 
a small fragment of peculiar pottery studded with raised dots, 
like some found I think on Barham downs. From another 
was taken a large tusk of a wild boar, much worn by whet- 
ting ; it is above the average size of those now common in 
Germany, being a full inch broad, and of a curve which would 
be six inches in diameter. Probably this was the kistvaen of 
some celebrated hunter, and contained the treasured spoils of 
some huge Erymanthian boar which he had slain in the dense 
Coritanian forest that crossed the county of Northampton, 
from Whittlebury to Marham and Peterborough. But we 
looked in vain for traces of armour, either offensive or de- 
fensive ; it was the cemetery of a peaceful nation. We saw 
no traces of clothing, no haircloth, such as occurs in the stone 
coffins properly so called, nor was there the discoloured dust 
of any wooden coffin or interior receptacle for the bodies. 
Neither did we find any thing from which to gather the 
existence or not of a place of worship within the cemetery ; 
a point which would have much narrowed the difficulties of 
the subject. 

The skeleton which we have endeavoured to preserve is that 
of a muscular well-proportioned young man, probably 5 feet 
9 inches high ; the teeth are fine, the wisdom teeth scarcely 
developed. The facial line in some of the sculls appeared to 
be very fine. In the present instance there is a deep wound 
over the left eye, but whether it existed before death, or was 
caused by the falling in of the slab covering, is not clear. A 
contused wound on the back of the scull is however evident, 



and it almost seems that osseous granulations had been formed 
since it occurred. This scull exhibits the peculiar lengthy 
form, the prominent and high cheek bones, and the remarkable 
narrowness of forehead, which characterize the Celtic races, 
and distinguish theirs from the rounder, broader sculls, and 
more upright facial line of the Teutonic tribes. The same 
kistvaen was casually opened in 1837, in a prior unsuccessful 
attempt to drain, and the curious position, &c., having been 
noted, it was closed up : the bones have crumbled greatly 
since that date, and the sides are mouldering away. 

But who were the occupants of these kistvaens ? Here is 
a very ancient cemetery, densely filled, for it must be remem- 
bered that we can only have touched upon a very small pro- 
portion of the kistvaens which exist, belonging to a small 
village, which gives no indications of having ever been other 
than a village, larger or smaller. The mode of interment, 
though long since passed away, is simple, decent, and un- 
expensive ; and being therefore within the reach of the poorest, 
yet not unbecoming the greatest, was almost certainly in its 
day the national mode. If so, the subject is one of great 
historical interest, and the mode of interment one which will 
doubtless be found to have been practised in many other 
places on a similarly large scale. Possibly others have already 
described it, but I have never happened to meet with any 
description of it. 

The position of bodies and graves has varied with different 
nations, but I have not met with any satisfactory discussion of 
the whole question. The Greeks made the bodies, it is said, 
face the east ; the Jews turned the face to Jerusalem ; and 
most of the pagans laid the corpse so as to be towards the 
midday sun, the primary object of their veneration. The 
Christians have always buried with the face towards the rising 
sun, in token of their hope of resurrection at the last day ; a 
primitive and significant Christian habit which one regrets to 
see occasionally disregarded, by the bodies Being laid, like those 
of suicides, in all directions. In the tenants of the Pytchley 
kistvaens, the crossing of the arms, together with the east 
and west position, make it difficult to question their being 
Christians. Would it be too bold a supposition to imagine 
that they may have been of a date when the prior pagan habit 
of placing the corpse to face the midday sun had not yet been 
forgotten, and was retained as an addition to the usual Chris- 


tian customs, by laying the body on its right side, yet with 
the feet to the east? 

Such a date would chronologically correspond with all the 
other notes which have occurred in the examination. There 
was no doubling-up of the body ; no Druidical remains. Could 
they be anterior to Roman dates? There are no traces of 
urns or of cremation were they of pagan Romanized times ? 
The position is prima-facie Christian ; the scull prima-facie 
Celtic : the historical and local evidences seem to prove that 
they were earlier than the Saxon population, and it is impos- 
sible that they can be subsequent to the Norman conquest. 
Can these kistvaens belong to aught but to the Christians of 
Romanized Britain before the Saxon invasion ? 

If this were an ancient Christian cemetery, it indicates the 
existence of a Christian church at Pytchley b , before, and during 
the Saxon invasion; as I strongly suspect was also the case atCol- 
lingtree, Brixworth, Earl's Barton, Cransley, Lamport, and many 
other Northamptonshire villages. We are thus carried back to an 
obscure but most important period in the history of the Church 
of England, and one which we often overlook ; the time when 
the relics of the national Church, humbled and shattered as it 
had been by pagan foes, still refused to submit to any other 
than its own ancient hierarchy, and held earnest and fruitless 
controversies with Augustine and his immediate successors; 
one of which, an important interview with the Scottish Dagan, 
must, if some northern historians may be relied upon, have 
occurred in the immediate vicinity of Northampton. 

b Many, if not all, ancient cemeteries church therefore did not then occupy its 
were merely cemeteries, and not around present site. 
churches, as in later times ; Pytchley 



WOODPERRY a , a hamlet or tithing of the parish of Stanton 
St. John, in the neighbourhood of Oxford, appears, by the 
numerous antiquities of many periods there discovered, to have 
been a place of popular resort by successive races from the 
earliest times, until the church and village, as traditionally 
reported, were totally destroyed by a conflagration. The 
neighbourhood abounds with Roman remains, amongst which 
may be included the newly discovered villa at Wheatley, 
described in No. 8 of the Journal ; and at the distance of 
about half a mile ran the line of the great road between 
Eboracum and Clausentum, given in the 18th iter of Ricardus 
Corinensis, a portion of which has been ably illustrated by 
Mr. Hussey b ; but there was no suspicion of any thing Roman 

a This name is so spelt in conformity 
with the modern usage and pronunciation ; 
but the earlier forms give Wodebury, pire, 
pery, &c., with one R, which is the case 
also with Waterpery, a village not far 


b An account cf the Roman road from 
Allchester to Dorchester, by the Rev. 
Robert Hussey, B.D., 8vo. 1841, Oxford, 
for the Ashmolean Society. 


existing on this particular spot, until the discovery chanced to 
take place, in the course of a different, though not less inter- 
esting inquiry, the search for a church, churchyard, and village, 
supposed to have formerly existed there. As far as regards 
the objects for which they were made, these researches were 
completely successful, establishing the fact of the existence of 
a church, and cemetery around it ; disclosing also some little 
remaining portion of the foundation of the former, with frag- 
ments of the edifice itself, uninscribed monumental stones, and 
encaustic tiles, nearly all of which would afford probable con- 
jectures as to dates ; while the colour and nature of the soil 
shewed with tolerable accuracy how far the building had 
extended. Around, and without it, the number of bodies, and 
their regular position, left no doubt as to the existence of a 
churchyard; while lower down in the field, the remains of 
buildings scattered thickly over part of it, and entering into a 
little close below, which itself reaches up to the Horton road, 
and the change visible in the quality of the soil, here naturally 
a cold clay, into a rich black mould of some depth, afforded 
convincing proofs of long continued inhabitancy. But amongst 
the discoveries which the spade brought to light, not the 
least unlocked for and curious was the fact, that the Romans 
had been amongst the original occupants of the spot, as 
was abundantly proved by the remains of their pottery in 
endless varieties, fragments of vessels, cinerary urns, trinkets, 
and coins found here. There were also evidences of what 
may be called a transition state ; for the inhabitants of a 
later period had pounded the red and thick Roman tiles, 
appearing here in very great quantities, and worked them 
up with lime for their new building. These remains, it 
should be observed, were principally discovered, not on 
the site of the church, but amongst the scattered ruins of the 

There is a passage in Hearne's Diaries, now preserved in 
the Bodleian Library, which is valuable as describing the state 
of the place in his time. He is writing on Nov. 15, 1732 C . 
" One Mr. Mendi," he says, "a Joyner, a good cleaver Work- 
man, who works at Woodbury Farm by Beckley, told me 
last night of Foundations of old buildings, frequently dug up 
there, and that there is a Tradition that there hath been a 
Town there. He said an earthen Pot was sometime since 

c Vol. 137, pp. t, 10". 


found there, but that 'twas broke, and nothing found in it 
but ashes and dust and one silver piece. From his account 
I took the said piece to be a Roman Denarius, and the Vessel 
to be an urn, and indeed there was a Branch of a Roman Way 
came along this way on the East side of Stowe Wood d . The 
Foundations they find are of Stone, strangely rivetted into the 
roots of Trees sometimes. 

" Woodbury belongs to one Mr. Morse, who hath built a 
new House there. He is a single man, a batchelor, about 74 
years of age. He is reported to be worth three hundred 
thousand pounds. He hath estates in other places, and is 
still purchasing others." 

The result of subsequent researches has confirmed the pro- 
bability of Hearne's conjecture as to what the earthen pot and 
coin really might have been : but it is much to be regretted, 
that, with very few exceptions, all objects of a fragile nature 
found upon this spot of late years have been broken into pieces, 
and these again dispersed. The cause, whatever it was, and 
whether an accidental fire, (as is reported,) or not, which 
brought destruction upon the church and village, can hardly 
be supposed to have effected this ; it must be owing to sub- 
sequent digging amongst, and removal of, the ruins. No 
cottages, it is true, have sprung up to supply the place of those 
which once stood here ; but the " new House" which Hearne 
mentions to have been built by a Mr. Morse, remains, and has 
a very considerable extent of stone wall running round the 
kitchen garden and pleasure grounds attached to it, which 
adjoin the ruins, and the materials of these not improbably 
may have been borrowed from "the old Town." The trees 
have in a great degree disappeared, and in their removal would 
occasion the displacement of other stones beneath those 
"strangely rivetted into the roots;" while in later years re- 
course has been had to this spot as a general quarry for 
supplying materials for the roads and other purposes ; so that 
it is no wonder if in turning over the stones, in order to 
select the largest and best, and in digging down for the same 
object, any weaker substance lying amongst them should have 
been injured or crushed. 

'' Hearne is wrong here; not in the more than a diverticulum; and the work of 

course of the road, but in calling it a branch, Richard, from which only we learn its 

since it was the main line from Eboracum extent and importance, was not printed 

mentioned before. No one, however, from until 1757, nor known long before, 
its appearance would conjecture it to be 


Amongst the very few fictile articles which had wholly 
escaped damage was an earthen pan, (literally such,) found 
nearly above the spot where the Altar may be supposed to 
have stood, and carefully covered over with a piece of ashlar 
stone : it was a little injured by the workman's pick-axe, but 
the situation, the size, and evident care with which it had been 
deposited, caused much to be expected from the contents; 
yet upon removing the covering they were found to be 
nothing but earth ; neither was there the slightest reason, as 
far as could be judged, to suspect any dishonesty on the part 
of those who had discovered it. 

The pan was turned in a lathe, of very thin red ware, not 
glazed, except at the bottom of the inside, similar in shape 
to those now in common use, and strengthened externally 
towards the upper rim by nine ornaments of a fillet pattern, 
running upwards at equal intervals, with a greater projection 
towards the top, but dying into the substance of the vessel at 
about one third from its bottom. The diameter of the top of 
the pan was 15J inches, of the bottom 10 f, and the depth 
8^. The stone which covered it was 15 J inches by 14^, and 
3i thick. 

Arrow-heads of considerable variety in form and dimension, 
have from time to time been found at Woodperry (fig. 1.) 
Amongst them may be no- 
ticed one of simple conical 
shape, measuring in length 
If inches; it was formed 
of bone, and rudely orna- 
mented with incised lines, 
crossing each other fret- 
wise. Two similar arrow or 
bolt-heads formed of iron 
(figs. 2, 3), tapering gradu- 
ally to a blunt point, were 
also discovered, and other 

Fifti.3 3. Irou Arrow heads. eXattlplCS of tllC BBUHG metal, Bone Arrowhead. 

some fashioned with a flat triangular blade (fig. 4), not barbed, 
and others furnished with barbs of unusual length (figs. 5, 6, 7), 
in one instance measuring about If inches 6 . Several large 

e In the armoury at Goodrich Court are men of the ancient British arrow," dis- 
preserved two iron piles of arrows, with covered at the base of Clifford's Tower, 
four-sided points, and an " unique speci- York, the head resemhling in form one of 



(Fig. 7.) Iron Arrow head. (Fig. 8.) 


(Fig. 9.) Tweezers. (Fig. 10) Bronze Pin. 


(Fig. 11.) Antiqufi bcw shaped Brooch (Hg. 12.> Circular Brooch (Fig 13 ) Earthenware Bea 

(Fig. 14.) Bone Bend. 

(Fig. 16.) Leaden Weight 

(Fig. 15 ) Bone Chess-roan 


(Fig 17.1 Signaculum 


Pierced Stotio. 



iron buckles suited for 
strong harness, cutting or 
piercing implements, and a 
variety of objects of iron, 
have been dug up at various 
times. Ornaments (fig. 10) 
and small works in bronze 
(fig. 8), tweezers (fig. 9), 
brooches, both of the antique 
bow form (fig. 1 l),and of the 
flat circular shape (fig. 12), 
theacwsbeing attached to the 
reverse side, small buckles, 
and tags of straps or belts, 
indicate the successive occu- 
pation of the site by various 
races of mankind. Some of 
these appear to be of late 
Roman workmanship. Three 
of the rudely formed flat 
beads, measuring in diameter 
about 1 j inches, two formed 
of baked clay (fig. 13), the 
other of bone turned in 
the lathe (fig. 14), occurred 
amongst these remains : 
similar objects have been 
repeatedly found in spots 
occupied in early times. An- 
other piece of bone, here re- 
presented, is formed with a 
mitre-shaped head (fig. 15), 
and may possibly have been 
a chess-man ; it is, however, pmmn* h., k. 

ornamented with the small concentric circles which appear 
very commonly on objects assigned to the British period. 
With them may be noticed a flat circular piece of lead (fig. 16), 
resembling a weight ; it is marked with a cross between four 
pellets, and weighs nearly three ounces ; also a token or 

thoss which were found at Woodperry. 
Sir Samuel Meyrick considers this missile 
as having been used during the wars of the 

Roses. Skelton's Goodrich Armoury, I. 
pi. xvi, xxxiv. 


signaculum of lead, on which is the inscription, AVE MARIA 
GRA (fig. 17). Several small vessels of earthenware have 
been found at Woodperry, which may be regarded as 
curious examples of medieval date ; the ware being wholly 
distinct from the remains of " Sainian," or Anglo-Roman 
fabrication, of which beautifully ornamented fragments have 
occurred ; and some even superior, though in the same style 
of ornament, were discovered by the late . Sir Alexander 
Croke, nearly six or seven years since, in the middle of a 
wood, now called " the New Wood," on the brow of the 
opposite hill, about a mile distant ; but these excava- 
tions were not pursued so far as might have been de- 
sired, and the traces of buildings were in fact but faint and 
inconsiderable. A very common form of these medieval 
vessels will be found represented in the plate, page 62 of 
No. 9 of the Journal, being that of the two smallest of the 
four, though the neck in general is somewhat narrower. Very 
many fragments of them occur, and of different sizes, the 
ordinary height being about six inches, as near as can be 
guessed from the more perfect specimens : it is, however, to 
be observed of all, that they are tinted with green colour and 
slightly glazed, immediately below the neck. Of pottery, 
however, really Anglo-Roman, the varieties were very many, 
especially of the finest or Sarnian ware ; for beginning with 
that on which figures had been worked in relief, fragments 
of plain paterae were turned up of almost every degree 
of fineness, the best being composed of a highly coloured 
red clay, and other specimens presenting a fainter and 
fainter hue, precisely in proportion to their goodness, the 
palest being always the worst. Still, in every case, the 
clay had been admirably well tempered ; and it should be 
observed, by the way, that what is found at Brill, between 
four and five miles distant, is considered to be of excellent 
quality, and this had probably been procured from that quarter. 
Be this, however, as it may, there certainly was a Roman 
pottery five or six miles to the north, at Fencot upon Otmoor f ; 
and if that situation did not offer the very finest materials, the 
establishment at least gave the opportunity of baking vessels 
which had been manufactured from better clay found else- 
where. In addition to what may be called, by way of dis- 
tinction, the red ware, other fragments of pottery discovered, 

' See Mr. Hussev's Roman Road, already quoted, p. 34. 


presented a great variety of form and pattern, and indeed it 
may be almost added, of material. Very many were of dusky 
blueish hue, supposed to be produced by some process in 
the burning ; some coarse, thick and pale, and painted inter- 
nally in concentric circles of a red colour ; others, on the con- 
trary, very thin, dark, and glazed on the outside, and elegantly 
marked, as if with a graving tool, something in the style of a 
British urn, only infinitely better. Fragments of a cinerary 
urn were found, (such an one probably as Hearne's earthen 
pot), pieces of which being observed to correspond, have since 
been cemented together, and are sufficient to give an idea of 
what it must have been, when perfect. It appears to have 
borne in some degree the shape of that engraved in Tab. xv. 
No. 24. of Plot's Oxfordshire, but had no foot, and stood on a 
plain bottom, which was not less than ten inches in diameter : 
the height, perhaps, was nearly the same, and the mouth seven 
or eight inches across. It was thin, but strong ; visibly marked 
on the outside by the action of flame, and contained red earth 
or ashes, mixed with many pieces of some white substance, 
perhaps bone, all of which had obviously been burnt. Frag- 
ments of Roman tiles, of all kinds, were very numerous ; none 
of them, indeed, in situ, as they were set by the mason, but 
some had still mortar adhering to them ; and in one spot were 
the traces of a circular furnace or fireplace, about four feet in 
diameter, which might have been used for supplying hot air to 
apartments. Not far above it was a well in good preservation, 
about twenty feet deep ; which being cleared out, afforded 
nothing more interesting than the bones of many horses and 
dogs ; and lower again, was a smith's shop, as was conjectured 
from a heap of cinders and many keys found there. Mixed up 
with other remains were bones and antlers of deer, horns of 
oxen, bones of pigs, portions of vessels turned in stone, a stone 
much broken appearing to have belonged to a hand-mill, and 
frequent fragments of iron slag, or the refuse of an iron foun- 
dry; a substance also observed at Drunshill, near Woodeaton, 
in the neighbourhoods, where again the Romans have been, as 
is attested by many remains of their pottery, and by a brass 
coin of Vespasian, in good preservation, which was picked up 
there in 1841. The coins found at Woodperry have been 
nearly all in second, with one or two in third, brass ; and were 
of Domitian, Hadrian, Diocletian, Maximian, Constantine, 

Mr. Hussey's R. Road, pp. 38, 39, 40. 


and Claudius Gothicus. A second brass of Nero was dis- 
covered in the beginning of 1842, in a ploughed field called 
Upper Stafford Grove h , near the line of the Roman road, the 
stones of which, the farmer, with little reverence for antiquity, 
was then removing. During the continuance of the same 
operation, and not far from the same spot, scarcely a foot 
under the surface of the ground, the labourers came upon a 
human skeleton. It lay parallel to the Roman road, about 
forty yards from it, and was deposited north and south, the 
head towards the south, but presented nothing remarkable 
either in size or otherwise, being that of a person of low stature. 

In this part of the subject it should be mentioned, as con- 
nected with the neighbourhood, that a silver coin of the gens 
Plautia was picked up near a footpath, in an adjoining parish, 
a few months since ; and very -lately, a third brass of Con- 
stantine, not far from the course of the Roman road through 
Beckley. Holton has afforded many specimens ; but the great- 
est discovery was made at Shotover, upon the estate of G. V. 
Drury, Esq., in the month of May, 1842, when 560 coins were 
at once disclosed by the wheel of a waggon breaking the pot in 
which they had been deposited. They were given up to the 

The consideration of ecclesiastical remains may not be 
thought to belong so properly to our pages as to a work dedi- 
cated expressly to that subject', but having been favoured with 
the use of the plates, some few notices respecting the objects 
they represent may not be unacceptable. 

Woodperry, now a hamlet of Stanton St. John, as has been 
already stated, appears originally to have been a distinct, though 
small, parish. By what means or at what period it became united 
to its neighbour, is unknown, nor have the records of the diocese 
of Lincoln, within which it was once comprised, thrown any 
light upon the point. It is usual to commence topographical 
inquiries by a reference to the Norman Survey ; and a conjecture 
has been advanced that Woodperry may be found noticed in 
that record under the designation of PEREGIE, holden by 
Rogerius of the bishop of Bayeux k , Waterperry being admitted 
to be described as PEREIVN. One reason for this idea, and 
that of but little Aveight, is, that Peregie occurs immediately 
after the mention of Fostel or Forest-hill ; it may be more to 

11 Mr. Husst-y's 11. Koad, pp. 11, 12. in tlir- Neighbourhood of Oxford. 

1 Guide to the Architectural Antiquities k l-'ol. 1'jfi. a. 


the purpose to observe, that the quantity of land (four hides) 
stated in Domesday Book, agrees with that assigned to Wood- 
perry at a later period in the Rotuli Hundredorum 1 ; there is 
also the indirect proof, that PEREGIE has been attributed to no 
other place. Forming a member of the honor of S. Walery, 
within which Stanton St. John was not included, it was holden 
in capite by Richard earl of Cornwall, and afterwards king of 
the Romans, by the service of one knight's fee, Roger d'Au- 
mari being sometime his tenant" 1 . From Richard the honor 
descended to his son Edmund ; arid on the death of the latter 
without issue in 1300, his manors, &c., fell to the crown; 
when, in the very first year of his reign, Edward II. granted 
the whole earldom of Cornwall (Woodperry included) to Piers 
Gaveston. On the death of the latter, the property reverting, 
was immediately granted again in 1312, to a new favourite, 
Hugh Despencer the elder; on whose attainder, in 1326, it 
came again into the royal hands. 

In 1330 Edward III. granted the honor of S. Walery, in- 
cluding Woodperry, to his next brother John de Eltham, whom 
he had previously advanced to the earldom of Cornwall. He 
too dying without issue, the same king in 1360 granted the 
manor of Wodepery to his faithful soldier John, or Sir John, 
Chandos. He also perished childless in the wars in France ; 
and what became of the estate does not clearly appear, until 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century, it came by purchase 
into the hands of its present owners. 

One purpose of the above notices has been to throw some 
little light upon the architectural history of the church. The 
fragments found present an extra- 
ordinary variety of dates ; for, be- 
ginning with part of the arch of 
a Norman doorway, they terminate 
in a fragment of the square head- = 
moulding of a door or window in a 
style apparently that of the 14th 
century, or possibly much later. If then the first-mentioned 
arch, joined with the fact of Richard's armorial bearings as 
earl of Poictou, (a lion rampant crowned,) and as king of the 
Romans, (the spread eagle,) being found depicted on the en- 
caustic tiles, would afford a plausible conjecture as to the time 
the building was erected, on the other hand, the style of the 

1 Vol. ii. 38. '" Rott. Humid., ii. 39, 717. 






fragment of moulding, compared with Hearne's report in 1732, 
that there was a tradition, and a tradition only, all remem- 
brance being lost, "that there had been once a town here," over 
which he describes timber trees then to grow, would give us 
limits, and not very wide ones, for the period of its destruction. 

The abbat and canons of Oseney had a portion of tithes 
here, small indeed, as being worth at the Dissolution only 
10s. per annum, but sufficient to give them an interest in the 
place, and justify their application to Richard, or a less 
wealthy proprietor, for assistance in raising the house of 
God. And as no traces of an established ecclesiastical bene- 
fice appear, it is probable that the cure was served, as was 
not unusual, by members of their house ; and that those who 
rest under the three tombstones, yet remaining within the 
limits of the walls of the edifice, may have been chaplains who 
ended their days in the performance of their duties on the spot. 

It should be observed that the greater part of the encaustic 
pavement was not set as before an altar, but between the 
tombstones represented ; many smaller fragments being found 
dispersed. It had on the east side a border of similar tiles, 
each 5 inches square, and marked checquer-wise across the 
middle, so as to form four divisions, which were coloured 
alternately yellow and black, or very deep brown. The 
effect was by no means 

pleasing ; but it is a curious fact, that the same border is 
found represented on some painted glass, known from several 
circumstances to be of very high antiquity, now placed in the 
church of Rivenhall, Essex. It was purchased from a church 
near Lisieux in Normandy, and fixed where it may be seen 
at present, at the expense of the Rev. Bradford Hawkins, 
curate of the parish. 

The intersecting and diagonal lines do not seem to be 
merely ornamental, but were made before the tile was burnt, 
for the purpose, it is supposed, of enabling the mason to break 
off with his trowel certain portions of a prescribed shape. 

j. w. 





AMONGST the numerous sacred vessels and objects connected 
with the rites and ceremonies of the Christian Church, those 
which were appropriated to the most solemn of religious ordi- 
nances, the consecration of the Holy Eucharist, must be re- 
garded with special and reverential interest. They may 


claim attention, on account of the perfection or profuse 
variety of their decoration, bestowed by that unsparing libe- 
rality of former times in all occasions wherein veneration 
for the house of God, or the services of the Church, could be 
evinced. They present also the most choice examples of vari- 
ous decorative arts, of which such objects, preserved on account 
of their sacred character, now supply almost the only evidence, 
whilst the richest ornaments of personal and unhallowed use 
have been destroyed under the capricious influence of fashion. 
They are, however, still more interesting when regarded in con- 
nection with the successive changes in the discipline of the 
Church, or the modifications of ritual observance, in conformity 
with which, the forms of such hallowed accessories were at vari- 
ous times and in different countries modified or ordained. Thus 
it will be found that, in earlier times, whilst the communion 
of the faithful under both kinds was permitted, the chalice, 
termed ministralis, or communicalis, was of considerable capa- 
city, and furnished not unfrequently with a handle on either 
side, (calix ansata,} so that it might be raised with greater 
ease and security. A curious representation of such a chalice 
occurs amongst the embroideries of the Imperial Dalmatic, of 
Byzantine workmanship, preserved at St. Peter's at Rome, as 
the " cappa di 8. Leone III" (795 816,) but probably not 
more ancient than the eleventh or twelfth century a . It may 
likewise be seen in the missal of the abbey of St. Denis, now 
preserved in the Bibliotheque Royale, where the miraculous 
appearance of the Saviour, and administration of the Eucha- 
rist, to St. Denis are portrayed. This MS. is attributed to 
the eleventh century. Theophilus, who wrote his treatise 
about the same period, as it is supposed, gives, with de- 
tailed instructions for the fabrication of the greater and lesser 
chalice, a chapter on fashioning the auricula, or aures, of such 
vessels, a term by which the side-handles appear to be desig- 
nated 15 . These large chalices furnished with handles were 
occasionally suspended in churches with coronce and other 
ornaments, and are termed by Agnelli calices appensorii; they 
may be seen in the illuminations of the Bible of Charles le 
Chauve, and other MSS. In many cases the calices ansati 
appear to have been used as receptacles for wine, in place of 

a Boissere"e, Dissertation published in torn. i. p. 152. 

the Annals of the Royal Academy of Hava- b Diversarum artium schedula, ed. 

ria. Didron, Annales Archeologiques, L'Escalopier, p. 155. 


the stoup or flagon of recent times ; being ill suited, on 
account of their large dimensions, for the purpose of adminis- 
tration. A large chalice with two handles, which could not 
easily be raised by a man, was preserved in the treasury of 
Mayence cathedral c . 

The fashion of the chalice in primitive ages, was, probably, 
of the most simple kind. The silver chalice formerly exhibited 
to pilgrims at Jerusalem as the cup used by our Saviour at the 
last supper, was formed, as described by Bede, with two handles' 1 ; 
and although the antiquity of the tradition may be questionable, 
it is not improbable that in many instances the shape of the 
calix ansatus may have been assimilated to such a revered 
model. In later times a plain cup was used, somewhat more 
elevated in its proportions, fashioned with a knop, or pomeHum, 
beneath the bowl, whereby it might be securely held ; and it 
was occasionally inscribed or marked by some appropriate 
symbol 6 . Subsequently, the bowl was made of smaller pro- 
portions, the administration of the wine to the laity being for- 
bidden ; and, as a precaution against the risk of its being 
overturned, the foot was made very wide, with indentations, 
intended, according to De Vert, to keep the chalice steady, 
when it was laid to drain on the paten, after celebration, in 
accordance with an ancient usage f . The knop and foot were 
decorated in the most sumptuous manner, the bowl being 
usually quite plain ; nielli, enamels, gems, and other precious 
objects were incrusted amongst the elaborately chased or 
graven ornaments of the lower parts of the chalice. 

The apprehension that some portion of the sacred element 
might accidentally be spilled during administration, had pre- 

c It may be, doubtful whether the antique of the abbey of Verden, A.D. 796, was there 

vase of oriental agate, given to St. Denis preserved, and the Benedictines have given 

by Charles III., was ever used as a chalice, a representation of it. An inscription ran 

the ornaments sculptured upon it being of round both the edge of the bowl and the 

a profane character, but the famous chalice foot. Voyage Litt. ii. 234. Of somewhat si- 

of the Abbot Suger, formed of the same milar form is the silver cup discovered at St. 

material, as likewise one of crystal, attri- Austell, in Cornwall, with objects of Saxon 

buted to St. Denis himself, had handles. date, and a coin of Burghred, king of Mer- 

Felibien, plates hi. vi., p. 541. There were cia, dethroned A.D. 874. It was subse- 

curious chalices with handles at St. Josse quently used as a communion cup in a 

sur Mer, near Montreuil, and in other neighbouring parish church. Archaeol. ix. 

churches in France, noticed by De Vert, pi. viii., and xi. pi. vii. 
Cerem. de L'Egl. iv. 162. f The chalice was formerly laid on its 

d Beda, de locis sanctis, c. 2. Adamna- side also at the commencement of the mass, 

nus de locis sacris, lib. i. Baron. An. 34. See M. Didron's interesting dissertation on 

Another chalice, formed of agate, supposed the tapestry at Montpezat, representing 

to have been used by the Saviour, was pre- the mass of St. Martin. Annales Archaeol., 

served at Valentia, in Spain. iii. 108. 

The chalice of St. Ludgerius, founder 


viously caused the use of a pipe, (fistula, pipa, syphon ,pugillaris, 
canna, or calamus ;) the wine was thus drawn from the chalice 
by suction. This custom, long retained at Cluny, St. Denis, 
and other monasteries, as also at the coronation of the kings 
of France 8 , is now only observed by the Pope. It is sup- 
posed to have been of high antiquity, and was not unknown in 
Britain, as appears by the inventory of vessels and vestments 
given to the church of Exeter by Bishop Leofric, (circa A.D. 
1046,) amongst which were five silver chalices, and one " sil- 
frene pipe," the Anglo-Saxon term whereby the fistula appears 
to be designated in a contemporary inventory 11 . Florence of 
Worcester likewise states that William Rufus, after his coro- 
nation, A.D. 1087, bestowed upon the chief churches in the 
realm precious gifts, "Jisfulas," sacred vessels and ornaments. 
This tube was occasionally fixed permanently in the chalice, 
according to the minute directions given by Theophilus 1 . 
The Greek Church had adopted the usage of dipping the bread 
in the wine, the administration being made with a spoon, 
(labida,} a practice supposed by some to have been not wholly 
unknown in the Western Church k , but the spoon, or cochlear, 
frequently named with the chalice in inventories, appears to 
have been used in pouring the wine and water thereinto, 
and in some instances to have served as a strainer 1 , properly 
called colatorium, for the formation of which detailed instruc- 
tions are given by Theophilus. 

To enumerate and explain the various artistic processes, 
which, according to the curious descriptions preserved in 
ancient documents, were employed to enrich these accessories 
of the service of the altar, would extend this notice beyond 
the limits suitable to the Archaeological Journal. If any of 
our readers should desire to ascertain the customary and 
appropriate character of these decorations, the inventories of 
St. Paul's, London, A.D. 1295, of Lincoln cathedral, York 
Minster, and other churches, published by Dugdale, will be 
found to supply abundant information. With regard, how- 

K See the History of the Abbey of St. k See Ducange, v. Sumptorium. 

Denis, by Doublet, p. 334. Representations ' Doublet, Hist, de S. Denis, p. 334. 

of the fistula are given by F. de Berlendis, A golden chalice, paten, and spoon, are 

Dissert de Oblationibus, p. 148. Martene enumerated amongst the sumptuous orna- 

de Ant. Rit, lib. ii. c. 4. ments of the chapel of Richard II. at 

. h MS. Bibl. Bodl. Mon. Ang. i. 221. Windsor, A.D. 1384. In a MS. inventory 

1 Edit. L'Escalopier, pp. 177,291. See of the vessels at Bayeux cathedral, occur 

also Lindanus, Panoplia Evang. p. 342. "un calice d' argent avec une cuillere a 

Voyage Litt. ii. p. 61. servir 1'eau." A.D. 1476. 


ever, to the material employed in the fabrication of chalices, 
it may be remarked, that the precious metals were always 
preferred, and that, in default thereof, chalices were formed of 
glass, horn, wood, or ordinary metals. Durandus, and other 
writers, have stated that the use of chalices of glass, to which 
allusion is made by Tertullian, was ordered by Pope Zephiri- 
nus, at the commencement of the third century, and that on 
account of their fragility Pope Urban shortly after prescribed 
that they should be formed of gold, silver, or, in poorer 
churches, of tin. About the same period the use of glass was 
forbidden by the council of Rheims, A.D. 226. It was not, 
however, wholly discontinued ; the ancient sculpture in the 
cloisters of St. Stephen's, at Toulouse, represented St. Exupe- 
rius, who died early in the fifth century, attended by a deacon 
presenting to him a chalice ; above was seen the following in- 
scription, in which that vessel is described as of glass : 

" Sacramenta parat pia, pontificique ministrat. 
Offert vas vitreum, vimineumque canistrum." 

In a will, dated A.D. 837, are mentioned a chalice of ivory, 
another of cocoa-nut, mounted with gold and silver, and a third 
of glass ; " calicem vitreum auro paratum m ." The British 
council of Chalcuth, in the reign of Egbert, forbade the use of 
chalices or patens of horn, " quod de sanguine sunt n ;" and the 
canons enacted under Archbishop Dunstan, in the time of Edgar, 
enjoined that all chalices, wherein the housel is hallowed, be of 
molten work, (calic gegoten,) and that none be hallowed in a 
wooden vessel . The Saxon laws of the Northumbrian priests 
imposed a fine upon those who should hallow housel in a 
wooden chalice?, and the canons of Elfric repeat the injunction, 
that chalices of molten material, gold, silver, glass, (glaesen,) or 
tin, be used ; not of horn, but especially not of woocK Horn 
was rejected, because blood had entered into its composition 1 " ; 
wood, on account of its absorbent quality. Stone or marble 
were less objectionable 8 , and precious gems were used, as in 

m Testam. Everardi Comitis, ap. Mi- i Laws and Inst., ii. 351. See also 

rseum, i. 21. Macer describes an ancient Elfric's Pastoral Epistle, ib. 385. 

chalice of glass, with two handles, seen by r Bartholinus describes an ancient chalice 

him in the possession of the papal alino- of horn, in his possession, anciently used 

ner. Hierolexicon, v. Calix. in Norway. Medicina Danorum domestica. 

Wilkins, i. 147, A.D. 785. In the life of St. Theodore, ap. Su- 

Wilkins, i. 227. Ancient Laws and rium, 22 April, it is related that where 

Instil., ii. 253. vessels of marble were used, he replaced 

P Ancient Laws and Instit, ii. 293. them with silver. 



the case of the vessel of sardonyx, attributed to Abbot Suger, 
at St. Denis. The use of vessels of tin or pewter, in poorer 
churches, was not unfrequent : it had been sanctioned by the 
canons, but nevertheless was forbidden by the constitutions of 
Archbishop Wethershed, about A.D. 1229. Lyndwode ob- 
serves that copper was objectionable, because it occasioned 
nausea, " quia provocat vomit um ;" brass, as subject to oxida- 
tion, " quia contrahit rubiginem 1 ." 

These careful precautions evince the deep reverence with 
which, at all times, the sacred ordinance of the Eucharist was 
regarded, as further shewn by the solemn benediction of all 
vessels or appliances of the service of the altar, which may be 
found in ancient ceremonials, such especially as that of the Anglo- 
Saxon Church, preserved in the Public Library at Rouen u . 

Several ancient chalices, highly interesting on account of 
their elaborate decoration, or traditions connected with them, 
exist in the treasuries of various churches, or in other deposi- 
tories. One of the most remarkable, now preserved in the 
Cabinet of Antiquities in the Bibliotheque Royale, at Paris, is 
the " calice de St. Remi," formerly belonging to the cathedral 
of Rheims. This incomparable example of the skill of the twelfth 
century is of gold, incrusted with enamelled ornaments, gems, 
pearls, and filigree work of the most curious character. It 
measures, in height, 6^ in., and the diameter of the cup is 
5 in. and seven-eighths. This precious object is described in 
the account of the treasury of Rheims cathedral, and distin- 
guished from the "calix ministerialis" of St. Remy, noticed by 
Modoard*. The inscription which forms two lines around the 

1 Lyndw. Provinc., pp. 9. 234. 

" Mr. Rokewode considered this remark- 
able MS. as written late in the tenth cen- 
tury. See the Ordo for the benediction of 
the chalice, Archaeol., xxv. p. 264. 

x Gul. Marlot, Metrop. Rom. Hist., ii. 

474. M. Didron has given a short notice 
of this remarkable chalice in the Annales 
Archeologiques, ii. 363, accompanied by a 
plate which exhibits various examples of 
its curious ornamentation. 


foot of the chalice, denounces an anathema on any one who 
should abstract it from the church of Rheims. A singular 
instance is here to be noticed of the heedlessness of the arti- 
ficer, who, having erroneously repeated the word INVADIAVE- 
RIT, instead of effacing the blunder, drew a single line through 
the letters, and corrected it by engraving the right word above 
the line. A similar reluctance to make any erasion appears 
frequently in medieval MSS. The fine preservation of this 
chalice is very remarkable, especially as it lay for some time 
in the river Seine, having been part of the plunder abstracted 
from the Cabinet of Medals, a few years since. At the time 
when the author was permitted (in 1839) to make the drawing 
from which the annexed representation has been executed, 
there were still adherent to the filigree small stones and sand 
from the bed of the Seine. 

In the beautiful publications by Mr. Shaw, the Specimens 
of Ancient Church Plate, the Illustrations of the History of 
Medieval Art, by Du Sommerard, and other similar works, 
representations of many beautiful chalices may be found. 
Those which are preserved at Oxford, 
namely, one from St. Alban's Abbey, 
presented to Trinity College by Sir 
Thomas Pope, and the founder's chalice 
at Corpus Christi College 7 , well deserve 
attention. Amongst the choice collec- 
tions in Mr. Magniac's possession there 
is a beautiful specimen of Italian work- 
manship, of the fourteenth century, 
decorated with enamels, and inscribed 

>J< ANDR6A PCTRUCI D6 SCNIS CDC F6CIT- corpu. cbri a ti c n*e. Oxford. 

Mr. Shaw has given another, of similar character, bearing the 
name of another artificer of Sienna* ; and Italian chalices, of 
great beauty, may be seen in the De Bruges, and other collec- 
tions, at Paris. An interesting example of the form of the 
chalice in our own country, towards the close of the fifteenth 
century, is supplied by one in Lord Hatherton's possession, at 
Teddesley, discovered a few years since, concealed in the walls 
of the old Hall of Pillaton, near Penkridge. The prevalent 

i Shaw's Specimens of ancient furniture, chalices existing at Comb Pyne, Devon, 

pi. Ixix. Specimens of ancient church plate and Leominster. 

(by the Rev. W. Lukis.) In the last publi- * Dresses and Decorations, by Henry 

cation are given representations of ancient Shaw. 


fashion of this sacred vessel, at various periods, may be ascer- 
tained by numerous examples which have been found in the 
graves of ecclesiastics, as likewise by their sepulchral effigies, 
on which the chalice is frequently represented, held reverently 
between the hands, or deposited upon the breast. 

The usage of depositing a chalice and paten with the corpse 
of a priest appears to have been very generally observed ; and, 
although no established regulation may be found which pre- 
scribed the observance of this custom, it is in accordance 
with ancient evidences cited by Martene, in his treatise on 
Rites observed at the Obsequies of Ecclesiastics. Occa- 
sionally, not only the sacred vessels, but a portion of the 
Eucharist was placed upon the breast of the deceased, as on 
the occasion of the interment of St. Cuthbert, according to 
the relation of Bede. This usage had been adopted from 
very early times, although forbidden by several councils 8 . An 
ancient writer on ritual observances, cited by Martene, states 
that it was customary to place over the head of the corpse a 
sigillum of wax, fashioned in the form of a cross : that the 
bodies of persons who had received sacred orders ought to be 
interred in the vestments worn by them at ordination ; and 
that on the breast of a priest ought to be placed a chalice, 
which, in default of such sacred vessel of pewter, should be of 
earthen-ware b . Numerous instances of the discovery of a 
chalice and paten in the grave of an ecclesiastic have been 
noticed ; they have usually been formed of tin or pewter, but 
occasionally a chalice of more precious metal was deposited 
with the corpse, as in the stone coffin, supposed to contain the 
remains of Hugh de Byshbury, Rector of Byshbury in Staf- 
fordshire, t. Edw. III., wherein was found a small silver 
chalice, afterwards appropriated to the use of the church . 
Several chalices are preserved at York, which have been at 

a Martene, Eccl. Hit., lib. iii. c.xii. See c Shaw's Hist, of Staffordshire, vol. ii. 

Martene's observations, ib 10. p. 178. Hugh de Byshbury, according to 

b " Sigillum cereum in modum crucis tradition, built the chancel, and was buried 

compactum, et aquam benedictam conti- adjoining to the south wall, in the church- 

nens, super caput defuncti ponimus, &c. yard, where his effigy, much defaced, may 

Clerici vero ordinati cum illis indumentis still be seen. The chalice is no longer to 

in quibus fuerunt ordinati debent et sepe- be found amongst the church-plate at 

liri, et sacerdos cum illis cum quibus Byshbury. Another silver chalice was 

assistit altaii : super pectus vero sacerdotis found in Exeter cathedral, in the grave 

debet poni calix, et loco sigilli, quidquid sit supposed to contain the remains of Bishop 

de oblata; quod si non habetur stanneus, Thomas de Bytton, who died A.D. 1306. 

saltern Samius, id est, fictilis." Anon. Gent. Mag. 1763, p. 396. 
Tnron. in MS. Speculo Eccl. 






various times found in the graves of ecclesiastics, in the 
Minster : of a similar discovery in the coffin supposed to con- 
tain the remains of Henry of Worcester, abbot of Evesham, 
who died A.D. 1263, an interesting record has been preserved 
by Mr. Rudge d , and many other examples might be cited. 
In forming a grave in Hereford cathedral, in 1836, a place of 

Chalice. Evesha 

Chalice, Hereford. 

sepulture was brought to light, containing human remains, 
clothed in vestments which had been richly embroidered at 
the right side lay a small chalice and paten of white metal, 
and on the paten were two pieces of wax taper, the wicks 
partly consumed, placed in the form of a cross. This singular 
circumstance seemed to indicate a practice, analogous, in 
some measure, to the deposit of the waxen sigillum, accord- 
ing to the ancient Custumal above mentioned, cited by Mar- 
tene e . The chalice was placed in the hand of the deacon, as 
a kind of investiture, at his ordination, as represented in the 
curious subject from the legend of St. Guthlac, given in a 
former volume of this Journal*. The same, possibly, was 
in many instances placed between the hands of the defunct 

d Archaeologia, vol. xx. p. 566. 

e Amongst many other instances of such discoveries 
may be noticed several chalices found at Chichester, one 
of which, of singular form, has been assigned to the 
twelfth century ; several found on the site of Hyde 
Abbey, represented by Carter, in his Sculpture and 
Painting; also two discovered in the choir at Lich- 
field, and formerly in Green's Museum. Shaw's Hist. 
Staff., vol. i. pp. 256, 332. 

' Archaeol. Journal, vol. i. p. 286. 

Chichester Cathedral 



Henry Denton, Hifcbam Ferrers 

priest, whilst his corpse was exposed to view, previously to 
interment, and finally was deposited therewith. In default of 
such vessel a cup of earthen-ware was sometimes used, as we 
have been informed by Martene, and instances of the disco- 
very of such fictile chalices have occurred, even in our own 
country. Dr. Milner relates that, near the West Gate, at 
Winchester, adjoining to the parish of St. Valery, there had 
anciently been a church and cemetery, wherein were found in 
graves two earthen chalices, such as were buried with priests 8 . 
It is, indeed, possible that these might have been small 
cressets, or funerary lamps, deposited in Christian sepulchres, 
according to ancient usage, as shewn by many curious ex- 

Sepulchral brasses afford many interesting illustrations of 
the form of the chalice, and of 
the usage of its deposit in the 
tomb of a priest. The effigies of 
priests, at North Minims, Herts, 
and Wensley, Yorkshire, supply 
very richly decorated exam- 
ples. Both of these are of the 
fourteenth century, and a fine spe- 
cimen is given by Mr. Shaw, from 
the memorial of a chancellor of 
Noyon Cathedral, who died ] 358 h . 
Many other instances may readily 
be enumerated; most commonly 
the wafer is represented, placed 
over the chalice, and occasionally 
with rays radiating from it. The 
chalice is usually held between the 
hands, but sometimes it is placed 
upon the body, as in the figure of 
the priest at North Minims, al- 
ready noticed. 

There is an incident in the his- 
tory of our country, at a very 
interesting period, to which it may not be inappropriate to 
advert, in concluding these notices of the most sacred of the 

B. Stole. D. Chiuhle or Chetiblc. 

C. Maniple, or fancm. E. Alb, with apparel at the feet. 

s Hist, of Winchester. rations. See other examples in Cotman's 

h Clutterhuck's Herts; Wallet's Sepul- Brasses of Norfolk and Suffolk, 
chral Brasses ; Shaw's Dresses and Deco- 


ornaments of churches. In the year 1193 the Emperor 
Henry had thrown Richard king of England into a dungeon 
in the Tyrol; one hundred thousand pounds of silver were 
demanded as ransom, a sum far beyond the exhausted re- 
sources of the captive monarch's exchequer, impoverished by 
the expenses of protracted warfare in a remote country. No 
ordinary means appeared available. In vain did his mother 
Alianore send into every part of the realm to levy from each 
subject according to his estate ; a second and a third time did 
the measure prove insufficient to meet the pressing emergency: 
at length Richard resolved upon an extraordinary expedient 
he wrote to his mother and the justiciaries, directing them to 
take the gold and silver in the churches of the realm, and 
to give a solemn pledge that full restitution should be made'. 
At such a moment of exigency none appear to have offered 
opposition ; the chalice of each parish church was readily given 
towards the redemption of the lion-hearted King ; the treasures 
of wealthier establishments were likewise rendered up to the 
commissioners, or an equivalent paid in money k ; and the 
sum thus amassed at length sufficed for the king's liberation. 
When the light of heaven again shone upon the ransomed 
captive, and he found himself securely restored to his domi- 
nions, the solemn promise was not overlooked; restoration 
was made, and wherever he learned that, in the most remote 
country church the altar had been despoiled of its appropriate 
ornaments for his redemption, Richard forthwith dispensed 
to them chalices of silver, accounting it a personal reproach 
that the services of the church should, on his account, be 
conducted with any want of suitable solemnity 1 . 

1 Hoveden, Script, post Bedam, 726, Richard, redeemed the chalices of the 

733. Abbey at the price of 200 marks. CottMS. 

k Amongst the benefactors of St. Alban's Nero D. VII. 

Abbey is specially named Abbot Garin, l Brompton, 1256, 1258. Kuyghton, 

who, being warmly attached to King 2408. 



AT the north-west extremity of the town of Reading, stands 
what was formerly the house of the Friers Minors. It was a 
religious foundation of the order of St. Francis, which was 
introduced into England in 1224, the eighth year of Henry 
III.*, and was founded in Reading in 1233. 

By a deed dated that year b July 14, Adam de Lathbury 
then abbot, and the convent of Reading granted to the Friers 
Minors in Reading, " a certain piece of waste ground near the 
king's highway leading to Caversham bridge, containing 
thirty-three perches in length, and twenty-three in breadth, 
with a permission to build and dwell there so long as they 
should continue without acquiring any property of their own:" 

Iceland's Collectanea, vol. iii. p. 3H- b Cotton Library, Vcspa>ian, F. 25. 


for as the deed recites, " if at any time, by any accident, 
or by any means, it should come to pass that the Friers 
Minors should have any property, or any thing of their own, 
they have agreed for themselves and their successors for ever, 
that it shall be lawful for us and our successors, by our own 
authority, to expel them from every part of our land, without 
the hindrance of any contradiction or appeal." 

Under the same penalty of expulsion, the friers " were 
bound not to seek any other habitation on any part of the 
abbey lands, nor to extend the limits of what was already 
granted them, nor to request any thing but what was gratu- 
itously and spontaneously allowed them, nor to receive any 
oblations, tithes, or mortuaries, due to the abbey. If the 
Friers should be expelled by the monks of Reading abbey, for 
any other causes than those above mentioned, it was agreed 
that they should be reinstated by the king's authority, and 
enjoy in their own right what had been granted them by the 
abbey. If the Friers should voluntarily relinquish their 
habitation, the buildings and scite of the edifice should belong 
to the abbey." 

By a subsequent deed another piece of ground was granted 
them, immediately contiguous to the area already occupied 
by them. The conditions are the same as in the former 
grant, except the addition of a clause restraining them from 
interring in their cemetery, church, or any other place, the 
bodies of the parishioners of any of the churches belonging 
to the abbey in the town of Reading, or elsewhere, without 
special license. This deed is dated the 7th before the kalends 
of June, in the year 1285. 

In 1288 c , Robert Fulco left by will to the Friers Minors 
in Reading, certain void pieces of ground in New-street, now 
Friers-street, adjoining to their former possessions. Edward I. 
in his 33rd year, 1306, issued a precept to John de London, 
clerk, constable of his castle of Windsor, to this effect ; 
" Whereas our beloved and faithful subject Robert de Lacey, 
earl of Lincoln, hath given to our beloved in Christ, the friers 
minors residing at Reading, fifty-six oaks of the most proper 
for building timber, in his wood of Asherigge, which is within 
the limits of our forest of Windsor ; we command you that 
you permit the said friers to cut down the said oaks, and 

c Cotton Library, Vespasian, E. V. fo. 55. 


carry them wherever they please, and consult their own con- 
venience in the same. Witness, the king at Odyham, the 
llth day of January." The buildings for which this timber 
was required, were not completed before 1311, as Alan de 
Baunebury who died at Reading in that year, bequeathed by 
will, " operi fratrum minorum," to the work or building of 
the friers minors, five shillings. The house is said to have been 
dedicated to St. James ; but the author of the Antiquities of 
the Franciscans, p. 26, part ii., says he could not learn " who 
was the founder here, what was the title of the house, or that 
it had any endowment of lands," he therefore presumed that 
the friers here subsisted wholly upon alms. 

There are few notices of the history of this religious house 
to be met with, as none of the registers or leiger books be- 
longing to it are known to exist. In Leland's Collectanea, 
vol. ii. p. 57, is a list of the following books which formed 
the library : Beda de Naturis Bestiarum ; Alexander Necham 
super Marcianum Capellam; Alexandri Necham Mytholo- 
gicon ; Johannis Waleys Commentarii super Mythologicon Ful- 
gentii. Small as this catalogue is, it was probably superior 
in number of books to many of the libraries belonging to this 
order in other places ; for Leland says, " in the libraries of the 
Franciscans nothing was observable but dust and cobwebs, 
for whatever others may boast, they had not one learned 
treatise in their possession, for I myself carefully examined 
every shelf in the library, though much against the will of all 
the brethren." 

We have no account of the building, nor of the number of 
the friers who resided in it; from the small extent of the 
ground it was neither roomy nor elegant ; content, agreeably 
to the spirit of their order, with the meanest accommodation 
for themselves, their principal care seems to have been to 
erect a house of prayer suitable to the religion they professed, 
and this, being substantially built, is the only part of their 
possessions which has withstood the ravages of time. 


The church as it now stands consists of a nave, with north 
and south aisles. Originally there was a chancel and a tower, 




as we are informed by Dr. London, in a letter to Thomas 
Lord Cromwell, dated Sept. 1 7, at Reading, in the 30th year 
of Henry VIII., that " as soon as he had taken the friers 
surrender, the multitude of the poverty of the town resorted 
thither, and all things that might be had they stole away, in- 
somuch that they had conveyed the very clappers of the 
bells'' All that now remain of 
the chancel is the arch, with its 
mouldings and jamb-shafts, which 
is partly bricked up in the wall of 
an adjoining house. There are no 
remains of a porch, but it is not 
probable that so large a church 
could have been destitute of this es- 
sential feature. The south doorway 
is of two orders, deeply recessed, 
and consists of a succession of deep 
hollows, with two members of what 
has been called the "pear-shaped 
molding ;" there are no jamb-shafts, 
but the moldings continue down the 
jambs, and die away on the plinth. 

Moldings of the Chancel-arch 




The walls are built of flint, with stone quoins, 
and plastered inside. Externally the flint work 
is laid in regular courses, and the flints split and 
squared. The skill and management of the old 
builders, and the ease with which they made the 
most rugged materials bend to their purpose, was 
never better displayed than in the construction 
of these walls ; the thin, narrow joints, sharp 
surface, and beautiful appearance of the flint 
work, far surpasses the best attempts of modern 
days, and proves, whatever else the Church might 
have been, that it was at least the school of sound 
architects and good workmen. The aisles are 
separated from the nave by a stone arcade of 
five compartments, the arch nearest the chancel of 
each arcade being narrower and more acutely 
pointed than the others. The moldings of both 
pillars and arches are very well worked and in 
tolerable preservation, and belong, in common 
with nearly every other part of the church, to 
the style of architecture prevailing in the early 
part of the fourteenth century, now better known 
as the "Decorated." 

The west window is by far the finest part of 
the whole edifice, and even now, worn and dila- 

Cap of Nave Pillar 

Base of Nafe Pillar 




Moulding of West Window 

pidated as it is, presents a beautiful appearance. The 

tracery is of a flowing 

character, simple but 

elegant, and when the 

west front was in its 

original state, with the 

roof complete, and the 

tower in the back 

ground completing the 

picture, the whole must 

have formed as perfect 

a composition as any 

of its kind. 

The aisle windows are of three lights, with segmental heads 
the moldings are remarkably plain but in this style we fre- 
quently find very beautiful and sometimes intricate combina- 
tions of tracery, with but meagre and shallow moldings the 
heads are divided similarly to 
the west window, feathered and 
cusped. The label-mold to these 
windows, to the west window and 
arcades, is precisely the same in 
contour, differing only in size. 

The aisles terminated with the 
nave, and were pierced with one 
east window in each ; of what 
kind we can scarcely tell, one end 
being so completely covered with 
ivy, that it defies penetration, and ^ 
the other bricked up, shews 
nothing but the mere outline of 
the window, which differs from 
the aisles inasmuch as it is longer 
and acutely pointed. There do not appear to have been 
any west windows to the aisles. No traces of the floor 
are visible, and, on digging, no remains of pavement or tiles 
could be discovered ; the floor probably was taken up when 
the church was converted into a brideweh 1 , the nave being 
divided oft into airing yards. 

The molding upon the wall-plate, and two or three purlin 
braces and rafters over the aisles, are all that now remain on 
this site of the roof. But the roof of the nave is said to have 

Aisle Window. 


been removed in 1786, and used instead of a new one to cover 

Roof of St. Mary's Church. 

the nave of St. Mary's church ; the character and appearance 
of the roof at present on that church, and the measurements of 
it, agree with this tradition, though we have not been able to 
obtain positive proof that it was so used. 

Wall-Plate of Aisle. Wall-Plate, Principal, and Purlin, from Roof of St. Mary's Church. 

It is to be lamented that this fine relic of ancient art is de- 
voted to no better purpose than that of a prison. The present 
scanty church accommodation would be an ample reason for 
restoring it to a somewhat more decent state, and as the walls 
and arches are undisturbed, a small expenditure would render 
it at once fit for worship, and an ornament to the town. 
As before remarked, the style is " Decorated." The building 
was commenced in the reign of the first Edward, during 
whose reign, and that of the two succeeding monarchs of 


his name, Gothic Architecture having worked itself free from 
the trammels of the Norman, and the somewhat stiff though 
still elegant characteristics of the Early English, attained a 
degree of beauty and splendour unrivalled either before or 

After existing for rather more than two hundred years, the 
Eriery, in common with the possessions of the monks of this 
place, fell in the general wreck of this kind of property under 
Henry VIII., to whom, according to the deed of surrender, 
bearing the date of September 13th, 1539, the friers gave up 
the house with all its advantages, and finally relinquished 
their order. 


ST. WINEFREDE was a noble British virgin, who suffered 
martyrdom in the seventh century. Her head was smitten 
off by a Welsh Tarquin, named Caradoc, who instantly met 
with his reward in being swallowed up by the earth. The 
lady's head bounded down the hill on which the catastrophe 
occurred, and, stopping near the church, a copious spring of 
water burst from the place where it rested. Her blood 
sprinkled the stones ineffaceably, and a fragrant odour was 
imparted to the moss growing on the spot. All these, how- 
ever, are but the more trifling circumstances of the miracle. 
A holy man, one St. Benno, took up the head and fitted it so 
cleverly on the body, that the parts re-united, and St. Wine- 
frede survived this remarkable adventure fifteen years. 

This veracious history for the hill, the fountain, the blood 
and the moss, remain as triumphant evidences of its truth 
has been commemorated by a most elegant Gothic structure 
in the Perpendicular style, the date of which may be placed 
on heraldic evidence ante 1495. 

The building inclosing the well is erected against the side of 
the hill from which the water issues, and forms a crypt under 
a small chapel contiguous to the parish church, and on a level 
with it, the entrance to the well being by a descent of about 


twenty steps from the street. The well itself is a star-shaped 
basin, ten feet in diameter, canopied by a most graceful stellar 
vault, and originally inclosed by stone traceried screens, fill- 
ing up the spaces between the supports. Round the basin 
is an ambulatory, similarly vaulted. These arrangements, 
and the form and decoration of the building, are better 
explained by the engravings. 

The water rises from a bed of shingle with great impetu- 
osity. From the main basin it flows over into a smaller one 
in front, to which access is obtained by steps on both sides, 
for the purpose of dipping out the water, and from thence 
into a large reservoir outside the building. From the latter 
the water passes by a sluice into the service of a paper mill, 
and, after putting in motion the machinery of several manu- 
factories, falls into the Dee at a distance of about nine furlongs 
from its source. 

The neglected state of this beautiful edifice having forced 
itself upon the notice of the inhabitants of Holywell, a sub- 
scription was entered into, and the proceeds, about 400, 
have been expended in disengaging the chapel from some 
unsightly erections built against it, in restoring the windows, 
and in some general repairs necessary to maintain it for the 
purpose of a school-room, to which it is now put; but nothing 
has been expended on the crypt, which is, nevertheless, inde- 
pendently of the mutilation of the screens and decorations, 
in a state to excite the apprehension of all lovers of antiquity. 
Nor are the gentlemen to whom the expenditure of the fund 
has been entrusted open to blame on this account. The diffi- 
culties of effecting any substantial repair, when it is most 
likely to be wanted, are great and peculiar, so much so, that 
it is not easy even to speak with certainty on the actual 
condition of the substructure. 

The water, as already stated, rises with great force from a 
bed of shingle, on which the inclosure of the basin and the 
supports of the vaulting have been founded without any ex- 
cavation ; and in order to prevent the effects of the shingle 
washing away, the overflow of the basin is raised about four 
feet (the depth is unequal) from the bottom, and the sluices 
of the mill raise the surface of the water about two feet 
higher. This depth of water, in violent agitation, even when 
the sluices are opened, and the water above the overflow let 
off, effectually prevents the possibility of seeing the bottom of 


the basin, but by sending workmen into the water, it was 
ascertained that the shingle has disappeared from under the 
foundations of the walls of the basin, in some places nearly 
as far as the men could thrust in their arms, and in one 
instance at least, a squared stone has given way. This dis- 
appearance of the foundation, notwithstanding the judicious 
precaution originally taken to secure it, might appear a mys- 
tery, but that the well, in the days of ignorance, was frequented 
by bathers, who, it is believed, pulled out the pebbles, and 
carried them away as memorials of the miraculous properties 
of the water. In the original state of the building, the 
main basin was protected by the screens, but these have been 
broken down long enough to allow for the gradual abstraction 
of the bottom in this manner and to this extent. 

Whatever may be the cause, such is the effect, and under 
such circumstances this beautiful building cannot but be con- 
sidered in a state of peril, which calls at least for further 
examination, although as yet the arches do not exhibit any 
marks of settlement. It is possible that the contingency of 
the shingle becoming loosened, or washing from under the 
wall, may have been provided for. There is evidently a great 
mass of masonry in the substructions, and it is quite con- 
sistent with what is known of the constructive skill of the 
architects of the thirteenth century, when they thought it worth 
while to exert it, to suppose that stones of such large size may 
have been laid down, that they may continue to support the 
superstructure in the manner of corbels, but it is not easy 
either to ascertain the fact, or to apply the operation of under- 
pinning, should it prove to be requisite. To obtain access to 
the foundations, it would be necessary to empty the basin, 
and discharge the water as it rises ; and in order to effect 
this, the front of the basin must be taken down, and a channel 
as deep as the bottom of the basin cut through the outer 
reservoir, depriving the mill of its moving power as long as 
the repairs might be in hand. With so formidable an under- 
taking to contend with, it is cause less of surprise than of 
regret that the late repairs should have been restricted to the 
more accessible portions of the building, and that there should 
be no measures in prospect for its permanent security. 



THE accompanying engraving represents a portion of the 
small fragment which is apparently all that remains of the 
original pavement of Haccombe church, Devonshire : it is 
interesting from its being an instance of arrangement of an 
uncommon character, inasmuch as it is totally independent of 
plain tiles, whether square or oblong. 

It seems probable that the whole chancel was at one time 
paved with decorative tiles: soon after the year 1759 the 
greater part were removed, and the various brasses and slabs, 
now occupying its centre, were placed in their present position. 
In laying down these all the tiles seem to have been taken up 
except three rows to the east, immediately beneath the steps 
leading up to the Communion-table : for those forming borders 
on the other sides, namely, two rows to the north and south, 
and four to the west, as well as four to the east, retain no 
satisfactory traces of arrangement. Of the tiles thus removed, 
those most worn were placed in the north aisle : and those less 
so, form a very handsome slab of pavement in the passage 
through the principal aisle to the chancel. They are arranged 
thus : marigold windows are placed down the centre, with 
spaces of the width of a tile between; the other tiles are 
arranged in pairs in this space, and right and left ; and another 
row on each side completes the design. 

The pattern, of which a representation is here given, is that 
mentioned as remaining below the steps to the altar. It 
extends in an almost perfect state from the right hand side to 
the length of twenty-one tiles. On the extreme right a sort 
of finish is given by bringing the last coats of arms, wheel- 
window, and coats of arms close together, and arranging the 
shields points outwards : then follow three lions, and the pattern 
as engraved. A curious variation is introduced, for the tile 
which occupies the alternate places in the upper row, after 
thus extending to the length of fourteen tiles, (7 feet,) is re- 
placed throughout the other seven by one which appears in 
the engraving above the right hand coat of arms, this latter 
being changed for one with flowers, &c., in a battlemented 


border (see below, No. 12.) The sameness, to which a pave- 
ment of this kind is liable, is also partly removed by the indis- 
criminate use of the armorial tiles ; this, however, is perhaps 
accidental a . 

The patterns of the tiles, which measure six inches square, 
are as follows : 

1 . Within a circle, a lion rampant, the corners filled with a 
rudely designed foliated ornament. 

A lion rampant occurs in the arms of many of the Devon- 
shire families, as Redvers, Nonant, Pomeray, &c. ; here how- 
ever it was probably merely ornamental, as is frequently the 
case with heraldic animals introduced in pavements, ex. gr., 
those at Winchester, where there are no coats of arms, or other 
devices that can only be heraldic. 

2. The arms of England, placed diagonally, with monstrous 
animals, filling the sides and top. 

3. The arms of Haccombe, (argent, 3 bends, sable,) similarly 
arranged, and with the same animals filling the sides and top. 

4. The arms of Haccombe, as before; the sides and top 
filled with foliage. 

5. A shield bearing 3 chevrons, each surmounted by a zig- 
zag line ; the top of the shield dancette. Filled up at the 
corners, &c., with small lions, their backs turned towards the 
shield. (Compare Nichols' Specimens of Tiles, No. 82.) 

6. A shield : the arms possibly meant for seme of fleur- 
de-lis, two bars embattled, or two bars embattled between 
seven fleurs-de-lis, 3, 3, 1. This tile is even more coarsely 
executed than the others, and I cannot find any clue to the 
coat intended. 

From the arms, 3, 4, 5, the date of the tiles can be deter- 
mined to be about the middle of the fourteenth century. That 
in No. 5 is no doubt intended for the arms of Ercedechne, 
(ar. 3 chevrons sa.,) the zig-zag line merely representing a 
diaper, and the top being similarly formed for the same pur- 
pose of ornament. Now Sir John Ercedechne (or Archdeacon) 
a great benefactor of Haccombe church, where also he 
founded an arch-presbytery, about A.D. 1342, was the 
first of that name who held the estate, having inherited it in 
right of his wife Cecily, daughter of Sir Aubin de Haccombe : 

Might not the Royal Arms he most land," and "Ireland" on separate shields, 
effectively introduced into modern pave- and arranging them together ? 
ments, by placing "England," "Scot- 


and his grandaughter Philippa brought it to Sir Nicholas 
Carew, who deceased in 1404, aged 69, as appears from the 
elegant brass to his memory in the chancel. It is clear that 
the tiles, even if they were laid down by Sir Warren Arch- 
deacon, conld not have been designed much later than 1370, 
but they were probably twenty years earlier. 

7. Within a circle, two birds seated back to back, looking 
at each other : between them a plant, possibly intended for 
some sort of dead nettle. The corners are filled, apparently 
with a quarter of a circle, and another figure adapted in form 
to the circles on each side of it. 

This is not an uncommon ornament. An example occurs 
in the vestry of Bristol cathedral ; and I have seen a drawing 
of a similar tile at Tintern abbey. The more common arrange- 
ment, however, is with the whole placed diagonally, and the 
birds seated on branches of the plant, which has usually tre- 
foils at its upper extremity. This occurs at Winchester, 
Exeter, Bristol, and Salisbury 11 . And a similar but simpler 
form exists at Hereford. 

8. A circle, the corners being filled with foliage growing 
from it, and having a sort of diamond formed within it by 
circles sprung from the corners as centres. This diamond is 
filled by a cross and four squares, and the four spaces formed 
by the intersecting circles have fish in them. 

On the authority of this tile we might arrange those con- 
taining fish (ex. gr. Nichols, p. vi.) in squares, head to head, 
and tail to tail, as well as heads inwards, of which examples 
exist in the Exchequer chamber, Exeter cathedral ; in which 
case they resemble another not uncommon tile. Indeed some 
faint traces of the arrangement here suggested, exist in 
St. James' chapel, in the same cathedral. 

9. A diamond, formed similarly to that in the centre of 
the last described tile, and is filled with a row of spots and 
a flower of eight petals, both adapted to the space. The four 
corners contain coarsely designed fleurs-de-lis, pointing out- 

A somewhat different tile, to which the above description 
would apply, occurs in St. Michael's chapel, Exeter cathe- 

10. This tile is divided into nine spaces by narrow strips 

b Nichols' No. 98 seems to be a fragment of a tile of this sort. 
VOL. I1T. 


of yellow, having the effect of coarsely drawn circles, sprung 
from the centres of these spaces, and nowhere continued so 
as to intersect. 

"ll. This tile is divided by continuous yellow lines into 
sixteen squares, each containing a square with its sides hol- 
lowed out. 

12. Within a border, embattled externally, are nine six- 
petalled flowers, their petals formed like those of primroses. 
They are divided into three rows by wavy lines. 

13. A Catharine-wheel window, (four tiles completing the 
pattern,) the capitals of the shafts marked. The corners are 
filled with parts of a circle and a quatrefoil. 

This is a very common pattern. It occurs in fragments at 
Ipplepen, Devon ; at Exeter cathedral : and at Winchester it 
is largely used in the Lady Chapel. The Haccombe example 
is, like most of the other tiles at the same place, very care- 
lessly executed ; in fact there is not one tile with the shafts 
proceeding straight from the centre, though several moulds 
were employed, as appears from the number of these shafts, 
varying from nine to eleven. 

The number of existing examples of the original arrange- 
ment of pavements of decorative tiles is now so small, that 
any authentic evidence, such as the remains which have been 
described, deserves attention. It is chiefly owing to the 
neglect of such authorities, that the pavements which of late 
years have been so much in vogue, as accessories to architec- 
tural decoration, have for the most part so unsatisfactory an 
appearance, and harmonize so little with the structures which 
they are destined to adorn. 


Slrc&aeologtcal EntelUgence, 


The Rev. J. Graves, of Borris in Ossory, Local Secretary, forwarded the 
following communication : " Some time since the proprietor of the lands of 
Cuffborough, situate in the parish of Aghaboe, and Queen's County, ordered 
a mound of earth in one of his fields to be removed. After his labourers 
had cleared away a considerable portion of the hillock, they exposed to 
view a beehive-shaped structure of rough stones, three or four of which 
being removed gave entrance to a chamber within, which proved to be 
sepulchral. This chamber, measuring about five feet in diameter, had been 
formed by placing a circle of large stones on edge, at the back of which clay 
and small stones seemed to have been carefully and compactly banked up ; 
the upright stones measured about three feet and a half in height from the 
floor of the chamber. On the upper edge of this circle, and with a slight 
projection over its inner face, was laid, on the flat, another circle of toler- 
ably large stones, above these another row also projecting, and so on until the 
dome was closed at the apex by a single large stone. The floor of this 
chamber, which was perfectly dry, was covered by about an inch in depth 
of very fine dust; and in the centre, lying confusedly, were the bones of two 
human skeletons. The bones were quite perfect when first exposed to the 
atmosphere, but in a short time crumbled away. From their position when 
discovered, it would appear as if the bodies had been placed in a sitting 
posture, and that the bones, in the process of decay, had fallen one upon the 
other. One of the skulls was probably that of a female, being considerably 
smaller than the other, but on this point I cannot speak positively. The 
sepulchral chamber just described had evidently been built over the bodies 
of the deceased persons, there being no door, or other aperture by which 
they could afterwards have been introduced. The bones shewed no sign of 
cremation, and the impalpable dust covering the floor of the chamber, 
proved that the dead bodies had been placed there entire, and had under- 
gone the process of decay after being enclosed within the rude stonework 
of their tomb ; around and above which, earth had been heaped up, thus 
forming a regular sepulchral tumulus. 

Were there, at the present day, any doubt as to the purpose for which 
the well known tumuli, existing at New Grange, Dowth, and Knowth on 
the margin of the Boyne, near Drogheda, had been constructed, the tumulus 
and sepulchral chamber above described, would serve to indicate that pur- 
pose ; lor, although on a very diminutive scale, it is identical in principles 
of construction with the former ones, presenting only such differences in 


detail as may be accounted for by its far inferior size. The tumuli on the 
Boyne were royal sepulchres, each comprising many chambers connected by 
passages, whilst the Cuffborough tumulus was most probably the burial 
place of a petty chieftain of the district. Mr. Petrie in his recent able work 
has proved beyond a doubt that the tumuli on the Boyne were erected as 
the burial places of the Irish monarchs of the Tuatha De Danann race : in 
proof of which he quotes, in the original Irish, a passage from the " Dinn- 
senchus"' (contained in the Book of Ballymote, fol. 190) descriptive of that 
royal cemetery, of which the following is his translation : 

' Of the monuments of Brugh (Brugh-na-Boinne) here, viz., the bed of the 
daughter of Forann, the Monument of the Dagda, the Mound of the Morri- 
gan, the Monument of (the monster) Mata ; .... the Bare of Crimthann 
Nianar 8 , in which he was interred ; the grave of Fedelmidh the Lawgiver b ; 
the Cairn-ail (stone earn) of Conn of the Hundred Battles c ; the Cumot 
(commensurate grave) ofCairbre Lifeachair d ; the Fulacht of Fiacha Sraiph- 
line e .' Petrie s Eccl. Architecture of Ireland, $*e., pp. 100, 101. 

From the above passage we are enabled to assign the tumuli on the Boyne 
to a date from about B.C. 100 to A.D. 200; from its similarity of type the 
tumulus at Cuffborough must be considered of the same period. This tumu- 
lus presents an example of the disuse of cremation. Whether or not the 
remains originally deposited in New Grange, and the other tumuli on the 
Boyne, were subjected to the action of fire, has not, that I am aware of, been 
certainly determined. If we may credit Ledwich, no remains of ashes or 
marks of cremation were observable there in his time : and he mentions 
having seen it stated in the MS. additions to the Louthiana, made by Mr. 
Wright, and then in possession of a Mr. Allen of Darlington, that on first 
entering the dome of New Grange two skeletons were found f . However 
this may have been, the modern condition of the royal tumuli on the Boyne 
cannot be depended on with the same certainty as that of the small tumulus 
under notice; for whilst the latter from its very insignificance escaped vio- 
lation, and remained undisturbed until accident at the present day caused 
its discovery, the former, being the well known burial place of the Irish 
kings, were at a very early period broken open in search of plunder ; the 
annals of Ulster, as quoted by Mr. Petrie, relate this act of spoliation as 
follows : 

' A.D. 862. The cave of Achadh Aldai, and of Cnodhba (Knowth), and 
the cave of the sepulchre of Boadan over Dubhad (Dowth), and the cave of 
the wife of Gobhan, were searched by the Danes, quod antea non perfectum 

B Crimthann Nianar became monarch J Cairbre Lifeachair became monarch of 

of Ireland, A.M. 4021, and reigned 16 Ireland, A.D. 254, and reigned 27 years. 

years. Keating's History of Ireland. Ibid. 

Table of Kings. . e Fiacha Sraiphtine became monarch of 

b Fedelmidh the Lawgiver became mo- Ireland, A.D. 282, and reigned 30 years. 

narch of Ireland, A.D. 113, and reigned Ibid. 

3 years. Ibid. f Led.wich's Antiquities, 2nd ed. p. 44. 

c Conn of the Hundred Battles became New Grange was first opened in modern 

monarch of Ireland, A.D. 122, and reigned times in the year 1699. Ibid. 
7 years. Ibid. 


i >l. on one occasion that the three kings, Amlaff, Imar, and Auisle, were 
plundering the territory of Flann the son of Conaing.' Eccl. Architecture 
of Ireland, Sfc., p. 102. 

I regret to state that shortly after the discovery of the tumulus at Cuff- 
borough, some persons proceeded to excavate beneath the upright stones 
which formed the base of the chamber, in search of that much desired object, 
' a crock of gold,' by which the entire structure was reduced to an undis- 
tinguishable mass of ruin; and the very stones are, I believe, now removed. 
But in order that so interesting an example of ancient Irish pagan sepulture 
may not be lost, I trust that this hurried notice of it may be deemed worthy 
of a place in the pages of the Archaeological Journal." 

Sir Philip de Malpas Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P., communicated the 
following note on the discovery of a sepulchral urn in a tumulus on Dela- 
mere Forest, Cheshire. 

" In Ormerod's History of Cheshire the following description is given of 
a group of tumuli on Delamere Forest : 

* A mile south-east of the foot of the hill, (of Eddisbury,) at the lower end 
of a small natural lake called Fish Pool, are the tumuli known by the 
name of the Seven Lows, undoubtedly the ' vn Loos' alluded to by 
Leland as the marks of ' men of warre,' and much spoken of in his time. 
They are ranged in a form nearly semicircular, and are of different sizes, 
varying in diameter at the base from 105 to 40 feet.' In a note at the foot 
of the page the measurements are detailed thus. ' Beginning at the highest 
tumulus in the annexed plan, and following the semicircle, the tumuli 
measure in diameter at the base 105, 45, 40, 105, 66, 68 feet. The 
seventh has been carried away to form a road. The plans of these tumuli have 
been reduced from the great map of the forest, by permission of the com- 
missioners.' The text continues ; ' One has been removed in the recent 
alterations on the forest, and another was opened at a former period, both 
of which were composed of the dry gravelly soil of the forest, and contained 
a black matter, similar to that which appeared on opening Castle Hill Cob.' 
The latter is a tumulus also on Delamere Forest, in connection with a 
second called Glead Hill Cob, and is stated to have contained ' a quantity 
of black soil, which might be supposed to be either animal matter, or pro- 
duced by the effects of fire.' By an act of parliament, which received the 
royal assent June 9, 1812, two commissioners were appointed for allotting 
the waste lands on the forest, and that portion including the Seven Lows 
fell to my share. From that period until very recently the tumuli remained 
undisturbed ; but, in February last, a tenant employed in cultivating the 
adjoining land, being in want of materials to level an old road, opened for 
that purpose the tumulus referred to in Ormerod's plan as No. 6. On 
digging into it he found, that so far from being composed of the ' dry 
gravelly soil of the forest,' as the others were, with the exception of the 
superficial covering, it was composed entirely of fragments of the sandstone 
rock, derived apparently from an old quarry between the tumulus and the 
lake on its north, called Fish Pool. On my return from London some days 


after this, having received information that an urn, containing bones, had 
been found, I proceeded to the spot, and obtained what information I could 
from an examination of the remainder of the tumulus, and the account 
given by the workmen of the portions they had removed. On digging into 
the mound on the east side, they arrived at a single layer of stones ; on 
advancing a little further they found two layers ; still further the stones 
were three, four, and five deep. The urn was found on the north-east 
side, where the stones were two in depth. It was reversed on a flat stone, 
and had no covering further than the superficial soil. Fragments of char- 
coal and earth, discoloured by fire, were found over a great part of the 
floor of the mound. From this description obtained from the workmen, 
(and which I believe to be substantially correct,) and from the appearance 
of the portion of the tumulus remaining at the time of my visit, it appears 
that the modus operandi in its construction was this : a circular area of a 
definite diameter was first selected, and floored with a layer of stones ; on 
this the funeral pile was constructed. When the fire was extinguished, the 
ashes and bones were collected and deposited in the urn, and the latter 
reversed in such a position near the circumference of the area that there 
should be no danger of its being crushed by the superincumbent structure. 
This being arranged, the tumulus was formed by piling up stones, and 
finally completed by a covering of soil. The quantity of stones in this 
tumulus cannot have been less than fifty tons. Its circumference was 
rather more than sixty yards, and the height in the centre 6 feet. 

" The urn is of earthenware, apparently slightly baked or sun-dried. 
The marks of the lathe are visible in the interior, but for lack of support 
while soft its form is far from symmetrical. Its dimensions are as follows : 
circumference at the rim, 2 feet 7 inches ; largest circumference, 2 feet 
1 1 inches ; diameter of the foot, 5 inches ; height, 1 foot 1 inch. At four 
inches below the rim a raised fillet surrounds the urn, and the portion 
between the rim and the fillet is rudely ornamented with parallel lines 
drawn diagonally in various directions, but never decussating. They appear 
as if formed by pressing a piece of twisted cord on the soft clay." 

The annexed interesting examples of the fictile vases of the primeval 
period were exhibited by Edward Strutt, Esq., M.P. They were discovered 
on a rising ground in the parish of Kingston upon Soar, Nottinghamshire. 
Numerous fragments of urns were found dispersed over about an acre and 
a half of ground, formerly ploughed land; they were deposited about 12 
to 18 inches under the surface of the soil, generally two or three urns 
together, surrounded by small boulder stones, and fragments of bone 
appeared amongst their contents. A bead of bone, some fragments of 
metal, and a few small portions of a coloured vitrified substance, apparently 
beads, which had been exposed to fire, were found with the urns. The vases 
are drawn to a scale of two inches to the foot. The first discovery of urns 
in this place occurred in making a plantation, during the year 1840 ; about 
three years after, further researches were made ; twelve or thirteen were 
found tolerably perfect, but the number deposited must have been large, the 



quantity of fragments being very considerable. The urns differed consider- 
ably in dimension ; the specimens here represented being the most striking 
varieties. A considerable number of vases, very similar in form, were found 
some years since, at Caister, in Norfolk. 


Another example of the curious ornamental collars, to which the name 
of "beaded tore" has been assigned by Mr. Birch 8, has been communi- 
cated by Mr. Thomas Gray. It was found by a labourer, while cutting 
turf in Socher Moss, Dumfriesshire, about two miles north of the Border 
Tower, called Cumlongan Castle. It lay in a small bowl, which measured, 
in diameter, 6^ in. and 3 in depth : this vessel was formed of thin bronze 
plate, very skilfully wrought. The collar, although similar in general de- 
sign and adjustment to the curious specimen in Mr. Dearden's possession, 
and the one communicated to the Institute by Mr. Sedgwick, differs froTn 
any hitherto found in the details of ornament. The beads are boldly ribbed 
and grooved longitudinally, each bead measuring about an inch in diameter : 
between every two beads there is a small flat piece, formed like the wheel 

Archaeological Journal, vol. iii. p. 32. 


of a pulley. The portion of this collar which passed round the nape of the 
neck is flat, smooth within, chased on the outer edge, in imitation of a cord, 
corroborating Mr. Birch's conjecture that this kind of collar was fashioned 
originally in imitation of a row of beads strung upon a cord. Socher Moss 
appears to have been a forest of great extent, and large trunks of trees are 
frequently found in it : numerous ancient coins, seals, and other remains of 
various periods, have been brought to light in cutting peat in this great 
morass, and the neighbouring heights are crowned by encampments, sup- 
posed to be of Roman origin. Mr. Gray sent impressions from two seals 
discovered in this moss : one of them appeared to be an antique intaglio, 
representing Mars, the other was a personal seal of late medieval date, 
bearing an eagle displayed. 


The Rev. W. H. Gunner, Local Secretary for Hampshire, reported the 
discovery of a large quantity of Roman coins, and the remains of a Roman 
villa, in Mitcheldever Wood, about six miles from Winchester, on the road 
to Basingstoke. Mr. Gunner stated that on proceeding to the spot he was 
informed that about two years ago the game-keeper found a few coins 
scratched out of the ground by the rabbits, and as this occurred from time to 
time, he was induced to dig in order to discover if there was any hoard con- 
cealed there. He thus exposed the foundations of a wall composed of flint 
and slates. The lower layer was of flint placed upon the chalk soil ; on the 
flint was laid a coating of mortar, and on the mortar a course of slates. In 
this matter, mixed up with it, were the coins, of which at least 1400 were 
found. Those which Mr. Gunner saw were all third brass, the only one he 
could decipher was of the Emperor Gratian. The excavations were con- 
tinued under the direction of the bailiff of Sir Thomas Baring, the owner of 
the estate. Foundations of walls were discovered in all directions round 
the spot; and fragments of Roman bricks and flue-tiles, some pottery, 
and two or three pieces of the so-called Samian ware, had been turned up. 
Mr. Gunner added, " There can be no doubt that these are the remains of a 
very considerable Roman villa. The site may be very distinctly traced by- 
means of inequalities in the ground, which, from being buried in the recesses 
of a very large wood, have hitherto escaped notice. The people employed 
in the wood had long observed that in the immediate neighbourhood of this 
spot the soil was very different from that of the rest of the wood. Such is 
certainly the fact. It appears to be artificial, and, I should think, brought 
from a distance ; for it seemed to be a black loam, whilst the surrounding 
soil is that which prevails in the Hampshire Hills, a thin light vegetable 
mould upon chalk. I will take an early opportunity of visiting the spot 
again, and should anything of interest occur I will inform the Institute of it." 

At the present time, when the study of the vestiges of the Roman occu- 
pation of Britain has received a fresh impetus, the following remarks on the 
authenticity of the treatise " de Situ Britannia?," attributed to Richard of 


Cirencester, may be acceptable to our readers. They are communicated by 
Mr. Macray, of Oxford. In 1747, Charles Julius Bertram, an Englishman 
who held the office of Professor in the Naval School at Copenhagen, 
pretended to have discovered an old manuscript which, he said, came into 
his possession " with many other curiosities, in an extraordinary manner." 
He sent an extract from it, together with a facsimile of three lines, to Dr. 
Stukeley, who,'deceived by its apparent antiquity, subsequently published an 
analysis of the work, founded on a series of letters from Bertram. The 
treatise first appeared in a complete form at Copenhagen in 1758 ; a 
translation of it was published in London in 1 809. From the date of its 
publication up to the present time it has been referred to by the best writers 
on English History. Whitaker, the historian of Manchester, dated from the 
discovery of Richard's work a new era for the elucidation of the earliest 
period of British history; Lingard, Lappenberg, and others have appealed 
to its authority. Nevertheless there has long been a suspicion of its authen- 
ticity; and in 1838 the council of the English Historical Society issued a 
paper stating the doubtful character of Richard's work, and explaining the 
reasons which led them to reject it from among the received materials of 
English history. M. Charles Wex, a German critic of distinction, has 
recently published 11 an essay to prove that this treatise was fabricated by 
Bertram. The points on which M. Wex relies are these : I. In the 
passages quoted from Tacitus readings are often found taken from later 
editions, readings arising either from accidental errors of the press in those 
editions, or from the conjectures of scholars. II. Where did the English 
monk of the fourteenth century get the fifteen Greek and Latin writers whom 
he quotes ? Where did he obtain Tacitus, and above all, where did he find 
his Agricola ? Whatever treasures the ancient monastic libraries in 
England of the seventh and eighth centuries may have possessed we know 
were destroyed by the Danish invaders. But even in the most flourishing 
period of the earlier ages, there was no Tacitus in England. Alcuin, who in 
his poem ' de Pontificibus' celebrates the riches of the English libraries, 
knew of no copy of this author. Of Roman historians he names only 
(v. 1549.) 

, ' Historic! veteres, Pompeius, Plinius, ipse 

Acer Aristoteles, rhetor quoque Tullius ingens.' 

The British historians of that period, Gildas, Nennius, Asserius, Beda, do 
not betray the slightest knowledge of the events of their native land as 
narrated by Tacitus. The advocates of Richard would seem to have in 
some degree anticipated this objection, as Stukeley remarks that Widmore 
had communicated to him a certificate from which it appeared that Richard 
received a license from his abbey, in 1391, to make a journey to Rome; 
but M. Wex observes that it is questionable whether in the 14th century 
a manuscript of Agricola was to be found even in Rome. Bertram would 

h M. Wex's essay is printed in the Folge, Vierter Jahrgang, Drittcs Heft, 
'Rheinisches Museum fur Philologie,Neue 184/5.' 


have managed the matter more skilfully if he had sent his monk on a 
journey to Fulda, and Corvey, where some knowledge was preserved, by the 
scholars of Rhabanus, of those works of Tacitus which were still in exist- 
ence there, although they had almost disappeared in the middle ages ; but 
there is as little trace of the Agricola to be discovered among them as in 
other writers. The Agricola seems to have been unknown to Orosius, and 
M. Wex doubts the assertion of Becker, that Jornandes had used that 
treatise. The first editor of Tacitus, Vendelin de Spira, did not possess a MS. 
of the Agricola, and it is yet unknown where Franciscus Puteolanus obtained 
a copy. It is remarkable, that where the information of writers whom we know 
ceases, there also ends, not the work of Richard, but the MS. of Bertram. 
At the conclusion a new paragraph commences with ' Postea . . .' and breaks 
off with ' reliqua desuut,' by the editor ; thus the manuscript presents an 
artificial hiatus precisely at that point where new disclosures might have 
been desired, but could not be anticipated. In conclusion, M. Wex points 
out the palpable fabrication of the map of Britannia Romana' accompanying 
the Treatise, which Bertram in his preface states to be of still greater 
" rarity and antiquity" than Richard's work, although it has been obviously 
compiled from authorities long subsequent to Ptolemy. 

Mr. James Talbot communicated, by permission of Lord Rayleigh, two 
remarkable gold rings, of Roman workmanship, elaborately ornamented 
with filigree. They were found in March, 1824, at Terling Place, near 
Witham, Essex, with a large hoard of gold and silver coins. The discovery 
occurred under the following circumstances : some workmen were engaged 
in forming a new road through Colonel Strutt's park, and, the earth being 
soaked by heavy rains, the cart-wheels sunk up to their naves. The driver 
of the cart saw some white spots upon the mud adherent to the wheels, 
which he imagined to be small buttons : at that moment Colonel Strutt's 
steward came to the spot, and perceived coins upon the wheels. Not fewer 
than three hundred were picked up at that time. Three days after Colonel 
Strutt's steward made further search, and found a small vase, almost per- 
fect, in which had been deposited the two gold rings, and thirty aurei, of 
the size of a guinea, with several silver coins, all as bright as if recently 
struck. Several other vases, in which no coins or other objects were found, 
lay near the spot ; they crumbled to pieces on removal ; the perfect vase was 
carried to Terling Place. The gold coins comprised eight of Valentinian, 
one of Valens, one of Gratian, nine of Arcadius, arid thirteen of Honorius. 
The silver pieces were thus enumerated ; Constantius, ten ; Julian, not 
laureate, one ; Julian, twenty-three, including one bearing a second head ; 
Jovian, one ; Valentinian, twenty-one ; Valens, forty-three ; Gratian, thirty- 
eight; Magnus Maximus, thirty-six; Victor, five; Valentinian, junior, five; 
Eugenius, seventeen; Theodosius, twenty-seven; Arcadius, forty-five; Hono- 
rius, thirty ; with two silver coins, uncertain, and two of bronze, ranging 
from about A.D. 335 to 445. The rings, of which, by Lord Rayleigh's kind 
permission, representations are here given, are interesting examples of late 
Roman work : one of them is set with a colourless crackly crystal or 


pasta, uncut, and en cabochon ; 

the other with a paste formed of 

two layers ; the upper being of a 

dull smalt colour, the lower dark 

brown. The device engraved or 

impressed upon it is, apparently, 

an ear of corn. These rings bear 

a considerable resemblance to 

one exhibited to the Society of 

Antiquaries by Lord Albert 

Conyngham, in 1842, and discovered in Ireland, with other gold ornaments, 
near the entrance of the caves at New Grange ; a denarius of Geta was 
found near the same spot 1 . Another ring, very similar in workmanship, 
is represented amongst Roman Antiquities in Gough's edition of Camden ; 
it was found on Stanmore CommonJ. 

A notice of the discovery of numerous antiquities in the part of Cheshire 
which lies at the mouth of the Dee, was communicated by the Rev. Abra- 
ham Hume, L.L.D., Local Secretary of the Institute at Liverpool. These 
vestiges of the various races which peopled the shores of that river in suc- 
cession, present the greatest variety, both as regards their nature, and the 
period to which they may be assigned. The collection formed by Dr. 
Hume comprises numerous ornaments of dress or personal use, implements, 
and curious specimens of ancient workmanship, chiefly in metal: fragments 
of earthenware, and a few objects evidently of modern date. A number of 
Roman and Saxon coins have been found, the latter being generally sub- 
divided into halves and quarters. We hope to be enabled to give, at some 
future occasion, a more detailed account of some of the curious antiquities 
which had been accumulated in the alluvial deposit at the mouth of the 


IN the second volume of the Archaeological Journal, p. 239, we gave a 
short account and plan of the remarkable crypt beneath the site of the nave 
of Hexham church, Northumberland. We then observed that it might 
probably be the identical subterranean oratory constructed by St. Wilfrid, 
and suggested the propriety of comparing its plan with that of the crypt of 
Ripon cathedral, originally one of Wilfrid's foundations. Mr. Fairless, of 
Hexham, to whom we were indebted for the materials of that notice, has 
since re-examined the Hexham crypt, and obtained a plan of that at Ripon, 
from which it appears that the design is the same in both buildings. 
Mr. Fairless remarks, that almost all the stones of which the Hexham crypt 
is constructed are sculptured, and, as we suggested, of apparently Roman 
workmanship. This circumstance induced him to examine the church at 
Corbridge, about four miles from Hexham, half a mile to the west of which 

1 Archacologia, vol. xxx. pi. xii. p. 137. 

Gough's Camden, vol. i. p. cxx. 



is the supposed site of the CORSTOPITUM of Antonine's Itinerary ; at any 
rate, the site of a Roman station, and probably that from which the materials 
for the crypt were obtained. He found in the walls of the tower of the 
church, both externally and internally, ribbed and variously sculptured 
stones similar to those in the crypt at Hexham, of which we engraved three 
examples in our former notice (vol. ii. p. 240.) A few of the largest carved 
stones in the tower of Corbridge have the lewis hole, like those covering 
the passages of the crypt. Mr. Fairless expresses an opinion that the 
whole of the tower is built of Roman materials, as he found carved stones 
in the inside of the top walls, and throughout all the stages in ascending. 
Since the' date of our previous notice 
the walled-up passages of the crypt | 
have been further explored, conse- 
quently extending their dimensions, but 
not so as to alter the general plan we 
have engraved. 


Mr. Fairless forwarded a sketch and 
rubbing of the curious decorated cross 
here represented. It is placed in the 
angle formed by the side aisles of the 
choir and north transept of the abbey 
church at Hexham, and has long been 
popularly regarded as the tomb of Alf- 
wald, king of Northumbria, who, ac- 
cording to Richard, prior of Hexham, 
was murdered by his uncle Sigga, A.D. 
788, at a spot called Cithlechester, near 
the Roman wall. It is scarcely neces- 
sary to observe that this monument 
is not more ancient than the four- 
teenth century. The slab on which 
the cross is sculptured is 6 feet 9 inches 
in length, 2 feet in breadth, and 7 
inches in depth : it rests on a moulded 
basement rising 3 feet from the ground. 

Mr. Du Noyer communicated a draw- 
ing and account of the monument of 
the Butler family, in the Franciscan 
Friary at Clonmel, of which an engrav- 
ing is annexed (see next page). Mr. 
Du Noyer observed that the camail 
is not usually seen of such a length in 
English effigies of the same period, and 
was probably copied from a relic of 

Incised. Slab Hezb 



much older date. The sword also 
is of the antique form, resembling 
the swords of the twelfth century 
found in Ireland, the distinguishing 
marks of which are a large pommel 
and small handle. This tomb was 
erected, according to the inscrip- 
tion, by Thomas Butler, Lord Cahir, 
and Elen his wife, about the middle 
of the sixteenth century, but the 
date is unfortunately in part ob- 
literated. The inscription com- 
memorates also the ancestors of 
Thomas Butler, commencing with 
James Galdri, or the Englishman, 
who died in 1431. 

Amongst the numerous matrices 
of official and personal seals, com- 
municated on various occasions, may 
be noticed the following, now in the 
possession of Colonel Barne, of Sot- 
terley Park. Two leaden matrices, 
of pointed oval form, one of them 
bearing a fleur-de-lys, with the 
legend, t{< SIGILL' WILL'I 
MOLENDINARII. A brass lozenge-shaped matrix, with a regal head 
issuant from a ship, as the principal device ; on either side of the head a 
star, above it a star within a crescent. Legend, J< j&tgtllum fcalUuorum D* 
DonifutCO. Date, the time of Edward III. A circular seal, apparently 
Flemish, upon which was represented an ecclesiastic, kneeling before the 
Blessed Virgin and infant Saviour, with the following legend, J< S' G 
P'PITI eCC'C PPEND' (ET) DeBeQ'GN'. A round privy seal, bearing the 
Holy Lamb; legend, J< SIGILLVM: SeCReTI. These interesting seals 
were all found at Dunwich, in Suffolk, and were kindly sent for examina- 
tion by Miss Gascoyne. 

Tomb of the Butler family. 

We regret that the difficulty of engraving the numerous illustrations re- 
quired for many communications of interest received during the last quarter, 
obliges us to defer them until the next number. 

Notices of Ntfo publications. 

Norman Invasion ; comprising an Essay on the origin and uses of THE 
Vol. I. 4to. Dublin, 1845. Also re-printed in royal 8vo., 1846. 

HE character of this work is already so well 
established that it is needless to reconv 
c^ N mend it to the attention of the members of 
the Institute. The object of the present 
H?) notice is therefore to make its value and 
fe| importance better known to those who 
have not had access to the original work ; 
^p to examine the data upon which Mr. Petrie 
has ventured to differ from the opinions 
received among well informed antiquaries 
on some particular points in his essay ; 
and to shew the light that has been thrown by his work upon the history of 

The first hundred pages of Mr. Petrie's work are occupied with an ex- 
amination of the erroneous theories of previous writers with respect to 
the origin and uses of the round towers. This examination is conducted 
with much tact and skill, and exhibits great learning and research. He is 
completely successful in the task he undertook of demolishing all pre- 
vious theories, whether of the Danish, or Phrenician, or Eastern, or Pagan 
uses of the round towers, and he satisfactorily proves that whatever their 
exact ages may be, they are certainly Christian. To use his own words, 
he has fully established, 

" 1. That not even the shadow of an historical authority has been ad- 
duced to show that the Irish were acquainted with the art of constructing 
an arch, or with the use of lime cement, anterior to the introduction of 
Christianity into the country ; and further, that though we have innumera- 
ble remains of buildings, of ages antecedent to that period, in no one of 
them has an arch, or lime cement, been found. 

" 2. That in no one building in Ireland assigned to pagan times, either 
by historical evidence or popular tradition, have been found either the form 
or features usual in the round towers, or characteristics that would indicate 
the possession of sufficient architectural skill in their builders to construct 
such edifices. 


" 3. That, previously to General Vallancey, a writer remarkable for the 
daring rashness of his theories, for his looseness in the use of authorities, 
and for his want of acquaintance with medieval antiquities, no writer had 
ever attributed to the round towers any other than a Christian, or, at least, 
a medieval origin. 

" 4. And lastly, that the evidences and arguments tendered in support 
of this theory by Vallancey and his followers, excepting those of the late 
Mr. O'Brien and Sir William Betham, which I have not thought deserving 
of notice, have been proved to be of no weight or importance. 

" In addition to these facts, the four which follow will be proved in the 
descriptive notices of the ancient churches and towers which will constitute 
the third part of this inquiry. 

" 1. That the towers are never found unconnected with ancient ecclesias- 
tical foundations. 

"2. That their architectural styles exhibit no features or peculiarities 
not equally found in the original churches with which they are locally con- 
nected, when such remain. 

" 3. That on several of them Christian emblems are observable ; and 
that others display, in their details, a style of architecture universally ac- 
knowledged to belong to Christian times. 

" 4. That they possess, invariably, architectural features not found in any 
buildings in Ireland ascertained to be of pagan times. 

" For the present, however, I must assume these additional facts as 
proved, and will proceed to establish the conclusions as to their uses origi- 
nally stated ; namely, I. that they were intended to serve as belfries ; and, 
II. as keeps, or places of strength, in which the sacred utensils, books, 
relics, and other valuables, were deposited, and into which the ecclesiastics 
to whom they belonged could retire for security, in cases of sudden pre- 
datory attack. 

" These uses will, I think, appear obvious to a great extent, from their 
peculiarities of construction, which it will be proper, in the first place, to 
describe. These towers, then, as will be seen from the annexed charac- 
teristic illustration, representing the perfect tower on Devenish Island in 
Lough Erne, are rotund, cylindrical structures, usually tapering upwards, 
and varying in height from fifty to perhaps one hundred and fifty feet ; and 
in external circumference, at the base, from forty to sixty feet, or somewhat 
more. They have usually a circular, projecting base, consisting of one, 
two, or three steps, or plinths, and are finished at the top with a conical 
roof of stone, which, frequently, as there is every reason to believe, termi- 
nated with a cross formed of a single stone. The wall, towards the base, 
is never less than three feet in thickness, but is usually more, and occasion- 
ally five feet, being always in accordance with the general proportions of 
the building. In the interior they are divided into stories, varying in 
number from four to eight, as the height of the tower permitted, and usu- 
ally about twelve feet in height. These stories are marked either by pro- 
jecting belts of stone, set-offs or ledges, or holes in the wall to receive 



joists, on which [rested the floors, which were almost always of wood. In 
the uppermost of these stories the wall is perforated by two, four, five, six, 
or eight apertures, but most usually four, which sometimes face the cardinal 
points, and sometimes not. The lowest story, or rather its place, is some- 
times composed of solid masonry, and when not so, it has never any aper- 
ture to light it. In the second story the wall is usually perforated by the 
entrance doorway, which is generally from eight to thirty feet from the 
ground, and only large enough to admit a single person at a time. The 
intermediate stories are each lighted by a single aperture, placed variously, 
and usually of very small size, though in several instances, that directly 
over the doorway is of a size little less than that of the doorway, and would 
appear to be intended as a second entrance. 

" In their masonic construction they present a considerable variety : but 
the generality of them are built in that kind of careful masonry called 
spawled rubble, in which small stones, shaped by the hammer, in default of 
suitable stones at hand, are placed in every interstice of the larger stones. 


so that very little mortar appears to be intermixed in the body of the wall ; 
and thus the outside of spawled masonry, especially, presents an almost 
uninterrupted surface of stone, supplementary splinters being carefully 
inserted in the joints of the undried wall. Such, also, is the style of 
masonry of the most ancient churches ; but it should be added that, in the 
interior of the walls of both, grouting is abundantly used. In some in- 
stances, however, the towers present a surface of ashlar masomy, but 
rarely laid in courses perfectly regular, both externally and internally, 
though more usually on the exterior only ; and, in a few instances, the 
lower portion of the towers exhibits less of regularity than the upper parts. 

" In their architectural features an equal diversity of style is observable ; 
and of these the doorway is the most remarkable. When the tower is of 
rubble masonry, the doorways seldom present any decorations, and are 
either quadrangular, and covered with a lintel, of a single stone of great 
size, or semicircular-headed, either by the construction of a regular arch, 
or the cutting of a single stone. There are, however, two instances of very 
richly decorated doorways in towers of this description, namely, those of 
Kildare and Timahoe. In the more regularly constructed towers the door- 
ways are always arched semicircularly, and are usually ornamented with 
architraves, or bands, on their external faces. The upper apertures but 
very rarely present any decorations, and are most usually of a quad- 
rangular form. They are, however, sometimes semicircular-headed, and 
still oftener present the triangular or straight-sided arch. I should further 
add, that in the construction of these apertures very frequent examples 
occur of that kind of masonry, consisting of long and short stones alter- 
nately, now generally considered by antiquaries as a characteristic of Saxon 
architecture in England. 

" The preceding description will, I trust, be sufficient to satisfy the 
reader that the round towers were not ill-adapted to the double purpose of 
belfries and castles, for which I have to prove they were chiefly designed ; 
and keeping this double purpose in view, it will, I think, satisfactorily 
account for those peculiarities in their structure, which would be unneces- 
sary if they had been constructed for either purpose alone. For example, 
if they had been erected to serve the purpose of belfries only, there 
would be no necessity for making their doorways so small, or placing them 
at so great a distance from the ground ; while, on the other hand, if they 
had been intended solely for ecclesiastical castles, they need not have been 
of such slender proportions and great altitude." pp. 353 7. 

This is an admirable summary of the whole work, and all that remains 
is to fill up the skeleton with examples. It is clear that the round towers 
must not be considered by themselves, but always in connection with the 
churches to which they are attached. 

One more example must suffice to shew this connection. 

" This tower, (Clonmacnoise,) as well as the church with which it is con- 
nected, is wholly built of ashlar masonry, of a fine sandstone, laid in horizontal 
courses, and is of unusually small size ; its height, including the conical roof, 

VOL. III. '/, 



being but fifty-six feet, its circumference thirty-nine feet, and the thickness of 
its wall, three feet. Its interior exhibits rests for five floors, each story, as 
usual, being lighted by a small aperture, except the uppermost, which, it is 
remarkable, has but two openings, one facing the north, and the other the 
south. These openings are also remarkable for their small size ; and, in 
form, some are rectangular, and others semicircular-headed." pp. 411 12. 

This is also the only instance in which the apertures are recessed, and 
Mr. Petrie observes " that it is a building obviously of much later date than 
the generality of the round towers, and presents an equally singular pecu- 
liarity in the construction of its roof, as compared with those of the other 
towers, namely, its masonry being of that description called herring-bone, or 
rather herring-bone ashlar, and the only instance of such construction which 
these buildings now exhibit." (p. 411.) Yet in another part of the work 
we find Mr. Petrie contending for the high antiquity of this tower, setting 
aside the strong evidence which would fix it at the end of the twelfth cen- 
tury, the Registry of Clonmacnoise, and the opinion of Archbishop Usher 
and Sir James Ware ; and endeavouring to prove by tradition that it is 
some centuries older, although the utmost that the incidental notices he has 
so ingeniously collected can prove, is that there was a church on this site 
at an earlier period, the old and often exploded, but constantly recur- 
ring, fallacy, of confounding the date of the original foundation with that 
of the existing structure ; and this appears to be the great blemish of 
Mr. Petrie's work throughout ; he has demolished all his predecessors, but 


is not content to let the result of his own labours rest on the basis of 
probability, and a comparison with similar buildings in other parts of 
Europe of the periods to which he assigns several of these interesting 
structures. We may follow him safely as a guide to a great extent, but 
must draw back from some of his conclusions, especially when he endea- 
vours to prove that the chevron and other well known ornaments usually 
considered as Norman, were in use in Ireland long and long before the 
conquest of England by the Normans. The evidence which he brings for- 
ward on this head is by no means conclusive, or satisfactory. In this par- 
ticular Mr. Petrie seems not to have escaped from the usual prejudices of 
his countrymen, in no one instance will the evidence on this subject bear 
sifting ; but as this is the only weak point in the book, it is not necessary to 
dwell upon it farther, and the examination of each particular instance would 
occupy more space than our limits will afford. 

With this protest we pass on to the more pleasing task of shewing that 
Mr. Petrie has brought to light a large class of buildings in Ireland of a 
period more remote than any that are known to exist in England, and has 
established their date with much research and ingenuity, in a manner 
which leaves nothing to be desired, and upon evidence which appears quite 
irresistible. In other cases, where the evidence is of more doubtful cha- 
racter, he states it clearly and candidly, and though he has an evident 
leaning to one side, generally that which gives the greatest antiquity to 
the structure in question, he endeavours rather to lead than to drag his 
readers along with him. 

" It must be admitted that the opinion expressed by Sir James Ware, as 
founded on the authority of St. Bernard's Life of St. Malachy, that the 
Irish first began to build with stone and mortar in the twelfth century, 
would, on a casual examination of the question, seem to be of great weight, 
and extremely difficult to controvert ; for it would appear, from ancient 
authorities of the highest character, that the custom of building both houses 
and churches with oak timber and wattles was a peculiar characteristic of 
the Scotic race, who were the ruling people in Ireland from the introduc- 
tion of Christianity till the Anglo-Norman Invasion in the twelfth century. 
Thus we have the authority of Venerable Bede that Finian, who had been 
a monk of the monastery of lona, on becoming bishop of Lindisfarne, ' built 
a church for his episcopal see, not of stone, but altogether of sawn wood 
covered with reeds, after the Scotic [that is, the Irish] manner.' 

" ' . . . fecit Ecclesiam Episcopali sedi congruam, quam tamen more 
Scottorum, non de lapide, sed de robore secto, totam composuit atque 
harundine texit.' " Beda, Hist. EccL, lib. iii. c. 25. 

" In like manner, in Tirechan's Annotations on the Life of St. Patrick, 
preserved in the Book of Armagh, a MS. supposed to be of the seventh 
century, we find it stated, that ' when Patrick went up to the place which 
is called Foirrgea of the sons of Awley, to divide it among the sons of 
Awley, he built there a quandrangular church of moist earth, because wood 
was not near at hand.' " 


" ' Et ecce Patricias perrexit ad agrum qui dicitur Foirrgea filiorum 
Amolngid ad dividendum inter filios Amolngid, et fecit ibi seclesiam terre- 
nam de humo quadratam quia non prope erat silva.' " Fol. 14, b. 2. 

" And lastly, in the Life of the virgin St. Monnenna, compiled by Con- 
chubran in the twelfth century, as quoted by Usher, it is similarly stated 
that she founded a monastery which was made of smooth timber, according 
to the fashion of the Scotic nations, who were not accustomed to erect 
stone walls, or get them erected. 

" ' E lapide enim sacras sedes efficere, tarn Scotis quam Britonibus 
morem fuisse insolitum, ex Beda quoq; didicimus. Indeq; in S.Monenna 
monasterio Ecclesiam constructam fuisse notat Conchubranus tabulis de 
dolatis,juxta morem Scoticarum gentium : eo quod macerias Scoti non solent 
facere, nee facias habere.' Primordia, p. 737. 

" I have given these passages in full and I believe they are all that 
have been found to sustain the opinions alluded to in order that the 
reader may have the whole of the evidences unfavourable to the antiquity 
of our ecclesiastical remains fairly placed before him ; and I confess it does 
not surprise me that, considering how little attention has hitherto been 
paid to our existing architectural monuments, the learned in the sister 
countries should have adopted the conclusion which such evidences should 
naturally lead to; or even that the learned and judicious Dr. Lanigan, who 
was anxious to uphold the antiquity of those monuments, should have 
expressed his adoption of a similar conclusion in the following words : 

" ' Prior to those of the twelfth century we find very few monuments of 
ecclesiastical architecture in Ireland. This is not to be wondered at, be- 
cause the general fashion of the country was to erect their buildings of 
wood, a fashion, which in great part continues to this day in several parts 
of Europe. As consequently their churches also were usually built of 
wood, it cannot be expected that there should be any remains of such 
churches at present.' " Eccl. Hist., vol. iv. pp. 391, 392. 

" It is by no means my wish to deny that the houses built by the Scotic 
race in Ireland were usually of wood, or that very many of the churches 
erected by that people, immediately after their conversion to Christianity, 
were not of the same perishable material. I have already proved these 
facts in my Essay on the Ancient Military Architecture of Ireland anterior 
to the Anglo-Norman Conquest. But I have also shewn, in that Essay, 
that the earlier colonists in the country, the Firbolg and Tuatha De Danann 
tribes, which our historians bring hither from Greece at a very remote 
period, were accustomed to build, not only their fortresses but even their 
dome-roofed houses and sepulchres, of stone without cement, and in the 
style now usually called Cyclopean and Pelasgic. I have also shewn that 
this custom, as applied to their forts and houses, was continued in those 
parts of Ireland in which those ancient settlers remained, even after the 
introduction of Christianity, and, as I shall presently shew, was adopted by 
the Christians in their religious structures." pp. 122 24. 

Many examples of these remarkable structures are given in Mr. Petrie's 



work, one, of which the evidence appears very complete, is " the house of 
St. Finan Cam, who flourished in the sixth century, and is situated on 
Church Island in Lough Lee or Curraun Lough, on the boundary of the 
baronies of Iveragh and Dunkerrin, in the county of Kerry, and four miles 
to the north of Derrynane Abbey, which derives its name from that saint. 
This structure, though nearly circular on the outside, is quadrangular on 

EODSE OF ST. FINAN CAM, circa A.D. 560. 

the inside, and measures sixteen feet six inches in length, from north to 
south, and fifteen feet one inch from east to west, and the wall is seven feet 
thick at the base, and at present but nine feet nine inches in height ; the 
doorway is on the north side, and measures on the outside four feet three 
inches in height, and in width two feet nine inches at top, and three feet at 
bottom. There are three stones forming the covering of this doorway, of 
which the external one is five feet eight inches in length, one foot four 
inches in height, and one foot eight inches in breadth ; and the internal one 
is five feet two inches in length, and two feet nine inches in breadth." pp. 

" In the remote barony of Kerry called Corcaguiny, and particularly in 
the neighbourhood of Smerwick Harbour, where the remains of stone for- 
tresses and circular stone houses are most numerously spread through the 
valleys and on the mountains, we meet with several ancient oratories, 
exhibiting only an imperfect development of the Roman mode of construc- 
tion, being built of uncemented stones admirably fitted to each other, and 
their lateral walls converging from the base to their apex in curved lines ; 
indeed their end walls, though in a much lesser degree, converge also. 
Another feature in these edifices worthy of notice, as exhibiting a charac- 
teristic which they have in common with the pagan monuments, is, that 
none of them evince an acquaintance with the principle of the arch, and 



that, except in one instance, that of Gallerus, their doorways are extremely 
low, as in the pagan forts and houses. 

" As an example of these most interesting structures, which, the histo- 
rian of Kerry truly says, ' may possibly challenge even the round towers as 
to point of antiquity,' I annex a view of the oratory at Gallerus, the most 
beautifully constructed and perfectly preserved of those ancient structures 
now remaining ; and views of similar oratories will be found in the suc- 
ceeding part of this work . 


" This oratory, which is wholly built of the green stone of the district, is 
externally twenty-three feet long by ten broad, and is sixteen feet high on 
the outside to the apex of the pyramid. The doorway, which is placed, as 
is usual in all our ancient churches, in its west-end wall, is five feet seven 
inches high, two feet four inches wide at the base, and one foot nine inches 
at the top ; and the walls are four feet in thickness at the base. It is 
lighted by a single window in its east side, and each of the gables was 
terminated by small stone crosses, only the sockets of which now remain. 

" That these oratories, though not, as Dr. Smith supposes, the first 
edifices of stone that were erected in Ireland, were the first erected for 
Christian uses, is, I think, extremely probable ; and I am strongly inclined 
to believe that they may be even more ancient than the period assigned for 
the conversion of the Irish generally by their great apostle Patrick. I 
should state, in proof of this antiquity, that adjacent to each of these orato- 
ries may be seen the remains of the circular stone houses, which were the 
habitations of their founders ; and, what is of more importance, that their 



graves are marked by upright pillar-stones, sometimes bearing inscriptions 
in the Ogham character, as found on monuments presumed to be pagan, and 
in other instances, as at the oratory of Gallerus, with an inscription in 
the Graco-Roman or Byzantine character of the fourth or fifth century, 
of which the annexed is an accurate copy. 

This inscription is not perfectly legible in all its letters, but is sufficiently 
so to preserve the name of the ecclesiastic, viz. 


" It is greatly to be regretted that any part of this inscription should be 
imperfect, but we have a well-preserved and most interesting example of 
the whole alphabet of this character on a pillar-stone now used as a grave- 
stone in the church-yard of Kilmalkedar, about a mile distant from the 
former, and where there are the remains of a similar oratory. Of this in- 
scription I also annex a copy :" p. 131. 

Of the doorways, windows, and other details of these buildings we have 
a copious selection. 

" The next example, which I have to submit to the reader, is of some- 
what later date, being the doorway of the church of St. Fechin, at Fore, 
in the county of Westmeath, erected, as we may conclude, within the first 
half of the seventh century, as the saint died of the memorable plague, 
which raged in Ireland in the year 664. 

" This magnificent doorway, which the late eminent antiquarian traveller, 
Mr. Edward Dodwell, declared to me, was as perfectly Cyclopean in its 
character, as any specimen he had seen in Greece, is constructed altogether 
of six stones, including the lintel, which is about six feet in length, and two 
in height, the stones being all of the thickness of the wall, which is three 
feet. This doorway, like that of the Lady's Church at Glendalough, has 
a plain architrave over it, which is, however, not continued along its sides ; 
and above this, there is a projecting tablet, in the centre of which is sculp- 



tured in relief a plain cross within a circle. This cross is thus alluded to 
in the ancient Life of St. Fechin, translated from the Irish, and published 
by Colgan in his Acta Sanctorum, at the 22nd January, cap. 23, p. 135. 


" ' Dum S. Fechinus rediret Fouariam, ibique consisteret, venit ad cum 
ante FORES ECCXESI^E, VBI CRUX POSITA EST, quidam a talo vsque ad ver- 
ticem lepra percussus.' 

" Though this doorway, like hundreds of the same kind in Ireland, has 
attracted no attention in modern times, the singularity of its massive struc- 
ture was a matter of surprise to an intelligent writer of the seventeenth 
century, Sir Henry Piers, p. 172. 

" I have next to speak of the windows. In these features, which are 
always of a single light, the same simple forms are found, which characterize 
the doorways, namely, the inclined sides, and the horizontal and semi- 
circular heads ; the horizontal head, however, so common in the doorways, 
is but of comparatively rare occurrence in the windows ; while, on the other 
hand, the pointed head formed by the meeting of two right lines, which is 
so rare, if not unknown, in the most ancient doorways, is of very frequent 



occurrence. I may observe also, that the horizontal-headed window and 
the triangular-headed one, are usually found in the south wall of the chan- 
cel, and very rarely in the east wall, which usually contains a semicircular- 
headed window, the arch of which is often cut out of a single stone, as in 
the annexed example in the church of the Trinity, at Glendalough. p. 179. 


" A semicircular-headed window in the east end of St. Mac Dara's 
church, on the island called Cruach Mic Dara, off the coast of Connamara ; 
and a semicircular-headed win- 
dow, quadrangular on the inside, 
in the east end of St. Cronan's 
church, at Termoncronan, in the 
parish of Carron, barony of Bur- 
ren, and county of Clare : 

" The same mode of construc- 
tion is observable in the win- 
dows of the ancient oratories, 
which are built without cement, 
in the neighbourhood of Dingle, 
in the county of Kerry, as in 
the east and only window in the 
oratory at Gallerus, of which an 
external view has been already 
given, p. 182. 

" As an example of the gene- 
ral appearance of these primitive 
structures, when of inferior size, I annex an engraving of the very ancient 
church called Tempull Ceannanach, on Inis Meadhoin, or the Middle Island, 
of Aran, in the Bay of Gahvay. This little church, which would be in per- 
fect preservation if its stone roof remained, measures on the inside but 
sixteen feet six inches in length, and twelve feet six inches in breadth ; 
and its walls, which arc three feet in thickness, are built in a style quite 
vor. in. A a 

Window of St. C-onau's Church. 



Cyclopean, the stones being throughout of great size, and one of them not 
less than eighteen feet in length, which is the entire external breadth of 
the church, and three feet in thickness. 

" The ancient churches are not, however, always so wholly unadorned : 
in many instances they present flat rectangular projections, or pilasters, of 
plain masonry at all their angles ; and these projections are, in some in- 
stances, carried up from the perpendicular angles along the faces of the 
gables to the very apex, as appears in the annexed engraving of St. Mac 
Dara's church, on the island of Cruach Mhic Dara, off the coast of 
Connamara : 


" This little church is, in its internal measurement, but fifteen feet in 
length, and eleven feet in breadth ; and its walls, which are two feet eight 
inches in thickness, are built, like those of the church of St. Ceannanach 
already described, of stones of great size, and its roof of the same material. 
The circular stone house of this saint, built in the same style but without 
cement, still remains, but greatly dilapidated : it is an oval of twenty-four 
feet by eighteen, and the walls are seven feet in thickness." p. 186. 

One remarkable peculiarity will be observed in the greater part of the 
doorways in these ancient structures, they are built after the Egyptian 
fashion, narrower at the top than at the bottom : this peculiarity of con- 
struction Mr. Petrie considers as evidence of the very high antiquity of the 
structures in which it occurs, and he labours with much ingenuity to 
prove that the ornaments upon them are of earlier character than the 
twelfth century, the period to which he evidently feels that they would 
naturally be assigned. Without entering into this controversy, it may be 
observed that this peculiarity scarcely amounts to more than one of those 
provincialisms which we find prevailing in so many other instances, such 
as the churches near the Rhine, which were long supposed to belong to 



a very high antiquity, but which M. De Lassus has proved to be of the very 
end of the twelfth century. 

" The opinions which I have thus ventured to express as to the age of 
the doorway of the round tower of Kildare, and consequently as to the 
antiquity, in Ireland, of the style of architecture which it exhibits, will, I 
think, receive additional support from the agreement of many of its orna- 
ments with those seen in the better preserved, if not more beautiful, door- 
way of the round tower of Timahoe, in the Queen's County, a doorway 


which seems to be of cotemporaneous erection, and which, like that of 
Kildare, exhibits many peculiarities, that I do not recollect to have found 
in buildings of the Norman times, either in England or Ireland. The 
general appearance of this doorway will be seen in the above sketch : 

" The strongest evidence in favour of the antiquity of this doorway may, 
however, be drawn from the construction and general style of the tower, as 
in the fine-jointed character of the ashlar work in the doorway and windows ; 
and still more in the straightsided arches of all the windows, which, with 
the exception of a small quadrangular one, perfectly agree in style with 
those of the most ancient churches and round towers in Ireland, and with 
those of the churches in England now considered as Saxon." p. 235. 

Mr. Petrie gives a profusion of illustrations of the details of the church of 
the monastery at Glendalough, all of which have very much the look of 
twelfth century work, though he endeavours to prove them much older ; yet. 
they correspond so nearly with the details of the church of Cormac, that 



we cannot understand why the one should be considered some centuries 
earlier than the other. Neither can we reconcile Mr. Petrie's endeavour 
to prove the very early date of some of the latest of these structures, with 
his previous admissions respecting the general custom of the Scotic race to 
build of wood. The rude buildings of unhewn stone, and those of Cyclopean 
masonry may belong to any period, but fine-jointed masonry was not used 
in England before the twelfth century, and so far from this being evidence 
in favour of their antiquity, it is, so far as it goes, the very reverse. 

" The next example, which I have to adduce, is a church of probably 
somewhat later date than that of Freshford, and whose age is definitely 
fixed by the most satisfactory historical evidence. It is the beautiful and 
well-known stone-roofed church on the rock o.f Cashel, called Cormac's 
Chapel, one of the most curious and perfect churches in the Norman style 
in the British empire. The erection of this church is popularly but errone- 
ously ascribed to the celebrated king-bishop Cormac Mac Cullenan, who 


was killed in the battle of Bealach Mughna, in the year 908 ; and it is 
remarkable that this tradition has been received as true by several antiqua- 
ries, whose acquaintance with Anglo-Norman architecture should have 
led them to a different conclusion. Dr. Ledwich, indeed, who sees nothing 
Danish in the architecture of this church, supposes it to have been erected 



in the tenth or beginning of the eleventh century, by some of Cormac's 
successors in Cashel ; but he adds, that it was ' prior to the introduction of 
the Norman and Gothic styles, for in every respect it is purely Saxon.' 
Dr. Milner, from whose reputation as a writer on architectural antiquities, 
we might expect a sounder opinion, declares that ' the present cathedral 
bears intrinsic marks of the age assigned to its erection, namely, the 
twelfth ; as does Cormac's church, now called Cormac's hall, of the tenth.' 
Milner's Letters, p. 131. And lastly, Mr. Brewer, somewhat more 
cautiously indeed, expresses a similar opinion of the age of this building ; 
4 This edifice is said to have been erected in the tenth century ; and from 
its architectural character few will be inclined to call in question its preten- 
sion to so high a date of antiquity.' " Beauties of Ireland, vol. i., Introduc- 
tion, p. cxiii. 

" A reference, however, to the authentic Irish Annals would have shown 
those gentlemen that such opinions were wholly erroneous, and that this 
church did not owe its erection to the celebrated Cormac Mac Cullenan, 
who flourished in the tenth century, but to a later Cormac, in the twelfth, 
namely, Cormac Mac Carthy, who was also king of Munster, and of the 
same tribe with the former. In the Munster Annals, or, as they are gene- 
rally called, the Annals of Innisfallen, the foundation of this church is 
recorded." p. 283. 


Its consecration in 1134 is also mentioned in this and other cotemporary 

" The north doorway, which was obviously the grand entrance, is of 
greater size, and is considerably richer in its decorations. It is ornamented 
on each side with five separate columns and a double column, supporting 



concentric and receding arch-mouldings, and has a richly decorated pedi- 
ment over its external arch. The basso relievo on the lintel of this door- 
way represents a helmeted centaur, 
shooting with an arrow at a lion, 
which appears to tear some smaller 
animal beneath its feet." P. 290. 

The peculiar kind of double base 
which occurs in this chapel is found 
also in several of these Irish build- 
ings, and may be regarded as another 

The two following illustrations will 
serve as examples of the most peculiar 
of the windows, the first representing 
one of the small round windows at the east end of the croft over the chancel 
of Cormac's church; and the second, one of the windows in the round 
tower of Timahoe. 

Base nom Cormi 

Window of Cormac's Church. 

i the Round Tower of Timahoe 

Another very interesting feature in Mr. Petrie's valuable work consists 
of the number of examples with which he has furnished us of early tomb- 
stones, sometimes with inscriptions only, of which two specimens have 
already been given ; others ornamented with crosses, and with the inter- 
laced work usually called the Runic knot, which Mr. Petrie considers to 
have been in use in Ireland long anterior to the irruption of the Danes. 
These ornaments Mr. Petrie supposes to have been most used "during the 
ninth and tenth centuries, after which I have seen no example of it on such 
monuments." He gives examples also of several other figures of similar 
character, though not exactly the same, one of the most interesting of which 
is " the tombstone of the celebrated Suibine Mac Maelhumai, one of the three 
Irishmen who visited Alfred the Great in the year 891, and whose death is 



recorded in the Saxon Chronicle and by Florence of Worcester at the 
year 892," and in the Irish annals about the same period. 


We cannot conclude this notice of Mr. Petrie's very valuable work with- 
out congratulating him that this labour of his life has not been in vain, 
that he has rendered good service to his country, and contributed an 
interesting chapter to the general history of architecture. We take this 
opportunity also of thanking him for the use of the woodcuts he has kindly 
lent us for this article. 

By F. BEDFORD, JUN. London, W. W. Robinson. 

THIS is one of the best, if not the very best, of the Pictorial Charts of 
Gothic Architecture, of which we have lately had so many ; the lithography 
is beautifully executed, and the drawing on the whole is creditable: this 
cannot often be said of these publications, which have enjoyed much greater 
popularity of late than their merits in general warrant. They are all in- 
tended as royal roads to knowledge, and of course the knowledge conveyed 
by them is of the most superficial character. When confined to a parti- 
cular building, as in this instance, there is less objection to them ; they are 
a great improvement on the old guide books. Such lithographic drawings 
as these of Mr. Bedford's are vastly superior to the generality of the plates 
to be found in the local Guides, and for the purpose of mementos they are 
really valuable. 


ANCIENT AND MODERN ARCHITECTURE; consisting of Views, Plans, 
Elevations, Sections, and Details of the most remarkable Edifices in 
the World : Chronologically arranged by JULES GAILHABAUD. Second 
Series. With Archaeological and Descriptive Notices, by E. Breton, 
Girault de Prangey, Langlois, A. Lenoir, Raoul Rochette, L. Vaudoyer, 
etc. The Translations revised by F. Arundale, and T. L. Donaldson, 
Prof. Arch. Univ. Coll. London. London: Firmin Didot and Co., 
1846. Folio. 

Mr. Gailhabaud's second volume presents a marked improvement on his 
first. It contains examples selected from the Egyptian, the supposed Pelas- 
gian, Celtic, Grecian, Roman, Early Italian, Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance, 
and modern styles. The plates are well executed, particularly as regards 
details. Among the best of them are the general view, elevations, and 
details of the remarkable temple of Aroeris at Edfu in Egypt, the amphi- 
theatre at Pola, the church of St. Miniato near Florence, a remarkable 
specimen of the Byzantine style, the cupola of which was embellished by 
Luca della Robbia and his brothers with representations of the four Evan- 
gelists, and the Holy Ghost, a performance which Vasari mentions with 
praise. Five elaborate plates illustrate that splendid relic of Arab magni- 
ficence, the mosque of Cordova, and four are devoted to the interesting 
church of St. Francis at Assisi, a celebrated example of the pointed style 
in Italy, of the thirteenth century, which has been attributed, but erro- 
neously, to Niccola Pisano. Vasari's statement, that it was designed by a 
German architect who was brought into Italy by Frederic II., is borne out 
by the character of the fabric, more Tedesque than Italian. The elevation 
of the cathedral of Bale seems to be slightly out of proportion, and the 
details are not so satisfactorily made out as could be desired, a remark 
which is certainly not applicable to the fine plate of the church of St. Louis 
at Paris, a curious example of the meretricious style of the time of Louis 
the Thirteenth. This work may be fairly recommended to the architec- 
tural student, who will derive much assistance from the clever descriptive 
notices which accompany the plates. 

prising the Baronial and Ecclesiastical History of that Place and of 
Barnardcastle : with Descriptive Notices of Raby Castle, Staindrop 
Church, Denton, and many other objects of Antiquity in their vicinity. 
By John Richard Walbran, Honorary Member of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; and Local Secretary of the Archseo- 
logical Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Ripon : W. Harrison. 
London : J. B. Nichols and Son ; Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. 1846. 

This work, of which only the first part is before us, will make Mr. Wal- 
bran creditably known as an accurate, and not inelegant, contributor to 
the stores of English topography ; it is to be hoped there is sufficient 
taste in the district which he has selected for illustration, and its neigh- 


bourhoorl, to encourage him to complete a publication BO well begun. 
The viil.ige <>f Gainford, on the north bank of the river Tees, was <;iven to the 
see of Durham in the ninth century, by Egred, bishop of Lindisfarne, and 
according to a passage in Simeon of Durham, it was the site of a monastery 
founded by Eda or Edwine, a Northumbrian chief, " who had exchanged 
his helmet for a cowl," and was buried in its church in 801. It did 
not remain long an appanage of the bishops of Durham ; having been 
mortgaged in the time of bishop Aldune (998 1018) to the earl of 
Northumberland, whose successors, according to Simeon, would never re- 
store it to the Church. We have no other account of it until it was 
granted by William Rufus about 1093 to Guy Baliol, and it remained with 
his descendents until the reign of Edward the First. The possession of 
Gainford by the Baliols naturally induced Mr. Walbran to investigate the 
history of that powerful family, and among other results of his labour is 
an eloquent del'ence of that historically ill-used individual, John Baliol, 
king of Scotland, which has especially attracted our notice. As we pro- 
pose to d^'fer any general examination of the work until its completion, 
which may be looked for at no distant time, we have great pleasure on the 
present occasion in extracting the author's estimate of the character of the 
so called faineant king, of unfortunate memory ; it is a favourable specimen 
of Mr. Walbran's earnest style of composition. 

" The character of John Baliol, like that of most other unfortunate and 
unsuccessful princes, has been open to much unjust and ungenerous ani- 
madversion. He has been accused of betraying the liberties of his subjects, 
and personally of exhibiting a cowardly and unmagnanimous demeanour. 
Yet, since witli the majority, whether judging of the present or the past, 
success is hailed as virtue, while misfortune is branded as crime it may 
be well to consider, if even here ineffectually and thus obscurely, how far 
interested were his accusers; and what justice in that chivalrous day would 
be meted by uncongenial minds, to one, who it seems was more meek and 
beneficent than impetuous and warlike ; more inclined to the society of 
clerks than of knights; more conversant with the powers of reason, than of 
the sword. The accumulated obscurity of six centuries is but a dense 
medium wherein to view the stronger shades of character, moulded by 
circumstances and causes on which no actual light is thrown ; and which 
can only be faintly illumined by records and documents, framed cautiously 
and systematically for legal or diplomatic purposes. Something of this 
character may, however, be inferred from those few but important recorded 
actions, which must have been dictated by something more than casual 
circumstances, or inconsiderate inclination. If anything of hereditary 
qualities was transmitted from his parents, and fostered and directed by 
them to the formation of his disposition, he had a father who was liberal- 
minded and brave, and a mother whose piety and benevolence were the 
admiration of her own, and the benefit of succeeding ages. Of the pursuits 
of his early days we have no particular record ; but, since he was not then 
apparently destined to enjoy the great military inheritance to which he at 
VOL. in. B b 


length succeeded on the decease of his elder brothers, the rich and powerful 
Dervorguil might not inaptly extend to him her protection and her home ; 
and to his mental and spiritual nurture she, who then contributed to the 
direction of so many, would, we may be assured, never be careless or 
indifferent. The foundation of a chapel at Piercebridge ; the confirmation 
of his parents' Collegiate Institution at Oxford, that was disregarded by 
his brothers ; his selection of an especial number of dignified clergy to act 
among his assessors, on his competition for the crown even these incidents 
may indicate to many, and demonstrate to some, that he was influenced by 
the dictation, if not of purely religious, yet of serious and moral emotions : a 
tendency to which, the place of his education, and the doctrinal system of his 
tutors, might not ineffectually minister. A mild and christian-like spirit is dis- 
cernible in those extant diplomatic compositions, which, if not written by his 
hand, or under his immediate dictation, must have proceeded in spirit from 
his suggestion, and in substance must have met his approval. In his 
eloquent renunciation of his homage he emphatically objects first to the 
outrages committed against morality and religion. His appeal to the 
French king breathes the same admirable spirit ; and it may also be re- 
marked that, at a time when justice dictated, and circumstances commanded 
the renunciation of his solemn fealty, he sought and awaited the dispensation 
of him, who, he was taught to believe, could effectually blot out on earth what 
was registered in heaven. Between his temperament and his talent there 
might be, and probably was some disparity ; but the greater part, if not the 
whole of the obloquy that has been cast upon him, seems to have been pro- 
pagated by ascribing to his personal cowardice those humiliating submis- 
sions, which the estates of the realm had, by their indiscriminate and un- 
conditional acknowledgment of Edward's paramount authority, attached to 
the tenure of his crown. A principle was thus represented in, and neces- 
sarily carried out by, his person, that has ever since been humiliating to the 
people of Scotland ; a section of whom, in his own day, clamoured against 
him from interested and treasonable partizanship ; and others, since, be- 
cause they found it more convenient to make their humiliation a personal 
rather than a national act ; and to cast the blame on the one man, who, 
with a pardonable and natural deference of patriotism, received a splendid 
and undoubted, but otherwise unattainable inheritance, with diminished 
lustre, rather than on the regent representatives of the realm, who, un- 
patriotically, and with no defensible motive at all, consented to its surren- 
der under no definite condition. It was not virtually from his election and 
consequent submission that the kingdom was involved in centuries of com- 
motion and aggression. Every other competitor, even the "immortal" 
Bruce, made the same submission, swore the same fealty, and declared 
they would, if they might, receive the crown on the same condition as he. 
Edward's end was to be gained, and would have been gained, with each. 
He seemed to threaten like the furies of ^Eschylus, 

iya> 8f /Jiff tv^nvoa rfjs 8iKrjs 
Bapeia \^P? T 21^ 6fj,i\r](T<i> naXtv. 
" The means might have been more protracted ; the end more certain and 


severe. The relinquishment of the treaty of Northampton, founded on an alli- 
ance invalid and unconsummated, could not diminish the liberty or security of 
Scotland, which had then acknowledged itself a fief of England ; nor did the 
memorable appearance of its king before the English parliament produce any 
national or unreasonable concession. We may be both just and generous in 
ascribing that appearance, wherein he deferred his royal dignity to what 
appeared a religious obligation, from a desire to conciliate and temporise, 
when he too well knew that treason would be in his camp, as interest was 
in his council. He might indeed lack that brutal spirit that impelled Bruce 
to imbrue his hands in his kinsman's blood before the altar of his God ; and 
that regal magnanimity that condemned Wallace to his doom : yet, courage 
was never wanting when its presence would have been successful ; nor 
ceased he to resist until all resistance was unavailing. The appellation, 
too, from whence his cowardice has been imputed, or more probably, sus- 
pected, was, with an unamiable feeling easy to understand, applied to him 
only after the adornments of royalty were removed from him ; and at best 
can be deemed but of doubtful interpretation. But. whatever was his capa- 
bility or his disposition, it will tax our credulity but little to believe that, in 
an age when the effusion of human blood was but lightly regarded, he was 
guiltless of the foul crimes that stain so many of his contemporaries. That, 
from malice to his king, and by treason to his country, he never sought, like 
Bruce, to wade through slaughter to a throne, nor like Edward, in the exer- 
cise of his sovereign authority, to shut the gates of mercy on mankind. 

" When the imagination would invest with its airy forms the heroic cha- 
racters of the past, it may not inaptly linger long on the last days of this 
* dim, discrowned king.' Divested of the emblems of the sovereignty he 
had enjoyed ; defeated in his expectation of transferring his sceptre to a 
posterity that should maintain his name among the potentates of the earth ; 
separated by distance and by death from the associates of his youth, and 
the partners of his expectations ; oppressed by bodily suffering, and un- 
soothed by domestic attention how often, in that solitary and benighted 
gloom, as the old man sat in the chateau of his humbler, but happier fore- 
fathers, how often must 

' Memories of power and pride, which long ago, 
Like dim processions of a drtam, had sunk 
In twilight depths away ' 

memories of ingratitude, or contumely, or treachery, have compassed him 
round about ; and mingled emotions of discontent, and disappointment, and 
despair, have bounded painfully and bitterly through his heart a heart, 
that gladdened only by the light of day, might have found in the mighty 
magnificence of nature in the lone path of the hoary forest in the im- 
petuosity of the mountain torrent in the declining sun, that lingered like 
itself o'er his far-off realm a dignifying solace and a joy, which neither the 
worm within, nor the foe without, could alike diminish or destroy. It was 
the last scene of a sad drama, that needed but the pen of Drayton, or Mar- 
lowe, or Shakespeare ; and now lacks but the pencil of one master hand, to 
excite that immortal interest and sympathy they have won for more trifling 
scenes, and more unworthy men." 


OF ST. CANICE; together with Memoirs of the Bishops of Ossory ; the succession 
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the Ancient Episcopal Corporation of Irishtown, Kilkenny. By the Rev. James 
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Communicated by SIR RICHARD WESTMACOTT, R.A., and read at a Meeting of the Section 
of Antiquities, at the Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute, in York, July 23, 1846. 

The Ascension of Elijah, sculptured on a Sarcophagus at Rome. 

As the Arts are intimately connected with the epochs in 
which they are practised, and mark the state and variations 
of civilization and manners, more forcibly than any other cri- 
teria of their age, I have ventured, as Sculpture holds a dis- 
tinguished place amongst the medieval arts of England, to 


c c 


submit a few observations on its progress in this country, and, 
where possible, on the artists by whom it was practised. 

In tracing the history of the arts, generally, from their fall 
to their revival, the transition from pagan idolatry to the 
Christian religion, we are naturally induced to reflect on the 
similarity of causes to which they owed at once their destruc- 
tion and regeneration. 

We owe the revival of the arts wholly to religion; but 
Christianity, which had made great progress in the third cen- 
tury, notwithstanding its persecution, had scarcely ascended 
the throne of the Caesars, when the Christians in their turn 
became the persecutors; these again became divided, new sects 
arose, and their consequent antipathies led to universal bigotry. 
A country so divided became an easy prey to the invader, and 
degeneracy in civil habits increased, until the pure principles 
of Christianity were lost in superstition. 

These dissensions are the more to be lamented, as Art, and 
Sculpture more especially, gave promise, under the first em- 
perors who had embraced Christianity, if not of being re- 
stored, at least of being sustained with no mean effect. 

That Art owes much to the pious regard which all nations 
have shewn to the dead, the Athenian states offer abundant 
examples, as also Rome and its colonies, whilst the vast ne- 
cropolis, lately discovered in the country of the Volscii, the ex- 
tent of which is yet unknown, displays a degree of magnificence 
and care for the preservation of the dead, quite astonishing. 

This consideration was the more extraordinary, as, though 
their heroes, it is true, were canonized and presumed to be 
ever near them, the ethnic doctrines represented death as 
everlasting sleep ; but, when the mysteries of religion became 
revealed to us, and resurrection assured, through the merits 
of our Saviour, a new sense arose and a new feeling towards 
the dead, and the subterraneous depositories, as may be seen 
in the earliest crypts of Italy, attest the early and firm belief 
in a future state, in the numerous representations of the 
raising of Lazarus. 

The subjects most usually treated in these early monuments, 
are, Christ as the good Shepherd, Christ giving His commands 
to the Apostles, and the Sacrifice by Abraham. 

Many of these works were produced by the best sculptors 
of the age, they are well composed, and executed with great 
freedom. The prevalent taste was indeed formed on the study 



The Sacrifice of Isaac, sculptured on a Sarcophagus at Rome. 

of those remains of ancient genius, which still continued, not- 
withstanding the destruction of the people who had given 
them birth, to govern the imaginations of succeeding ages. 

The examples to which I would chiefly call attention are 
taken from sarcophagi in the crypt of St. Peter's at Rome, 
and are evidently applications of profane compositions to 
Christian purposes. In regard to these, as well as the adop- 
tion of profane symbols, frequently found on old Christian 
monuments, it may not be irrelevant to observe, that the early 
Christians, to avoid the persecution directed against them, 
symbolized their religious rites, borrowing for that purpose 
such of the usages of the pagan mysteries, with which many 
of them were acquainted, as they found suitable. 

When St. Austin was sent to convert the Saxons, AJD. 596, 
the Pope, Gregory L, instructed him to accommodate the 
Christian forms of worship as well as he could to the previous 
customs of his disciples, to convert the heathen temples into 
churches, and to establish Christian, in the place of pagan, 
rites. This fact may serve to account for the preservation of 
many pagan symbols which are found in this country. 


The history of the Arts at Pisa, from the tenth to the four- 
teenth century, supplies the best information on the state of 
Sculpture and Architecture in Italy. Pisa may be considered, 
indeed, as the cradle of the restoration. What the exact state 
of Art was in other countries, or rather the degree of civili- 
zation, to the twelfth century, it is difficult to ascertain ; but 
the most immediate effect on the arts of England may be con- 
sidered as having arisen out of the crusades, an event which 
had agitated and given an impulse to every northern nation. 

The passions of men generally, but more especially of the 
nobility, whose only employment was war, had been much ex- 
cited by the promoters of the rescue of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and they reaclily enlisted under the cross, in the hopes of those 
spiritual rewards offered to them through the Church. This, 
doubtless, assisted by their communication with the East, at 
that time the chief seat of arts and commerce, occasioned on 
their return an attention to the improvement of sacred build- 
ings. Whether we owe it to their taste or to their fears, the 
fact is that we may date from the second to the sixth crusade, 
or from A.D. 1144, to 1228, the establishment of nearly six 
hundred religious foundations in our country. The more 
polished nations with whom the crusaders mixed, had attracted 
their attention to the sister arts, and Painting and Sculpture 
were called in to assist in the embellishment of these pious 

The effect of this religious zeal may be seen in many 
churches of that age. About this period we may date the 
erection of Rochester and Wells cathedrals, in both of which 
we perceive, but more especially in the rich and fanciful fo- 
liage which decorates the great west door of Rochester cathe- 
dral, a strong indication of Saracenic arrangement; whilst 
the composition and treatment of the rilievi, within the arch, 
remind us strongly of the simple character of the compositions 
of the Greek, and early artists of Italy, of that period. 

Wells cathedral presents noble specimens of sculpture, and 
these, I have no doubt, were the works of Englishmen, assisted, 
probably, as the composition of several of the statues, and the 
cast of the draperies would intimate, by foreign workmen as- 
sociated with them. The heads and other extremities mark 
that deficiency of knowledge which may tie readily allowed 
for in a rude age and people, with whom Art was in so in- 
cipient a state. 



We must consider the revival of Sculpture to have been 
formed on the remains of Grecian and Roman Art, whilst there 
was a constant struggle with native genius to banish the Lom- 
bardo Gothic, which, owing to German influence at that period, 
and to the skill which German artists had exhibited, was es- 
tablished throughout Italy. 

A misunderstanding, which arose in the year 1250, between 
the Emperor Frederick II. and the people, but more especially 
with the sculptors employed in building the church at Milan, 
contributed greatly to effect this object. These artists, being 
distributed about the country, not only improved their style 
by studying the works of Arnolfo and Niccola Pisano, but it 
appears that several Lombards and Germans were employed 
in assisting Niccola, both at Orvieto and Florence. 

The example which I 
here offer, is the repre- 
sentation of a head in my 
possession, a work of the 
thirteenth century, for- 
merly in Hereford cathe- 
dral. I find by a draw- 
ing made by my late 
friend, Mr. Phillips, at 
Rouen cathedral, repre- 
senting a specimen of 
sculpture applied in like 
manner to the springing 
of an arch, precisely the 
same style and feeling; 
shewing that both coun- 
tries were supplied from 
the same source, and I believe that every one conversant with 
. Art, will agree with me that the specimen before them is of 
the Pisan school. 

The character of Anglo-Saxon art, which prevailed to the 
year 1189, may be considered as having changed gradually 
through the times of the Plantagenet family to the reign of 
Henry HI., A.D. 1216 to 1272, when the Decorative style of 
architecture gave full employment to the sculptor, and demanded 
greater efforts of his art. This period, including about 180 years, 
from the reign of Edward I. to the latter part of that of Henry 
VI., may be regarded as the Augustan age of Art in England. 

Sculptured Head from Hereford Cathedral. 


Notwithstanding the check which ecclesiastical authority 
had received so early as the reign of Richard II., the Church 
yet exercised an exclusive control over the construction of re- 
ligious edifices, as it appears, in regard to the magnificent 
buildings of antiquity, that the priests or hierophants had con- 
trolled the erection of all works of a religious character. We 
find by a papal bull, prior to the year 1200, an authority to 
the heads of churches to build temples to the divinity, attach- 
ing to them, as the magnitude or elegance of the structure 
required, a certain number of "liberi muratores," or Free- 
masons, to direct and execute the ornamental parts of the 

During one century not less than five priors of Canterbury 
made architecture their study, and there can be no doubt that 
the cathedrals and monasteries, erected from the Conquest to 
the thirteenth century, were in greater part designed by 
ecclesiastics, who, during the slow work of years, had by the 
time of their completion formed another and a very different 
class of artists. It was a school in which the cementarii, or 
masons, acquired that scientific knowledge which had been 
elaborated by the churchmen in the solitude or seclusion of 
the cloister, and this they again transmitted to their appren- 
tices. To this class of artificers we may add the goldsmiths, 
who, like their Italian brethren of the same and later periods, 
generally practised as architects, modellers, or painters. 

Ample as the information is which relates to other circum- 
stances of the period, the records of the state of Art during 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries are so scanty, that it 
is not possible to offer any extended notice, either of the works 
themselves, or the practice of the artists. 

To the munificence of Henry III., the first monarch of 
England who paid attention to the Arts, may be ascribed 
the most beautiful works of the medieval age which we possess; 
indeed the monumental statues of Queen Eleanor, of Henry III., 
and of Aveline, countess of Lancaster, may be ranked with 
the productions of any country, of the period. Henry repaired 
the castles and other royal edifices, and by the introduction of 
foreign talent, established a taste, and developed the genius of 
his countrymen. 

There are works of this period highly deserving the atten- 
tion of the archaeologist, or lover of beautiful art. The Last 
Judgment, over the west door of Lincoln cathedral, may be 


cited as a specimen of the first quality, either for composition 
or feeling. The alti-rilievi, in the chapter-house at Salisbury*, 
have been suggested by very able compositions, and the scroll 
ornaments in the chancel of the church at Stone, in Kent, 
are amongst the most beautiful specimens of their age. An 
example of goldsmith's work of this early period may merit 
notice, namely, the " pulchra Mariola," or image of the Blessed 
Virgin, mentioned by Matthew of Paris as the work of Walter 
of Colchester. 

The number of artists in England during the reigns of 
Henry III. and Edward I. must have been considerable. It 
may, however, be questioned whether native painters and 
sculptors, of sufficient talent, could have been readily found in 
the provinces by the sheriffs, or other king's officers, usually 
appointed to direct the construction or repairs of public 
buildings. But if we consider the partiality of Henry for 
foreigners, the constant communication with Rome, and that 
a considerable portion of the benefices in England were held 
at that period by foreigners, it may appear reasonable to 
assume, that these circumstances must have materially in- 
fluenced the employment of the artists of southern Europe ; I 
have little doubt, from the peculiarities of taste which arose at 
that time, not only in England, but generally throughout the 
north of Europe, that it was induced by their introduction. 

It was about this period that the separation of the artists 
employed in the Pisan School took place. 

I am far from desiring to derogate from the fair claims of 
my countrymen ; I am, however, disposed to think that, in 
the good Art of those ages, although the greater part may 
have been executed by English artists, the taste and direction 
was due to foreigners ; indeed, from the intercourse which 
subsisted in the thirteenth century between England and 
Italy, I must candidly state my opinion, that we owe the 
finest examples of our monumental sculpture to the taste and 
suggestions of Italians. It is clear, from the general accord- 
ance and similarity in the character of Art, that these works 
can only be attributed to those men who had received their 
education, and perfected their style, in the school of Italy. 

Abbot Ware is said to have brought, about the year 1260, 
certain workmen and rich materials for the shrine of the Con- 
fessor at Westminster Abbey, and reference is also made to 

See representations in Britten's Salisb. Oath., pi. xxiii. 


mosaics, and other ornamental materials, brought to England 
by Edward I. b There is no mention certainly of any artists 
employed, but we may fairly presume that men who under- 
stood the application of these decorative accessories, were sent 
with them. 

Mr. T. Hudson Turner, who has devoted much time to the 
examination of the records, has been unable to supply more 
ample information on the names of artists employed in the 
public works in England during the middle ages. 

The records inform us that the design of the effigy of Queen 
Eleanor at Westminster, was furnished by Master William 
Torell, goldsmith, the canopy of the monument being painted 
by Walter de Durham. Mr. Hudson Turner suggests, and I 
am of his opinion, that Torell' s name was Anglicised from 
Guglielmo Torelli. He was contemporaneous with William 
the Florentine. 

It appears that there were two statues of Queen Eleanor, 
the second being a fac-simile of the first, taken probably from 
the model of that by Torell at Westminster, and placed over 
the viscera of the queen in Lincoln cathedral. There were 
also other smaller statues, three of which were made by Wil- 
liam de Suffolk, others by Master Alexander de Abyngton, 
and one by Dymenge de Legery, or " de Reyns," destined 
for the tomb in the church of the Black Friary, London, in 
which the queen's heart was deposited. 

The crosses at Northampton, Stony Stratford, Woburn, 
Dunstable, and St. Alban's, were the work of John de Bello, 
or Battle ; and John de Pabeham, in one instance, is men- 
tioned as his " socius ;" these were the " cementarii," or 
builders : the statues were the work of William de Hibernia, 
who executed also fifteen other statues, assisted by Alexander, 
called the " Imaginator." 

Waltham cross, the most splendid of the works of this 
character, has by some been ascribed to Nicholas Dymenge, 
a foreigner ; Roger de Crundale and Alexander the " Imagi- 
nator" being employed in the decorations. 

The cross at Westcheap appears to have been of a more 
costly character ; Michael de Canterbury, called " cementa- 
rius," is the only name mentioned in the records relating to 
its construction. 

b Compare Weever, Funeral Mon. 4-85; Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting, vol. i. c. 1. 


The following list comprises the names of artists which I have 
been able to collect from public documents : 

William Torel, or rather Torelli. Alexander de Hibernia. 

Dymenge de Legeri, called Nicholas William the Florentine. 

Dymenge de Reyns. John de St. Omers. 

Odo, a goldsmith. Robert de Amory, a Florentine. 

Richard de Crundale. Richard de Stowe. 

Roger de Crundale. Walter de Durham. 

Michael Crundale. William de Suff.' (Suffolk.) 

Master Alexander de Abyngton, le John de Pabeham. 

Imaginator. Adam de Shoreditch. 

William de Hibernia. Michael de Canterbury. 

The scantiness of this record of names of artists may be 
easily understood, if it be considered that the " cementarius," 
who engaged for the execution of the work, was alone named 
in the warrant, with one exception only, in which John de 
Pabeham is termed " socius" with John de Bello, or Battle, 
and, as the artists were employed under the "cementarius," 
their names were consequently unnoticed c . 

The productions of Sculpture, during the reign of Ed- 
ward II., demand little notice ; the statue, however, of that 
prince at Gloucester may be ranked with the good productions 
of the preceding age. 

Until the fourteenth century, the English, as I conceive, 
had enjoyed few opportunities of cultivating the arts of peace ; 
they must have depended in a great degree on communication 
with Italy, and, probably, on the alliances of their princes, 
for many of the arts of civilization. Until the reign of 
Edward III. we can scarely recognise an independent style of 
Sculpture in England. The revolution in costume in that 
prince's reign produced a vast influence on Art ; the flowing 
draperies, and beautiful arrangement of the dresses of females, 
with the fine chain-mail, which adapted itself to the move- 
ments of the figure, and was so favourable to the exhibition of 
natural forms, were then discarded. The light plate armour 
introduced by the Italians, and adapted to German taste, 
together with the less graceful costume of females adopted at 
that period, checked the advancement of Sculpture, and left 
little scope for the aspirations of genius. The good principles 

c See the accounts of the executors or in England," presented to the Roxburghe 

administrators of the affairs of the deceased Club, and fully noticed in Mr. Hunter's 

Queen Eleanor, published by Mr. Botfield curious paper in the Archncologia, xxix. 

in the "Illustrations of Household Expenses p. 167. 

vol.. III. D d 


of taste were irremediably checked, and never again appeared 
in their original strength; at the same time, remarkable 
examples of science or skill in the mechanism of Art were 
occasionally produced. The statue of the Black Prince in 
Canterbury cathedral is a splendid memorial of the ability of 
the age, and it is as successful a work of its character, in 
metal, as could have been produced. This statue was gilt, 
and some of the accessories were tastefully enamelled. 

The statue of Edward III., in Westminster Abbey, is a very 
dignified specimen of Art, and, with the statue of Edward of 
Hatfield, in the same church, is worthy to be placed in rank 
with the productions of the best period of English Sculpture. 
I have not been able to discover the names of the artists who 
executed either of these works. Amongst those employed in 
St. Stephen's chapel, mention is made of Michael, a sculp- 
tor, and of the following painters, Master Walter, John de 
Sonnington, Roger de Winchester, and John de Carlisle. 
About the time of Henry VII., the prevalent character of 
Sculpture was vigorous, and, although rude in execution, it 
was by no means deficient in feeling or expression. 

The effigies of bronze, representing Richard II. and Anne 
of Bohemia his consort, were fabricated, A.D. 1395, by 
Nicholas Broker and Godfrey Prest, citizens and copper- 
smiths of London, who also provided the enamelled scutch- 
eons, and other decorative accessories. The fine altar-tomb 
of Corfe marble was sculptured by Henry Yevele and Stephen 
Lote, masons of London d . 

By a document published in Rymer's Ecedera, under the 
year 1408, we find that British artists had even acquired a 
character on the continent. Thomas Colyne, Thomas Hole- 
well, and Thomas Poppehowe, obtained from Henry IV. a safe 
conduct, in order to carry over to Brittany an alabaster monu- 
ment, which they had executed to the memory of John IV., 
duke of Brittany, deceased A.D. 1399, and they erected it in the 
cathedral at Nantes e . This work was performed by direction 
of the queen, Joan of Navarre, who had been the consort of 
the duke of Brittany, previously to her marriage with Henry. 
A still more extraordinary fact has been noticed by the his- 
torian Henry, recorded in another document given by Rymer, 
that Richard II. granted to Cosmo Gentilis, the pope's collector 
in England, at a period even when Art was returning on Italy 

'' See the curious Indentures for these '' Ryiner, Feed., viii. p. 510 ; 9 Hen. IV. 

works, Ryiner, vii. pp. 795, 797. 


as in a flood, permission to carry out of the realm three great 
alabaster images, representing the Virgin Mary, St. Peter, and 
St. Paul, and a small image of the Holy Trinity, without any 
payment of duties for them f . The license included a large 
quantity of household utensils, tapestries for presentation to 
the pope, cloths and garments of English manufacture. 

The statue of gilt brass, representing Richard Beauchamp, 
earl of Warwick, who died A.D. 1439, in the chapel founded 
by him, at Warwick, is another fine specimen of the fifteenth 
century &. The name of the artists, Bartholomew Lambespring 
and William Austen, employed on this work, have been recorded. 
There exist many other works of great merit, which the limits 
of this paper will not allow me to notice. 

I now approach the last period of medieval art in England, 
in which the florid style of architecture, then adopted, de- 
manded all the powers of the artist, and of the sculptor more 
especially, to contribute to the exuberance of embellishment 
displayed at that time in religious edifices. 

We owe the most splendid monument of that period, in 
England, the Chapel of Henry VII., rather to the fears of 
that prince, than to his taste or feeling towards the Arts. 
Happily that edifice was projected at a moment, the most 
favourable to the development of genius ; England, speaking 
generally, had, it is true, profited little by the extraordinary 
revolution in Art, then progressing towards maturity under 
the auspices of the Medici, and other princes of Italy, by the 
efforts of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michael Angelo, 
yet the vast increase of artists of every description, encou- 
raged by more extensive employment for their skill, had 
occasioned emigrations to Germany and the north of Europe ; 
and we may reasonably suppose that many, at the period of 
the construction of Henry the Seventh's chapel, had found 
employment in England, and become associated with our own 
artists. The Flemish artists, in one class of workmanship, at 
this period, during the times of Pius III. and Julius II., 
equalled, if they did not surpass the Italians, in the execution 
of dies, for striking medals, or of matrices of seals. 

Mr. Britton, to whom we are, perhaps, more indebted for 
archaeological information, than to any person in this kingdom, 

1 Rymer, Feed., vii. p. 357 ; 5 Ric. II., striking effigy given by Charles Stothard, 
1382. and Mr. Blore. The contracts for the 

* See the accurate representations of this tomb are given by Dugdale. 



does not appear, in his catalogue of names of artists employed 
on Henry the Seventh's chapel, to have noticed the name of 
any foreigner engaged on that work, with the exception of 
Torregiano. He mentions master Pageny, who supplied a 
"patrone" for the marble tomb, Lawrence Ymber, carver, 
Humfray Walker, founder, and Nicholas Ewen, copper-smith 
and gilder h . 

Torregiano appears by the records to have been employed 
nearly five years on the bronze tomb of Henry only, placed 
within the chapel'. We may, however, reasonably conclude, 
from the character and draperies of the minor statues, and 
other decorations of that magnificent production, that the native 
artists had profited by the presence of so experienced a man. 

Statues from the entrance porch of the Guildhall. 

h See Britton's Archit. Antiqu., vol. ii. 
In the same document, cited by Britton, 
mention occurs of Drawswerd, sheriff of 
York, apparently an artist of the same 
period, and James Hales who made a 

wooden "patren" for an image of copper, 
for the earl of Derby. 

1 Agreements between the executors and 
" Peter Torrysarry " of Florence, graver, 
A.D. 1516: Archit. Antiq., ii. 23. 


From this period we may date the extinction of medieval 
Art ; the taste which followed, adopted simultaneously in every 
country in Europe, was of a mixed character, ingrafting the 
Italian and German manner with the old, and it left nothing 
either in architecture or sculpture to compensate for the inno- 
vation. Henry VIII. , although without the genius to improve, 
had the judgment to select the best, offered at that period to 
his choice. He was a distinguished patron of merit in all 
classes of artistic productions, and Vertue, in his catalogue of 
artists of the period, enumerates fifty, the greater part of whom 
were in the employment of that prince. 

As choice examples of the union of Italian with English 
feeling, towards the early part of the sixteenth century, I would 
notice, in conclusion, four statues, representing Discipline, or 
Religion, Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance, formerly pre- 
served at Devereux House, in the Strand, and removed a few 
years since from the Guildhall of the city of London. They 
were presented to Thomas Banks, the sculptor, and were 
included by Carter amongst the most valuable specimens of 
sculpture in England. 


PERHAPS no part of the ceremonial requisite for the due 
celebration of Divine Service has given rise to so much 
ingenuity and so great variety of design as the hanging of 
the bells. It is hardly necessary to observe that this is the 
primary purpose for which church towers were built, though 
they were often applied to other purposes also ; in hundreds 
of instances in most parts of the country, but especially in 
Kent, the lower part of the tower is vaulted, and used as a 
porch, and evidently built with that intention. The various 
forms, positions, and materials employed for bell-towers, open a 
wide field for investigation ; but this is no part of the purpose 
of the present paper, which is chiefly to call attention to some of 
the modes adopted in small and poor country churches to save 
the expense of a tower, and for this purpose to refer to a few 
out of the very numerous examples that have been observed in 
different parts of England. One class, which are properly 
called bell-turrets, in which the bell is enclosed in a small 


turret erected partly on corbels projecting from the wall of the 
gable, and partly on the wall itself, has been ably illustrated 
by Mr. Petit in a previous number of this Journal, but there 
are several other classes, which cannot with propriety be called 
turrets, and to some of these it is rather difficult to affix an 
appropriate name, but generally that of bell-cots seems to 
apply tolerably well, and it has the advantage of being com- 
monly understood and frequently used of late ; they are some- 
times called bell-gables, but as the cot often stands up above 
the gable, and frequently over the chancel-arch, this name 
does not seem so generally applicable. 

1. Corhampton Church, Hampshire, 

The earliest instance of the hanging of bells without a 
tower, which has been observed in England, occurs in the 
supposed Saxon church of Corhampton, (1) in Hampshire. 
Here there are two bells, and they are hung in oblong square- 
headed openings left in the wall of the gable, in the part cor- 
responding to the tympanum of a pediment in classical archi- 
tecture ; these openings have " long and short work" in the 
jambs, and have every appearance of being contemporary with 
the building. 

The next example that we have observed in point of date is in 
the early Norman church of Littleton, (2) in Hampshire. These 
are in nearly the same situation as at Corhampton, but more 
in the upper part of the gable, and the openings are round- 
headed, they are now plastered up, and a wooden bell-cot 
erected on the gable. 

The next in order of this class is Ashley, (3) also in Hampshire, 



a. -Luileum, Hampshire. 

3. Ashley, Hampshire. 

which is of transition Norman character. Here the bells are 
still hanging in the openings, and seem to be as old as the 
building. The plain Norman imposts to the arches leave no 
doubts of their age, and the peculiar form of the bells, having 
no rims turned outwards, but a thick plain edge, seems to 
indicate an equally great antiquity. 

These three examples being 
all in the same neighbour- 
hood, the fashion may per- 
haps be considered as a pro- 
vincialism, but it is pro- 
bable that if the plaster or 
rough-cast were stripped off 
the west gables of very many 
of our small ancient churches, 
the same arrangement would 
be found to have formerly 
existed. The same neighbour- 
hood furnishes us with another 
example of a different kind, 
not less remarkable, and of 
about the same age. King's 

KinJ s Somborne, Elan 



shire, has the west gable built up to a square top, instead of 
the usual pyramidal form, and surmounted by a corbel-table of 
transition Norman character, so that it is evidently original 
work, while the other three sides of the bell-tower are of 
wood, and must always 
have been so, for there are 
no preparations for carry- 
ing stone walls on these 

The more usual fashion 
is to have the bell-cot built 
upon the west wall and 
carried up above the roof ; 
examples of this kind in 
Norman work are not com- 
mon, but they may be 
found, as at Adel, York- 
shire, Northborough, (5) 
Northamptonshire, and in 
other instances. Another 
position for the bell-cot is 
between the nave and 
chancel, being built upon 
the wall of separation or 
immediately over the chan- 
cel-arch ; a good example 
of this arrangement, which 
generally has a very pic- 
turesque effect, occurs at Binsey, (8) near Oxford, in transition 
Norman work, and in Early English work the well-known 
instance of Skelton, Yorkshire, may be mentioned as proof 
of the elegant effect which may be produced by this arrange- 
ment. Another elegant example occurs at Little Coxwell, (6) 
Berkshire. More usually however, when the bell-cot is found 
in this situation, it is small, and intended for the Sanctus bell 
only. In Decorated and Perpendicular work examples of the 
Sanctus bell-cot are common, and frequently very elegant, 
sometimes with pinnacles, as at Idbury, (7) Oxfordshire, more 
often without them, and sometimes very plain ; instances occur 
of the bell remaining, as at Idbury ., and still used as the little 
bell to announce the arrival of the clergyman, but such examples 
are comparatively rare. This small bell-cot may also be found 

5. Northborough 




6. Little Coxwell. Berkshire. 

7. Idbury, Oxfordshire. 

in other situations, as at the south-east angle of the nave at 
Upwell, Norfolk; over the porch, as at Chipping Norton, 
Oxon ; on the east gable of a side aisle or chapel, as at Blox- 
ham, Oxon. In all these and similar cases it appears to be 
intended only for the Sanctus bell. 


S Btn*ey Church, Oxford 

E e 



9 Wanton, Rutland 

10. Little Caster-ton, Rutland. 

Bell-cots for the larger bells are generally at the west end, 
and usually rise above the roof, the west wall being carried 
up with openings to receive 
them : sometimes a single bell 
only, more often two, and occa- 
sionally three, but this is rare. 
The double bell-gable, as it is 
frequently called, is found abun- 
dantly in the Early English 
style in most parts of the coun- 
try, though more abundant in 
some counties than in others, 
especially in Rutlandshire ; some 
of these are finished by a single 
small gable over the two open- 
ings, as at Manton,(9) and this 
is the most common plan. In 
other instances there are two 
small gables, one over each open- 
ing, aS at Little CaStertOn, Rut- ll. PentonMewsey, Hampshire. 

land, (10) andPenton Mewsey,(ii) Hants. The bells are usually 



hung in these openings, simply on a pivot, to swing back- 
wards and forwards, but sometimes there is a wheel attached, 
as at Man ton. In general the ropes are brought down 
through the roof, and the bells rung from within the church, 
but in some cases the ropes are brought down on the exterior 
of the wall, and the ringers stand on the ground outside of the 

The various contrivances for strengthening the wall on 
which the bells are carried are 
also deserving of particular 
attention ; the most usual and 
obvious one is by buttresses ; 
of these there are commonly 
two, sometimes one only, and 
sometimes three ; when there 
is a central buttress there are 
commonly two small west win- 
dows, one on each side, and 
these are sometimes so placed 
as to be combined in appear- 
ance into one in the interior, 
the wall between being splayed 
nearly to an edge; this arrange- 
ment occurs at Wantage, Berks, 
and Wilcote a , Oxon, and is 
not uncommon. In some cases 
however the central buttress 
is pierced for a single lancet 
window, widely splayed within 
through the thickness of both 
wall and buttress, as at Man- 

T i i mi i la ' 8t " Helen "> Toik - 

ton, Rutland. These buttresses 

were sometimes found insufficient for the weight and play of 
the bells, and an additional projection was given to them, as at 
Forest Hill b , Oxon, where one buttress has been added to, con- 
siderably more than the other, the effect of which is very sin- 
gular, though when the situation is considered it is easily 
explained; this example is strikingly picturesque. Some 
of the examples which have been referred to belong to the 
Decorated style, and such bell-cots may be found in Perpen- 

See an engraving of it in the Guide to b Ibid., p. 160. 

the Neighbourhood of Oxford, p. 272. 



dicular work also, but 
they are more com- 
mon in Early Eng- 

Another contriv- 
ance for strengthen-^ 
ing thewestwallwhen 
it carries the bell, is 
to throw an arch 
across it from but- 
tress to buttress, 
either in the interior, 
as at Strixton, Nor- 
thamptonshire, or on 
the exterior, as at 
St. Helen's, (12) and 
(13) York; the first of 
these carries a sort of 
lantern bell-turret ; 
the second has the 
bell -cot destroyed, 
but the corbels of it 
remain, an d now carry 
a modern wooden 
structure for the same 
purpose. The wooden 
pigeon - house bell- 
cots, so common in 
many parts of Eng- 
land, seem to have 
been in some cases 
the successors of ear- 
lier wooden structures 
of the same kind ; in 
other cases they have 
taken the place of 
the stone bell-gables 
above mentioned. 

There is yet an- 
other class of bell- 
cots, less common 

13, St. Michael-le-BeUry, York. 



- .. 

r l 

15. Cleave Abbey, Somerset. 

10 Welborne, Norfolk. 

than either of the others, and comparatively little known ; these 
consist of a sort of niche or canopy, projecting from the face 
of the wall to protect and contain the bell ; a beautiful example 
of this occurs at Cleeve Abbey, (15) Somersetshire. Other 
examples occur at Welborne, (16) Norfolk, both of which are 
very elegant and beautiful work, and at Godshill, (14) in the 
Isle of Wight, which is more clumsy, and seems to be of 
earlier character. 

Mention may also be made of a sort of small west towers, 
which may be considered as intermediate between bell-turrets 
and regular towers ; the west wall of the church is carried up 
and forms the west side of the tower, but the other three sides 
are carried up only from the roof of the church, and supported 
within on tall and slender piers and arches ; these have been 
frequently introduced at a date subsequent to that of the 
church, as at Wood-Eaton and Black-Bourton, Oxfordshire; 
but sometimes this arrangement is original, as at Nun- 
Monkton, Yorkshire, a very beautiful specimen of Early Eng- 
lish work. In this instance there are three lancet windows in 
the west end, the centre the highest, earned up into the tower, 
and opening within under a very tall tower-arch, the two side 
windows also opening within on each side of the piers of this 
arch; there being no aisles the effect is singular, but must 
have been strikingly beautiful when perfect. 

For some of the sketches made use of to illustrate this 
paper we are indebted to the kindness and liberality of Mrs. 
Willoiighby Moore. I.H.P. 



West Front of St Mary's Church, Portchester . A.D. 1133 1153 

THE stores of valuable information, connected with the his- 
tory of monastic, and other ancient establishments, in these 
kingdoms, preserved in the muniment chambers of the chief 
landed proprietors of the country, are of considerable extent, 
and, in many instances, almost unknown, even to their pos- 
sessors. It may be hoped that the periodical visits of the 
members of the Archaeological Institute to various localities 
chosen as the place of their annual assembly, must tend to 
stimulate enquiry, as well as the disposition to preserve these, 
or similar memorials of every kind, and to draw forth such 
concealed treasures, important in a high degree to the Archreo- 
logist, as affording evidences, not merely of local or personal 
history, but of the customs, the habitual feelings, and earnest 


piety of our forefathers. In the majority of cases, documen- 
tary evidences, connected with abbey lands, did not accom- 
pany the grants to private individuals, after the dissolution. 
They were either reserved by the crown, or, too frequently, 
perished in the fearful crisis of rapine and confusion, in which 
the religious establishments of this country were extinguished. 
The apprehension lest possessions, to which a curse often 
seemed to be attached, should at some subsequent time be 
reclaimed, led doubtless to the wilful destruction of a large 
number of documents; some were preserved by the crown, 
and, in a few cases, the entire series of records and grants, 
connected with the history of a monastery, passed with the 
lands alienated, and have been preserved to the present time. 
A remarkable instance may be cited, in the Battle Abbey 
muniments, forming upwards of three hundred volumes, pur- 
chased from Sir Godfrey Webster, Bart., and now in the 
collection of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., at Middle Hill. The 
voluminous evidences connected with the royal foundation of 
Southwick Priory a , by like fortunate circumstances, not having 
been dispersed, have remained in the custody of the posses- 
sors of Southwick park. The praiseworthy care of Thomas 
Thistlethwayte, Esq., has recently caused them to be arranged 
in a most judicious and complete manner ; transcripts of the 
more interesting documents have been made, abstracts and 
indexes compiled ; and from these materials, by his kind per- 
mission, the following brief notices have been extracted. 

The priory was originally founded, within the castle of Port- 
chester, by King Henry I., for canons regular of the order of 
St. Augustine. By his charter of foundation he granted to God, 
and to the church of the Blessed Mary of Portcestre, the same 
church of St. Mary, there founded by him, with the lands 
and tithes, and all things pertaining to the church ; also 
certain rights in his wood of Kynges-dene, and in his 
forest ; and confirmed to them the manor of Candevra (Can- 
dover), with certain lands in Suwika and Appelstede, which 
William de Ponte-archarum had given them ; for the benefit 
of the souls of his father and mother, of William his brother, 
his ancestors and successors, and for the state and safety 
of his kingdom. This charter is dated, " at Burnham, on my 
passing over the sea." Tanner, in his Notitia Monastica, 

a The name is variously spelt in the Suthwyk, Suthwick, or Suthweek; now 
deeds and charters, Suwika, or Suwic, written Southwick. 



fixes the date of this charter in 1133, because among the 
names of the witnesses occur those of Nigel, bishop elect b of 
Ely, and Geoffrey, elect of Durham, who, according to Matthew 
of Westminster, and other chroniclers, were appointed to those 
sees in that year. This was the year in which Henry took his 
departure from England, never to return alive. It is remark- 
able also as being the year in which the bishopric of Carlisle 
was founded, and Athelwulph, prior of St. Oswald's, conse- 
crated the first bishop . 

It is important to be able to fix thus accurately the date of 
the foundation of the priory, because it enables us to settle 
with a greater degree of precision the date of the building of 
the very interesting Norman church, which still exists within 
the castle of Portchester, and retains much of its original 
character. The plan was originally cruciform, with the tower 
at the intersection, but the south arm of the cross has been 
destroyed. The west front is remarkably good, and affords a 
very interesting and valuable example, as very few Norman 
fronts have been preserved entire and unaltered. In the inte- 
rior, along the walls on both sides of the chancel, and on the 
remaining transept, is a stone bench-table, and over it a range 
of rude canopies, or an arcade, evidently unfinished. 

The Font, Portchester. 

b There is a slight discrepancy between 
the charter as given in Ellis and Bandi- 
nel's edition of Dugdale's Monasticon, and 
that in the possession of Mr. Thistle- 
thwayte ; in the former Nigel is styled 

"bishop," in the latter, "elect" of Ely. 

c In the chronicle of John Brompton, 
the first bishop of Carlisle is said to have 
been Arnulph, abbot of St. Botolph's. 



Sculpture ou tbe font, Portcho 

The font is a very fine 
Norman example, with an 
intersecting arcade all 
round, and on one side 
a curious and valuable 
sculpture of the Baptism 
of Christ. 

The priory does not ap- 
pear to have been a foun- 
dation of much importance 
at first ; for although many 
of the monkish historians 
give an enumeration of 
religious houses founded by Henry, the priory of Portchester, 
so far as I have been able to ascertain, is not mentioned. Pro- 
bably it was intended only as a small religious fraternity, suffi- 
cient to supply the spiritual wants of the garrison and retainers 
of the castle. 

The holy brotherhood, however, did not remain long in their 
original abode. Whether it was that they found the interior 
of a strong hold, in the turbulent and warlike times of Stephen, 
too little adapted for a religious life, or that they were tempted 
by the quiet seclusion of the spot which they selected for their 
new settlement 11 , it is certain that they had quitted Portchester, 
and settled at Suthwyk, within twenty years from the time 
of the foundation. 

There is nothing to enable us to fix precisely the exact date 
at which this removal took place. But there are extant among 
the records of the priory two bulls of Eugenius III., by one of 
which he received the church and convent of Portchester under 
the protection of the apostolic see ; by the second he received 
them again under the same protection, and decreed that the 
rule of the blessed Augustine should be inviolably observed 
by the prior and convent, and granted them the privilege 
of free sepulture, saving the rights and customs of the mother 
church. But this second bull is addressed to the prior of 
St. Mary, and the brethren of Suthwyk. Now the pontificate 
of Eugenius III. began in 1145, and ended, with his life, in 

d The canons seem to have found the 
new settlement not altogether comfortable 
in some respects, for there is extant a 
letter from Pope Nicholas, permitting 
them to wear caps or amuces, during 

VOL. III. F f 

divine service, on account of the coldness 
of the situation, provided that due reve- 
rence were observed on the reading of the 
Gospel, and at the elevation of the host. 


1153; so that it would appear that the removal from Port- 
chester to Suthwyk must have taken place within that period. 
It seems not unlikely that this removal of the convent so 
soon after its foundation may account for the unfinished con- 
dition of some of the details of the church of Portchester, such 
as the arcade at the sides of the chancel, and the north tran- 

After the removal the priory grew rapidly in import- 
ance and affluence 6 , and enjoyed no ordinary share of royal 
bounty and favour. Almost all the kings from Henry II. to 
Henry VIII. , including even that great spoliator of religious 
houses, granted to the canons charters of protection, or very 
frequently the more substantial benefits of immunities, gifts 
of lands, manors, and churches. In the reign of Henry II. 
they possessed the churches of Portchester, Wymering, Portsea, 
Shalden, Nutley, and Wanstead ; with the chapels of Widley, 
Wallesworth, and Candever Scudland f ; and of Ymbeschet 
(Empshot) ; of St. James, without the priory gate ; and of 
the blessed Thomas the Martyr, in the parish of Portsea. To 
these were afterwards added the churches of Swindon, Bur- 
hunt, and St. Nicholas, West Burhunt. 

While the prior and canons of Suthwyk were themselves 
the objects of such pious liberality, they were, at the same 
time, engaged on a work, of which the beneficial effects are 
felt to this day. We learn from the Suthwyk records that 
the inhabitants of Portsmouth are indebted to the liberality 
of the prior and canons of Suthwyk for the structure which 
is now the parish church of Portsmouth. There is a charter 
of privilege granted by Richard Toclive, bishop of Win- 
chester, to the prior and canons, concerning the chapel of 
the blessed Thomas the Martyr, in the parish of Portsea, 
which they had begun to build with the advice and consent 
of the bishop. It is well known that this prelate took an 
active part in the persecution of St. Thomas of Canterbury, 
and was even excommunicated on that account. After 
Becket's murder he repented, and is supposed by Milner to 

e In the " Taxatio Ecclesiastica," made f There was formerly a manor called 

by order of Pope Nicholas IV., in 1291, Candever Scudland, probably a corruption 

19 Edward I., the possessions of the priory of the family name of Jordan Escotland, 

are rated at 32. 15s. 8d. per annum. In who granted his chapel, and the tithes of 

the Suthwyk records there is an inquisition his manor there, with a virgate of land for 

on the true value of Portchester castle, the sustentation of the chapel, to the prior 

32 Edward I., when its value was declared of Suthwyk. 
to be 10. 8s. 7d. 


have founded the hospital of St. Mary Magdalen, near Win- 
chester, in token of his penitence. The building of the church 
of Portsmouth, by Toclive's advice and co-operation, and the 
dedication of it to the memory of the martyred archbishop, 
may be taken as another proof of his sincere penitence. 
This record enables us to fix with some precision the date 
of the building, for Toclive's episcopate began in 1174, and 
ended in 1188. Amidst much alteration and addition, there 
are many portions of the present edifice which may be 
assigned to that date. It was built on a site given by John 
de Gisors, in a place then called Sudmede. In 1196, Bishop 
Godfrey de Lucy consecrated a burial ground at this church, 
on account of the great distance from the parish church of 

But to return to the priory of Suthwyk : from King John 
the prior and canons obtained Colmere and Dene, in the 
county of Hants ; this latter place no doubt derived the name 
of Prior's Dene, by which it is known at the present time, 
from having been the possession of the prior of Suthwyk. 
From Henry III. they obtained the privilege of holding a 
market every Friday, and of having every year a fair of two 
days continuance in their town of Suthwyk, on the eve and 
day of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary ; this 
fair was afterwards transferred to the feast of St. Philip and 
St. James, and two following days, by charter, in the fifth 
year of Henry VIII., 1514. From the two first Edwards they 
obtained grants of free warren in all their demesne lands of 
Suthwyk, West Burhunt, Baseville, Hyppelye, Crofton, Ste- 
byngton near Portsea, Newland, Avedemere, Mundesmere, 
Candover, Elsefield, Colmere, and Dene, in the county of 
Southampton, Fissebourne in "Sussex, and Clenefield in 

Edward III. was a considerable benefactor to the priory. 
From the terms of his grant, dated at " Wyndesore, the 10th 
day of July, in the year of our reign, of England the 20th, 
but of France the 8th," A.D. 1346, it appears that the lands 
of the priory of Suthwyk, almost under the very walls of 
the castle of Portchester, had suffered considerably from the 
attacks and reprisals of the enemy. This probably happened 
in the 13th year of his reign, soon after the breaking out of 
the war with France. In that year a powerful French fleet 
Committed dreadful ravages along the south coast of England ; 


on Sunday, the 5th of October, 1339, the invaders seized the 
town of Southampton, while the inhabitants were at church, 
plundered, and almost totally destroyed it by fire. " In con- 
sideration of the damages and grievances," thus states the 
grant, " which the prior and convent have sustained by burn- 
ings and destructions committed in their manors, possessions, 
and benefices near the sea, by his foreign enemies hostilely 
invading those places ; and, in consideration also of the heavy 
charges which they have sustained, and do daily sustain, by 
the resort of himself, his nobles, and others, to the priory, on 
their passage towards parts beyond the sea," Edward granted 
to them the lands of Crowker and Early ngton, with right of 
free warren, and the advowson of the church of Farlyngton, 
which had come into his hands, as an escheat, by the for- 
feiture of the celebrated Hugh le Despencer, his father's 
unhappy favourite, and were then held for life by John de 

In this reign also the priory was enriched by the bounty 
of that greatest of founders and benefactors, William of 
Wykeham ; he founded in it five chantries, for the pros- 
perous state of King Edward III., for the souls of John and 
Sibil, the founder's father and mother, for the soul of the 
same king, and for his own after death, and for all the faithful 
departed. To perform the service of these chantries, he con- 
stituted five canonries, in addition to the number already 
existing in the priory. He endowed them with the manors 
of Burhunt, Herberd, and Herbelyn, which he had purchased 
for 400, of Luke de Ponynges and Isabel his wife ; having 
obtained the king's licence for their alienation. 

The manor of Herbelyn was held of the king in capite, on 
condition of finding a man armed with an haketon, hauberk, 
bacinet, iron gloves, and lance, to keep guard at the east gate 
of the castle of Portchester in time of war, for fifteen days. 

William of Wykeham was consecrated bishop of Win- 
chester October 10, 1367. His statutes for these chantries 
are dated October 2, 1369. The priory of Suthwyk was 
therefore, in all probability, the first place in his diocese which 
partook of the liberality of that munificent prelate. There 
must have been some reason why he should have selected this 
church so early in his episcopate for such a mark of favour. 
From the records of the priory we learn a fact, which I be- 
lieve has hitlierto escaped notice, and which becomes highly 


interesting when we remember how ignorant we are of every 
thing connected with the family and parentage of William 
of Wykeham. His father, mother, and sister, were buried 
in the church of Suthwyk priory. This appears from an 
acknowledgment of a payment, by Thomas Ayleward, one of 
the executors of William of Wykeham, to Prior Thomas, of 
50, in part payment of 100 marks, for the works of the 
church at Suthwyk, and especially for the roof over the vault 
in which the bishop's father, mother, and sister were buried. 
This document is dated April 8, Henry IV. 1407 g . As there 
is no special provision left for this purpose in Wykeham's will, 
as given by Lowth, this money must have been paid out of 
the residuary estate, left to be disposed of at the discretion of 
his executors. 

Of the ancestors of William of Wykeham we know only 
that his father was called John, his mother Sibil, and that 
they were buried at Suthwyk. Every fact connected with the 
name of Wykeham deserves to be sought out and recorded. 
It is pleasing to find him, immediately upon his elevation, 
mindful of the place which contained his parents' remains, 
and so anxious to make provision for that which he believed 
to be conducive to the eternal peace of their souls. 

Notwithstanding his liberal benefaction to the priory, a 
few years later he seems to have had reason to be displeased 
with the state of discipline and order in the house ; for he 
held a visitation of the convent, " tarn in capite, quam in 
membris," and issued some severe injunctions against divers 
breaches of the conventual rule, arid even against some more 
serious offences. These injunctions are dated at South- 
Waltham, August 22, 1397. 

An event of considerable historical importance took place in 
the priory of Suthwyk, in the reign of Henry VI. According 
to Eabyan and Holinshed, the nuptials of Henry with Mar- 
garet of Anjou were celebrated there in the year 1445, being 
the 23rd of his reign. There is no direct confirmation of 
this, indeed, in the records of the priory; but there is a 
charter of Henry VI. to the prior and convent, dated March 
10, in the 24th year of his reign, A.D. 1446; and a second 

B The receipt for the remainder, dated pounds ten ounces, price of the pound 

May 3, 8 Hen. IV., (1407) is interesting, 28s.; and by one pair of silver gilt basons, 

;is sin-wing the value of silver at the time. of the weight of five pounds, price of the 

It states tint it was paid by one pair of pound 30s. 
silver candlesticks, of the weight of five 



dated July 16, in the same year, which may be taken as cor- 
roborative evidence of the statements of Fabyan and Holin- 
shed : the privileges and immunities granted in these charters 
are so ample as to shew that the king had some special reason 
for bestowing on the priory an extraordinary measure of his 
royal bounty and favour. 

From this period to the time of Bishop Fox the annals of 
the priory are entirely destitute of interest. During his epi- 
scopate, in the 10th year of Henry VIII., 1519, the priory 
church was struck by lightning, and during the repairs it fell 
in. It was restored by public contributions. The sum raised 
for this purpose was 530. The name of Bishop Fox occurs 
among the contributors. 

This was an ominous foreboding of that more fatal storm 
which was soon to burst over the priory, and to scatter its in- 
mates for ever. At its dissolution the site was granted to 
John White, Esq., of Southwick, in consideration of 251. 
13s. 4d., from whom it has descended, through the Nortons, 
to Thomas Thistlethwayte, Esq., its present possessor. Its 
revenues at the dissolution were valued at 324. 17s. lOJd. in 
the gross; 257. 4s. 4d. net. The 
present remains of its buildings con- 
sist of little more than foundations 
of a few walls. 

Amongst the " Chartse Antiquse," 
preserved in the Augmentation Office, 
there is a document, dated A.D. 1 189, 
to which an impression of the com- 
mon seal of the priory is appended. 
It bears no legend, and exhibits a 
church, with its porch, nave, and 
tower. The counter-seal was an in- 
taglio, bearing the device of an eagle, 
with the legend SPIRAT . VERVM . 
VICTVS . SPIRAT. Of the ancient 
matrix of the Southwick seal, now 
preserved in the British Museum, 
a representation is submitted to our 
readers, as an interesting addition to 
these notices of the priory. 


Seal of the Pdory ot Sn 
or Porfcea. 



Communicated by the HON. WILLIAM OWEN STANLEY, M.P., and read at a Meeting of the 
Section of Antiquities during the Annual Meeting of the Archaological Institute at York. 

Towyn y-Capel Holyhead, 

AT a distance of about two miles and a-half from the 
town of Holyhead, on the old London road, in the direction 
of the four-mile bridge, a steep descent leads to a level 
tract of land, about a quarter of a mile in length, composed 
of drifted sea-sand, now covered with short and beautiful 
green sward. At this spot the sea, at high tides, meets 
within a few hundred yards, almost severing the Island of 
Holyhead into two distinct parts. The public road crosses 
this space, and on the westward of the road, at a distance 
of about one hundred yards, rises a green mound about 
thirty feet in height, and 750ft. in circumference at the 
base. On the summit of this mound are seen the founda- 
tion walls of a small chapel, which has given the name of 
Towyn-y-Capel, the Bay of the Chapel, to the beautiful inlet, 
on the shore, and in the centre of which the mound is 
situated. Towyn signifies, in Welsh, a sandy bay. 

This bay is of considerable extent, and deeply recessed 
from the iron-bound coast, which forms the northern side of 
Caernarvon bay : a frowning and jagged barrier of rocks 
guards the entrance, and breaks the heavy wave which 


flows from the south-west, warning the sailor to keep at a 
distance from this dangerous coast. 

The ancient name of the chapel, the remains of which 
are still visible on this mound, was Llan-Sant-Fraid,- the 
church of St. Bridget, or by contraction, St. Bride. She 
was born in Ulster soon after the establishment of Christianity 
in Ireland, and received the religious veil in early youth from 
St. Mel, the nephew and disciple of St. Patrick. St. Bride 
formed for herself a cell under an oak, thence called Kill-dara, 
the Cell of the Oak, and subsequently, being joined by others 
of her sex, formed a religious community, from which several 
other nunneries in Ireland derived their origin. She was 
regarded as the patroness of that country, and is supposed to 
have lived in the early part of the sixth century, being first 
named in the Martyrology of Bede. She was held in much 
veneration in Scotland, and one of the Hebrides, near to Isla, 
was called, from a famous monastery built there in her honour, 
Brigidiani. Several churches also were dedicated under her 
name in England, France, and Germany, and her relics are 
still preserved by the Jesuits, at Lisbon. Sorwerth Vynglwyd, 
a Welsh poet of the fifteenth century, makes mention of 
the miracles performed by St. Bride in Wales, and the 
number of churches in the Principality dedicated under her 
name, is considerable*. The legend states that she sailed 
over from the Irish coast on a green turf, and landing 
on the Island of Holyhead, at the spot now known as 
Towyn-y-Capel, the sod became a green hillock, on which 
she caused a chapel to be built, which was dedicated 
under her name. The walls and east window of this 
little building were standing within memory, and the 
green sward was to be seen, extending for a considerable 
distance to the sea- ward of the tumulus. Of late years, 
however, from the gradual encroachment of the sea, aided 
by the removal of sand for manure, the mound has been 
half washed away, and in a few years it will probably 
cease to exist. 

The mound is formed entirely of sea-sand, and contains a 

a Llansantfraid, Brecknockshire ; Llan- Aberystwith, Cardiganshire. In Glamor- 

santfraid - Glan -Conway, Denbighshire; ganshire there are also the churches of 

Llansantfraid-Glyn-Dyvrdwy, Merioneth- St. Bride, Major and Minor, at Bridgend: 

shire; Llansantfraid-Glyn-Ceiriog, Den- St. Bride's- super- Ely, near Cardiff; St. 

bighshire ; Llansantfraid -yn-Elvel, Rad- Bride -Netherwent, Pembrokeshire, and 

norshire; Llansantfraid-yn-Mechan,Mont- another chinch of the same name in Mon- 

gomeryshire ; and Llansantfread, near mouthshire. 


great number of graves, arranged in four or five tiers, one 
above another, at intervals of about three or four feet. These 
graves are of the ordinary length of a human body, measuring 
from six to seven feet in length, their height being about two 
feet; they are generally formed with about twelve stones, 
rough from the quarry of the slaty schist of the district ; three 
stones compose either side of the grave, with three at the 
bottom, and three placed as the top or covering. The bodies 
were laid, invariably, with the feet converging towards the 
centre of the mound, the head being towards the outer side : 
the arms were extended by the side of the corpse : and a 
dark-coloured deposit in the bed of sand whereon the skeletons 
lie, still shews traces of the decomposition of the body. When 
first opened, these graves are found to contain a layer about 
six inches in depth, of sand, on which the bones rest ; over 
the remains there is also a layer of sand, about six inches 
deep, leaving a vacant space of about a foot between it and 
the stones which form the covering of the grave. No indi- 
cation of clothing, no weapon, ornament or any other 
object, has ever been found with these human remains, 
as far as I can ascertain ; and in the numerous graves 
which I have examined, when freshly opened, nothing has 
appeared, differing from the description above given. The 
skulls appear, mostly, from the sound state of the teeth, 
which are little worn, to have been those of young persons, 
and they are of large size. Towards the upper part of 
the tumulus, under the remains of the chapel, there is a great 
mass of human bones ; and occasionally the perfect skeletons 
of children have been found, without any stone cist or grave, 
intermixed with the sand, and quite embedded in the walls of 
the chapel. .In one part, at a depth of about three feet below 
the surface, and for about three feet in length, a stratum of 
charcoal, or burnt wood, and a dark substance resembling 
burnt bones, is visible ; but the extent of this layer beneath 
the surface cannot as yet be ascertained 1 *. 

The foundation walls extend to a depth of eleven feet 
into the mound; they measure about four feet in thickness; 
the lower portion being formed of dry masonry, and the 

k The following measurements will suffice to give a correct idea of the size of the 
tumulus, and ruined chapel : 

Diameter of the moand, from N. to 8. 250 FT. 

Diameter of the area on the summit 

Circumference at the base ... 

Circumference of the area ... 

Height of the mound above the surrounding sward 
Height above the shore 




upper part constructed with mortar, containing numerous 
sea-shells. A mass of stones and mortar surrounds the area, 
or summit of the mound, on which the walls of the chapel are 
constructed, apparently as a support to the foundation. The 
dimensions of the little building seem to have been about 
thirty or thirty-five feet, by twenty-two feet six inches. 

These singular places of interment have, from time to time, 
been exposed to view, during stormy weather, or in conse- 
quence of a fall of the sand, as the mound is by degrees under- 
mined by the sea. The number of graves which have been 
brought to view since the year 1823, when attention was first 
excited by any considerable discovery of human remains at this 
place, may be estimated at about sixty or seventy : the third 
part of the mound has already been washed away, and dis- 
appeared. The representation at the head of this notice, 
sketched during the last winter, exhibits the western side, with 
the shore of the bay of Towyn-y-Capel : a tier of several recently- 
exposed graves appears, about twelve feet above high-water 
mark : in the distance are seen the heights of Snowdon, and 
the Caernarvonshire hills, in the neighbourhood of Llanberis. 

At the spot where this mound and chapel stand, the 
parish of Holyhead is divided from that of Rhoscolyn, by 
the isthmus which has been described, measuring, at high 
tides, not more than 300 yards in width. It may deserve 
notice, that, under the sandy shore of Towyn-y-Capel, lies 
a stratum of peat, which is used for fuel by the inhabit- 
ants of the Island : it extends nearly to low-water mark, 
and seems to indicate an encroachment by the sea, at this 
place, or possibly a depression of the strata, over which have 
been formed an accumulated bank and dune of sand by the 
action of sea and winds. The mound, on which the Chapel of 


St. Bride was raised, is visible from the Chapel LochAvyd on 
Holyhead mountain, from Bardsay Island, and various promi- 
nent headlands on which in early times anchorites had fixed 
their abodes. 

It appears that no similar instance of interment in 
graves formed indiscriminately, as regards the point of the 
compass towards which the feet of the corpse were laid, 
has been noticed. The formation of successive tiers of 
graves in such a tumulus of sand is also a circumstance 
of unusual and curious nature. It is not easy to deter- 
mine whether these cists could have been formed in the 
side of the tumulus, after the sand had become accumu- 
lated into a mound, or whether its formation may not 
have been, in great part, artificial, graves being constructed 
with flat stones, and sand heaped thereon in successive 
tiers, so as ultimately, with the assistance of the drifting 
of sand from the neighbouring shore, to form the mound, 
which served in after times to support the Chapel of St. 
Bride. The inhumation without any regard to the position 
of the corpse towards any particular point of the compass, 
appears to connect these interments with the usages of 
primeval tribes. It may be conjectured, that, in later and 
Christian times, the ancient cemetery of the district, doubt- 
less regarded with some measure of veneration or respect, was 
still used as a place of burial, as shewn by the numerous human 
remains found under and around the chapel, deposited without 
any cist, as customary in earlier ages ; and that the spot was 
hallowed by the erection of a Christian chapel over this re- 
markable assemblage of heathen sepulchres. 

About the middle of the fifth century, indeed, the Island of 
Anglesea appears to have been ravaged by invasions of the 
Irish Picts : they were repulsed by Caswallon Llaw hir (long 
hand), who was sent by his father to oppose the invaders. 
About A.D. 450 he fortified a post at the spot now occupied 
by the church of Holyhead. A great slaughter of the inhabit- 
ants had occurred at a place called Tyn Dryvel, near Aber- 
fraw, and the spot is still known by the name Cerrig y 
Gwyddel, (the Irishman's stones.) At this time came Cas- 
wallon, who routed the Irish, and pursued them to Holyhead, 
where their vessels lay ; a second conflict took place there, in 
which Caswallon slew Cerigi their leader, and subsequently 
fortified Holyhead with a wall, now called Mur-Caswallon. 
According to tradition, he tied his men together, previously to 



the battle, to prevent their breaking their ranks, an expedient 
to which allusion is made in the Triads a . 

The spot which has been described, on the western shore 
of Holyhead Island, may, very probably, have been the scene 
of this cruel contest. The Irish were routed near Aberfraw, 
about ten miles distant; they fled towards their boats, and 
made their last stand on the narrow isthmus, defended by the 
sea on either side, with a plain adjoining, upon which their 
force might be drawn up. Here Caswallon must have sought 
to pass in crossing from Mona to Holyhead Island by the line 
of the old road. The Irish made stout defence to save their 
vessels, but they were defeated, Cerigi their chieftain was 
slain, and, possibly, the corpses were interred indiscriminately, 
forming the accumulation of remains found in the centre of the 
mound under the chapel. The single interments, in rudely 
formed cists around the tumulus, may have been those of 
chiefs who fell on this occasion. Again, the supposition is 
admissible, that these were the remains of the islanders massa- 
cred by the Irish, previously to their repulse by Caswallon. 
Cerigi, who fell in the fight, was regarded as a saint by 
the Irish, and his shrine was even long-time venerated in a 
chapel within the 
churchyard of Holy- 
head, called Eglws y 
Bedd (church of the 
grave), or by the Bri- 
tish, Capel Llan y 
Gwyddel. The ruins 
were removed not 
many years since. It 
may reasonably be 
surmised that the 
spot where the bones 
of his victims reposed 
would be viewed with 

no common venera- 
tion, and might be- 
come the habitual 
burial place of suc- 
cessive generations of 
their kindred or de- 
scendants. Plarl) Towyny Capel. 
R See Rowland's Mona Antiqua. 


Communicated to the Historical Section, at the Annual Meeting of the Institute at 
Winchester, in September, 1845. 

AMONGST the miscellaneous records and accounts relating 
to the administration of affairs in the corporate towns, much 
curious information may be gathered, in reference both to 
local history and customs, but not less illustrative of the 
gradual establishment of the commercial greatness of our 
country, the progressive extension of its manufactures, and of 
numerous points of statistical enquiry, important both to the 
historian and antiquary. Municipal archives, in too many 
instances, have suffered from the want of a due appreciation 
of their general interest ; the apprehension of some improper 
use being made of information gained by their perusal, and 
still more the difficulties of decyphering and interpreting the 
antiquated writing or obsolete expressions, which they pre- 
sent, have often proved insurmountable impediments to the 
prosecution of enquiry. It may, however, confidently be anti- 
cipated that the Annual Meetings of the Archaeological Insti- 
tute in the great towns of the empire will hereafter tend to 
arouse a more lively care for the preservation of such memo- 
rials, and that having been classified and arranged they may 
become readily available for any object of useful investigation. 

There is no ground of complaint of neglect, or any difficulty 
in obtaining access, as regards the muniments of the town of 
Southampton. Mr. Rushworth Keele has kindly placed in my 
hands a large collection of extracts from documents preserved 
in the corporation chest, and from these I have compiled a 
few brief notices and particulars, which I have thought might 
prove not altogether uninteresting to the readers of the 
Archa3ological Journal. 

I propose to give a concise account of the records them- 
selves, and to make a few extracts illustrative of manners, 
prices, and peculiar customs in use at different periods in the 

The most ancient charters are those of 1 John, and 36 Hen. 
III. The first contains the earliest evidence of mercantile 
prosperity, in a permission to the burgesses to pass un- 
challenged through all territories subject to the king. 


The second granted to them freedom from arrest, (except 
in certain peculiar cases,) the return of all writs touching 
Southampton and its liberty, with permission to choose their 
own coroners, subject to the justices in Eyre. Many other 
charters were granted by subsequent kings, that of the 
25 Hen. VI. being chiefly worthy of note, on account of the 
license given in it to the citizens to purchase lands, notwith- 
standing the statute of mortmain, and of the statement that 
Portsmouth was at that period within the liberty of South- 

The corporation is very rich in documents, rolls, and regis- 
ters, and of these the following may be enumerated as the 
most deserving of notice. 

The first, entitled " Liber Niger," commencing 16 Rich. II. 
A.D. 1393, and ending 1620, contains enrolments of private 
charters, with a deed for a free grammar school in the town. 

The second, entitled " Liber Remembranciarum miles Suth- 
amptonia," A.D. 1455, is full of miscellaneous matters of con- 
siderable value to the student of the local antiquities of the 
town, but of little comparative interest to the general reader. 

The third is entitled " A Book of Fines, Amerciaments t 8fc. 
from A.D. 1489 to A.D. 1593." 

The fourth is a book endorsed, " Entry of Burgesses from 
1496 to 1704," at the end of which is a census of the popu- 
lation, taken Sept. 20, 1596, from which it appears that the 
total number of residents at that period was 4,200, of whom 
784 are rated as able men, while the aliens and their families 
amount to 297. 

The fifth is entitled " A Book of Remembrances" for the 
town of Southampton, from 5 Hen. VIII. to 1601 ; the infor- 
mation, however, contained in it is of a purely local nature. 

Besides these, which are perhaps the most important, there 
are many other volumes containing a vast amount of miscella- 
neous information, relating to the medieval history of the town, 
such as Enrolments of the Statutes Merchant from 39 Eliz. to 
2 Jac. II., the Steward's Book of accounts from 1432 to 1699, 
Journal of the Corporation Proceedings from 1602 to 1642, 
Books on the Brokage and Assize of Bread from 1440 to 1694, 
and others belonging to the Linen and Woollen Halls from 
1552 to 1576. There are also the Muster Books for the years 
1544, 1555, 1567, 1579, 1583, 1589, and one without date, 
at the end of which is a census of the inhabitants able to bear 


arms, from which it appears that there were, in all, 495, of 
whom 421 were considered able men, including 208 furnished 
with callivers, 33 pikemen with corslets, 54 archers, and 125 

There are also a large collection of Books of the Court Leet, 
from the presentments at which I have made several extracts ; 
Town Court Rolls of the time of Henry VI., Admiralty Court 
JBooks from 1556 to 1585, and one very curious book con- 
taining matters of the times of Edward I., II., and III., 
with brief notices of charters granted to different cities and 
towns in England, and the laws of the guild of Southampton 
in Norman-French. 

I now propose to give a few extracts, chiefly from the Court 
Leet Books. I cannot but notice the jealous care with which 
the jury of the Court Leet watched over the general interests 
of their fellow citizens, checking all encroachments on the 
common lands, lest, though originally of small importance, 
they might grow up into a prescriptive right, and removing 
obstructions and nuisances in the highways and streets. 
Thus, under date 1567, we find a long presentment regulating 
the period of the year at which cattle should be placed on the 
commons of the Salt-marshes, Houndwell, and Hoglands, re- 
spectively. The brewers are ordered to dig no clay in the Salt- 
marsh, because it is town land : a man named Rock is presented 
for having encroached with his garden " the value of half a 
yard" into Houndwell Fields : and a remonstrance is entered 
against the sowing of woad in Hogland, because "the common 
sort of the people find themselves greatly grieved withal, for 
that after woad-sowing, there will grow no grass or any thing 
else, for the cattle to feed on." 

Nor do they appear to have been less attentive to the moral 
condition of their town, than to their manorial rights. The 
presentments at the Courts Leet bear constant testimony to 
the desire of promoting, as far as possible, good order and 
good manners. Thus, in 1607, three " churmagdes were pre- 
sented, two of them because they had no present employment ; 
both were required to put themselves immediately to service, 
or to leave the town." In 1608, a person named Warde 
was presented " for letting his apprentice go up and down the 
street, and was ordered to take the boy into his service, and 
do him reasonable correction as the law requireth." In 
1609, three men are ordered to pay each 3*. 4< for tippling 


all the afternoon, and the host to pay 10s.; and in 1632, 
the innholder of the Crown was fined 10s. for entertaining 
a dancer and some servants of the town late at night, and 
in a disorderly manner. In cases of slander and evil 
speaking, a similar authority was exercised. Thus, in 1608, 
a woman was ordered to leave the town who had been 
guilty of slander; and when, a few days later, it was dis- 
covered that she had not gone away, and had repeated 
the offence, she was condemned " to be set in a cadge 
with a paper before her." In 1633, Mrs. Knott was com- 
mitted to the workhouse for scolding, brawling, and fighting 
with the wife of another man ; while there is a presentment 
in more than one year, that " there is sad want in this town 
of a cacing stool, for the punishment of scowlds and such like 
male-factors ;" a method of punishment now altogether obso- 
lete, and, owing to the change of manners, less salutary and 
necessary than in former ages ; but one which from more 
than one occurrence of the name among these papers, we 
presume to have been a formidable object of terror. 

Nor was the enforcement of necessary discipline the only 
instance of a direct control over the town. We find many 
instances in which the mayor and corporation interfered 
directly with the prices of different articles of consumption. 
Thus, in 1606, "the Mayor and Justices of the Peace, 
finding that the price of malt is now sold after two shillings 
the bushel and not above," order " that, from and after 
Easter Day next, the beer-drawers of this town shall not 
make nor sell but two sorts of beer ; and shall sell the double 
beer at 3s. 4<d. the barrel, and their ordinarie at 2s. and not 
at anie other price whatsoever." A few years later, on the 
humble suit of the brewers, stating that malt was at 2s. the 
bushel, and hops at SI. the hundred, order was given that 
they should brew and sell their double beer at 4s. and ordi- 
nary at 2s. A similar order is laid more than once upon the 
chandlers, and, in 1631, the vintners are enjoined not to sell 
their Gascoigne wine at more than Qd. the quart. Again, we 
find regulations as to the price of horse-hire, which throw con- 
siderable light on the value of money and the price of labour 
at the period. Thus, in 1577, there is an order, that none 
keeping horses or beasts for hire shall take for a journey of 
eight days or under, to London or Bristowe above 6s. Sd., and 
for every day after the said eight days be expired, not above 


1 Qd. by the day ; while for a ride to Sarum, and home again 
in one day, he was to receive IQd. for that day and not above. 

Many other curious notices deserve attention, and I may 
mention a few items of expenditure, of peculiar interest from 
the occasions on which they occur or the names with which 
they are associated. Thus, in 1462, there are entries of Is. 
having been paid to a man for riding to Winchester " to warn 
the mayor of the fleet of schyppys that were under the Wyth, 
(Wight) ;" of a pipe of wine sent to the "erle of Kent, that 
time he hied to seward," (towards the sea,) which cost 3Z. 6$. 
8fi?. ; of the cost of a guild dinner, in the early part of the 
reign of Edward IV., which amounted to '21. 2s. 10^/. ; and 
of various presents made to the king (Edward IV.) and 
principal nobility, to the former a hogshead of red and white 
wine, which cost respectively 1Z. 3s. 4^. and 16s. Sd., a gallon 
of Ypocras 2s. Sd. ; to Lord Rivers, two gallons of white wine 
and the same quantity of red wine, which was valued at 
2s. Sd. There is also a note, that 2Z. 12s. Qd. was expended 
by the mayor and his retinue when, in 1469, " he rode to 
London, to reckon with the erle of Warwick, and was there 
twelve days." 

I will add only the following notices, extracted from some 
of the miscellaneous papers, which do not seem strictly to 
fall under any of the heads under which I have arranged my 
previous selections. 

One of them relates to the suspicion, against a widow, of 
witchcraft, 1579, on which occasion an order was given " that 
five or six honest matrons doe see her stripped, to the end 
to see whether she have any bludy mark on her body, which 
is a common token to know all witches by." In 1577, 
a charge is preferred against the brewers, and they "are 
commanded to use no more iron-bound carts, for that it is 
great decay not only of the paved streate, but also causeth his 
beere to work uppe, in such sort that as his barrel seemeth to 
be full when they are brought, and when they are settled, they 
lack, some a gallon of beer and some more, to the enriching 
of the brewers, and the great defayte and hindrance of the 
town." And there is a singular order, "that the barbers 
henceforth shall not trym anie person on the Sabbath day, 
unless it be such gentlemen-strangers as shall on that day 
resort to the town." 

w. s. w. VAUX. 




THE interesting little effigy at Horsted Keynes, which, 
inclusive of the lion at the feet, is not more than 2 feet 
3 inches long, lies in the wall on the north side of the 
chancel, under an Early English trefoil-headed recess, with 
chamfered edges, 2 feet 10 inches in length, and about 
2 feet and a-half from the floor. The church itself, which 
was originally cruciform, is an Early English structure ; and 
lancet windows still light both sides of the chancel. For 
some time this effigy lay on a window-sill in the south tran- 
sept ; but, as it exactly fits this recess, which, unless it was 
made to serve the purpose of an Easter sepulchre, seems to 
have had no other assignable use, and as the parts of the 
effigy most effectually protected by the recess are those which 
are best preserved, and no other appropriate place for it 
appears, in all probability it was originally placed where it 
now lies, and had not long been removed. It is of a fine 
grained oolite or a sandstone, more likely the latter, closely 
resembling Caen stone in colour, and was, it is evident, care- 
fully executed, but has suffered both from time and ill-usage, 
although less than might have been expected. The effigy and 
the slab on which it rests are apparently one piece of stone. 
Until recently the whole was moveable but it is now fixed. 
Possibly it was moveable in order to allow the recess to be 
used at Easter for the sepulchre. 

It represents a cross-legged knight, such as is commonly 
miscalled a Templar, of the latter part of the reign of 


Henry III., or the beginning of that of Edward I., in the 
military costume of the time. As the mail does not appear 
to have been executed in sculpture, it was probably painted 
on the stone; for though no trace of colour has been dis- 
covered on it, the parts best protected where mail would have 
been apparent, namely, portions of the head, neck, and arms 
on the inner side, are remarkably smooth. If any remains of 
colour exist there, the light is very unfavourable for the dis- 
covery of them a . 

The knight is habited in a capuchon, which covers the head 
and neck, and somewhat overlaps the hauberk and surcote, 
like a small early camail ; a hauberk with the stiff folds of the 
sleeves above the elbows strongly shewn ; a surcote thin at the 
shoulders, moderately full about the breast, reaching nearly half- 
way between the knee and the ankle, open in front from a little 
below the sword-belt downwards, and falling thence in large 
folds on both sides, so as to discover the thigh of the left leg 
which crosses over the right, but the outline of this opening 
and the left leg are very rough from decay or ill-usage. The 
surcote is confined at the waist by a belt fastened with a 
buckle. The general costume and style of the figure leave 
no doubt in my mind of the capuchon and hauberk having 
once borne indications of mail either chiselled or painted. 
There is no shield or guige, nor was there ever any. The 
sword-belt passes obliquely over the hips, as is usual in effigies 
of the period, and it is attached to the scabbard at two places, 
so as to give the sword a slanting direction. The handle of 
the sword and the lower half of the scabbard are gone. The 
details of the sword-belt and the attachments of it to the scab- 
bard are very good, and resemble what are found in some of 
the earliest ' brasses. The hands must have been brought 
together on the breast in an attitude of devotion ; but these 
and the greater part of the fore-arms are broken off and have 
disappeared. The left leg, which, as before noticed, crosses 
over the right, is a good deal worn away at places, so that the 
form of it is much injured. The legs and feet no doubt once 
appeared in chausses of mail, though no trace of mail can 
be discovered on them. The point of the spur on the left 
foot is broken, but what remains of it, together with that on 

It is very probable that the figure traces of mail, and other more minute de- 
had undergone some process of cleaning, tails, 
several years since, which obliterated the 


the right foot, which is not in complete relief, shews they 
were single pointed spurs with angular shanks ; whether 
each was fastened by one strap or more I could not satisfac- 
torily ascertain. The head rests on two cushions ; the upper 
one lozenge-shaped, the lower rectangular. I have stated that 
a capuchon covers the head, but there is reason to believe 
that over the upper part of this was originally represented a 
coif of mail (coiffe de maittes) or a coif of plate, (coiffe defer, 
or cerveilliere ;} for the part of the head which such a defence 
would have covered, is larger in proportion than is usually the 
case where there is a capuchon only; in addition to which the 
capuchon is narrower from just below the temples. This 
is hardly apparent to the eye for want of a good light, but may 
be readily perceived by passing the fingers lightly over either 
side of the head. The details of the coif may have been 
executed in colour only. It was hardly practicable to shew 
this in the sketch : the place however where the contraction 
of the capuchon appears to commence is indicated by a 
faint line. The peculiarity just described, the mode in 
which the sword-belt is attached to the scabbard, and the 
fact of the capuchon being separate from the hauberk, over- 
lapping it and the surcote, have influenced my judgment 
respecting the age of this effigy, and have induced me to 
place it a few years later than I otherwise should. As the 
probable date of it, and of the recess in which it lies, corre- 
sponds so nearly with that of the church, I am disposed to 
think it was commemorative of the founder, or a considerable 
benefactor, whether buried there or not, and that it was exe- 
cuted soon after the erection of the church. The deceased 
might have assumed the cross under Prince Edward, soon 
after the termination of the barons' war. 

Diminutive effigies, like that at Horsted Keynes, in which 
the proportions are those of a man, are sometimes supposed 
to represent children, but I think without good reason. 

An effigy is, primd facie, to be considered as representing 
that, to which, having regard to the costume and general ap- 
pearance, it bears most resemblance, irrespectively of its size ; 
for it is unreasonable from size alone to infer that it was not 
intended for a full-grown person. 

Thus, a small effigy, apparently of a knight or priest, is to 
be taken as representing an adult ; for till a certain age knight- 
hood and priests' orders were not usually conferred ; and we 


have no reason a priori to expect to meet with an effigy of a 
child attired as a knight or priest. 

If there be any instance of an effigy in which the features 
and proportions, or if the features be wanting, the proportions, 
are those of a child, while the habit is that of a knight, priest, 
monk, or nun, it presents a curious subject for enquiry ; it is, 
however, surely to be regarded as an exception to the rule, 
and not as proving a general practice, so much at variance 
with what we know of the usages of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries ; especially as, a little later, small representa- 
tions of grown-up persons on brasses were very common, and 
there is no good reason why the same practice should not have 
prevailed in stone. 

The story of the boy-bishop at Salisbury cathedral needs 

Lysons describes the little effigy at Haccombe, Devon, as 
measuring 2 ft. 2 in. long, in armour, without a helmet. But 
I learn from the notes of a friend, who has had an oppor- 
tunity of examining this figure, that instead of being in 
armour he wears close hose and a tight-fitting jupon, fastened 
all down in front. 

The effigies of the two sons of Edward III., William of 
Hatfield and William of Windsor, on their tombs in York 
minster and Westminster abbey, are in a civil costume, 
which we may without difficulty imagine to have been worn 
by princes verging towards youth. But the former is said 
to have died at eight years of age : the age of the latter I have 
not been able to ascertain. 

As to civil costume, I would remark that the boy, 
the youth, and the man may have been attired very much 
alike in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ; and, seeing 
the early age at which girls married, they, with some slight 
differences, probably dressed as women at a time when we 
now should call them children : hence perhaps the effigy 
said to represent Blanch, daughter of Edward III., is in the 
costume of an adult female, although if she died in 1340, she 
must have been a mere child. 

Any child dying under puberty would, probably, be spoken 
of by the early writers as dying young, or even as dying an 

Mere infants were represented swaddled, especially on 
brasses. Stothard has given an example of a lady of the 


thirteenth century holding a child in her arms, but there is 
nothing worthy of notice in the dress b , and the character of 
the little figure is precisely that of a child. 

Why full-grown persons should have been represented by 
such diminutive effigies it may be difficult to discover. As in 
the case of brasses, in all probability economy sometimes of 
means, and sometimes of space, may have been occasionally 
influential. But as these effigies occur where economy is not 
likely to have been much considered, another motive must be 
sought. It seems not unreasonable to surmise that they were 
placed, with something of conventional propriety, where a 
portion only of the remains was deposited, and as the full- 
sized coffin or grave in other cases determined the magnitude 
of the effigy, so the small receptacle for the heart, or some 
portion of the remains, led to a proportionate commemorative 
effigy. I have stated that the hands of the Horsted knight 
were brought together on the breast. It is by no means im- 
probable they may have supported a heart, as in some other 

Small effigies once introduced in this manner, it may have 
led to their being made simply commemorative in churches 
where it was wished to honour the founder or some great 
benefactor, though no part of his remains was there interred ; 
but I am not prepared with any evidence of this. 

An instance may be cited of two full-sized monumental 
effigies of a bishop ; namely, Peter de Aquablanca, bishop of 
Hereford, one of them being in his cathedral, the other in the 
church of his native place, Aiguebelle, in Savoy, where, ac- 
cording to Godwin, his heart had been deposited c . 

I have not been able to meet with any well-authenticated 
case of a diminutive effigy placed over the grave of an adult. 

The example of the effigy of a young female at Gayton, 
Northamptonshire, is not quite satisfactory 11 . I do not refer 
to brasses ; they are common : and stone effigies considerably 
under life-size are not rare. 

The following examples of diminutive effigies may be enu- 
merated : Mapouder, Dorset, cross-legged effigy 2 ft. long, 

b This singular monument is at Scar- Queen Eleanor at Westminster, Lincoln, 

clifle, Derbyshire. and Black Friars, London. 

c See Mr. Kerrich's account of this curi- '' See Baker's Northamptonshire. This 

ous monument, Archaeologia, xviii. p. 188, figure probably represents Matilda, daugh- 

plate xi. In like manner there were du- ter of Thomas de Gayton. It measures 

plicate effigies of King Richard I. at Fon- about 2 ft. in length, 
tevrault and Rouen; and triplicates of 


engraved in Hutchins's Dorset, iii. 278. Tenbury, Glouces- 
tershire, cross-legged effigy in mailed armour, 4 ft. long, re- 
presented as holding a heart. Ayot St. Lawrence, Herts, 
effigy 2 ft. 3 in. long, supposed to have held a heart between 
the hands, now broken. Bottesford, Leicestershire effigy 
22 in. long, Nichols, ii. 23. Dartington, Devon, an eccle- 
siastic, 2 ft. 8 in. long. Other instances may be found at 
Little Easton, Essex (Gough), Cobberly, Gloucestershire, 
Anstey, Herts., and Long Wittenham, Berks. An interesting 
little effigy of white marble, now preserved in the abbey 
church of St. Denis, near Paris, represents Blanche d'Artois, 
grand-daughter of Louis VIII., who espoused, in 1269, Henry, 
king of Navarre, and, after his death, Edmond, earl of Lan- 
caster, brother of Edward I. She died A.D. 1302, and was 
buried in Paris : her heart being deposited in the choir of the 
conventual church of the Minoresses at Nogent 1'Artault, in 
Champagne, founded by her. On the destruction of that 
establishment, the effigy, which measures about 2 ft. in length, 
was preserved, and subsequently placed amongst the royal 
memorials at St. Denis. w. s. w. 



IT may merit observation, that the chief interest in the care- 
ful examination of objects of medieval date, fabricated even for 
the most trivial and homely purposes, appears to consist in 
their conformity to certain established conventional models of 
form or ornamentation, at each successive period. The singu- 
lar truth with which their decorative accessories are invariably 
designed, as regards the costume of the times, the usual forms 
of letter employed for inscriptions, or similar details, stamp 
the antiquities of that age, inferior as they may be in compari- 
son with the graceful proportion and chaste design of classical 
remains, with an attractive character, pleasing even to the eye 
of the inexperienced observer. 

Productions of the highest class of antique art attract our 
admiration on account of their ideal beauty, and the combina- 
tion of imaginative conception with perfect mechanical skill 


which they display : medieval antiquities, deficient, very fre- 
quently, in their artificial workmanship as in elegance of 
design, arrest our notice because they bear an impress of 
reality; because in each the practised eye may trace some 
evidence of the habitual feelings of our forefathers, of the 
train of their thought, of their superstitious weaknesses, or 
their devotion to high and noble purposes. 

At a period when, in default of a standing mercenary force, the 
safety of a kingdom lay in the military spirit which pervaded all 
the higher classes of the community, the strains of poetry and 
the fictions of romance aroused them to warlike deeds ; the very 
light of heaven penetrated into their chambers, tinged with 
the colouring of some tale of prowess or chivalry pourtrayed 
on the glass in their casements ; their household utensils, 
or the objects of their pastime, bore the impress of the spirit 
of an age of chivalrous enterprise. The toys of childhood 
seemed devised in order to instil that military ardour which 
should become the dominant principle of riper years ; and 
even in the seclusion of domestic life the arras on the walls, 
the decorative accessories of the banqueting table or the 
bower, served to keep ever in view the more stirring attrac- 
tions of the tournament and warlike emprise. With this de- 
sign, indeed, were the brilliant passages of arms in times of 
peace designed : even the quinten, the diversion of the lower 
orders, bore the head of the Saracen, the object of most inve- 
terate antipathy ; so that even village sports were subservient 
to the purpose of keeping ever on the alert the spirit of 
valorous resolution, which has raised England to her position 
as a nation. 

Strutt has given representations of a very singular toy, of 
German fabrication, about the time of Henry VII. It is a 
small brazen knight equipped for the joust, so contrived as to 
fall back from the saddle when struck by a blow on the 
salade or shoulder-shield. These diminutive combatants were 
mounted upon a platform with wheels, and violently drawn 
together by a string a . An interesting illustration of such pas- 
time occurs amongst the fine woodcuts by Burghmair, in the 
Weiss Kunig, representing the education of Maximilian I. ; two 
children are there pourtrayed eagerly pushing their miniature 
horsemen one against the other. Still more curious, however, 
are some ancient chess-men, which have been preserved in 

a Sports and Pastimes, p 112. pi. xiii. 



various collections. To the remarkable discovery of a large 
number in the Isle of Lewis, in 1832, now deposited in the 
British Museum, we owe the highly curious remarks by Sir 
Frederic Madden, not less valuable in regard to the ancient 
history of the game, than as illustrative of peculiarities of cos- 
tume during the twelfth century, of which few examples are 
elsewhere to be discovered b . The rich museum of northern 
antiquities at Copenhagen contains numerous pieces of similar 
character; they appear to have been chiefly fabricated in 
Iceland, and the material is not ivory, but the tusk of the 
walrus. In the cabinet of antiquities in the Bibliotheque 
Royale at Paris, there are a few chess-men of the same period, 
and of one of these, a warder, or rook, Mr. Shaw has given 
a representation in his Dresses and Decorations. In the same 
museum may be seen a portion of the " jeu d'eschets," pre- 
sented by Charlemagne to the abbey of St. Denis, and in- 
scribed with Cufic characters . 

Chessman, in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

Two chess-knights and a warder, hitherto undescribed, of 
great curiosity as examples of military costume, have been pre- 
served in our own country. The most ancient is a warder, formed 
of the tusk of the walrus; (?) it was presented to the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland by Lord Macdonald, and formed part 

b See the accurate representatiom; of 
these singular pieces in the Archseologia, 
xxiv. 203. 

VOL. III. I 1 

e See Willemin's plate, in his valuable 
Monumens inedits ; Doublet, Hist de 
1'Abbaye de St. Denis. 


of an assemblage of remarkable objects of antiquity, liberally 
communicated by the Council of that Society for exhibition at 
the recent Annual Meeting of the Institute at York d . It is 
of somewhat later date than the Lewis chess-men, and appears 
to have been carved towards the close of the twelfth, or early 
in the thirteenth century. The warder is represented in like 
manner as those Icelandic specimens, with sword drawn, 
and the shield on the arm. On either side of the piece is an 
armed figure, emerging from intertwined foliage of remarkable 
design ; these warriors are clad apparently in mail, the rings 
being expressed by a conventional mode of representation, 
namely, by rows of deep punctures, with intervening parallel 
lines. The shield of one of them exhibits a bearing, bendy of 
two colours, the diapering of the alternate bends being ex- 
pressed by punctures, and there is a broad bordure, which 
may be noticed also on several of the pieces found in the 
Hebrides. The other shield presents a fleur de lys dimidiated, 
on a field diapered with frette lines. It may be doubtful 
whether these were properly armorial bearings, but it deserves 
notice that one of the Lewis knights has a shield party per 
pale, the sinister side being frette. Both shields in the piece 
here represented have this singularity of form, that their 
points are cut bluntly off, instead of being prolonged to an 
acute apex, as usual at the period. There is no appearance 
of plate-armour ; the head is protected by the coiffe de mailles, 
and the legs by chausses of the like armour. This curious 
warder measures in height three inches and five-eighths. 

In the Ashmolean Museum another interesting example is 
preserved ; a chess-knight, formed likewise as it is supposed 
of the tooth of the sea-horse, and it is in no slight degree 
curious as an illustration of military costume. It presents 
the characteristic features of the earlier part of the reign of 
Henry III., or possibly the close of the times of King John. 
On either side of the piece is seen a mounted knight, the 
intervening spaces being filled up with foliage ; one of the 
warriors wields a sword, whilst the other holds a lance, looking 
backwards with a singular gesture of apprehension. The 
most striking feature of their costume is the large cylindrical 

d The thanks of the archaeologists there this valuable accession to the museum 

assembled are specially due to Mr. Turn- formed at York, conveyed thither by his 

bull, the accomplished Secretary of the own hands on the late occasion. 
Society, for his kind mediation in obtaining 



Chessman, Ashroolean Museum, Oxiord. 

heaume, having a transverse ocularium, or ontliere, and a 
longitudinal rib by which it is strengthened, forming a cross 
on the face of this singular head-piece. This kind of helm is 
of rare occurrence in monumental sculpture ; examples are 
supplied by a cross-legged effigy at Whitworth, Durham, and 
another at Walcheren, near Stevenage, Herts. 6 It occurs in 
the sculptures on the west front of Wells cathedral, erected 
by Bishop Joceline, about A.D. 1225, and amongst the curious 
sculptures of the mural arcade at Worcester, in the south 
aisles of the choir, built early in the same century. The 
heaume which appears on the great seals of Henry III. and 
Edward I. is of similar cylindrical form, but the lower portion 
protecting the face is barred. The mailed armour of the 
chess-knight is represented in the conventional mode usually 
employed in the earlier sepulchral effigies, by parallel rows of 
rings set in alternate directions ; the surcoat is long, forming 
large folds, and some appearances of mixed armour, either of 
gamboised work, or jacked leather, may be traced upon the 
legs f . 

e A good representation of this has been 
given by the late talented artist, Mr. Hollis, 
in his Monumental Effigies. 

' One of the knights, brandishing a 
sword, seems to have a genouilliere formed 
of a rigid material, the thigh being protect- 

ed by some defence formed in longitudinal 
ribs, possibly of quilted work. Compare 
the effigy of Robert de Vere, 1221, Hatfield 
Broad Oak, Essex, and the figure at Whit- 
worth, both given by Stothard. 



A chess-knight, of 
a later period, carved 
in ivory, and highly 
interesting as a re- 
presentation of the 
armour for man 
and horse, in use 
during the reign of 
Edward III., has 
been kindly commu- 
nicated by the Rev. 
John Eagles. This 
little figure is remark- 
able in various details 
of costume, which 
are defined with re- 
markable precision : 
it is probably of 
Flemish workman- 
ship, the legs of the 
horse have been bro- 
ken off, but in the 
annexed representa- 
tion Mr. Jewitt has 
given them as re- 
stored. The knight 
is armed in a visored 
basinet, with a ca- 
mail, and a hauberk 
with long sleeves ; 
his legs are protected 
by plate or cuir- 
bouilli, he wears row- 
elled spurs ; on his 
arm is a small shield, 
of uncommon form 
at so early a period, 
the upper end be- 
ing recurved to give 
greater freedom of 
movement, and the 
enarmes by which it 

Chessman, in the possession of the Rev. John Ea 


is appended to the arms are plainly shewn . The arsons of 
the saddle are so high as to render the seat singularly secure ; 
the body of his charger is wholly covered by mail, the head 
alone being protected by a testiere of plate, a piece of horse- 
armour of which the collection at Warwick castle supplies an 
unique example 11 . The horse bears over the mail a curious capa- 
rison formed in detached portions, or lambels ; these are deeply 
indented along their lower edge. This kind of skeleton- 
housings is of very uncommon occurrence, and scarcely less 
singular is the absence of the surcoat, at the period when 
mixed defences of mail and plate became commonly adopted. 
It is not improbable that the heavy charger, during the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, was frequently protected 
by a covering of mail, which is concealed in representations 
by the flowing armorial caparisons. It is occasionally visible, 
as on the seals of Philippe le Hardi, and Jean Sans Peur, 
dukes of Burgundy, which, although of later date than the 
little figure under consideration, exhibit a precisely similar 
fashion as regards the equipment of the horse 1 . The "cou- 
verture de fer," indeed, for the horse is mentioned in docu- 
ments of the period, such as the will of the Earl Warren, 
A.D. 1347, and the ordonnance of Philippe le Bel, for 
musters against the war with Flanders, A.D. 1303. Wace, 
in the Roman du Rou, describes a warrior mounted on a 
steed " tot covert de fer," and trappings of mail are mentioned 
repeatedly in Syr Gawayne, and other early English romances. 
They appear also amongst the remarkable subjects copied by 
Stothard from the walls of the painted chamber, at West- 
minster, and so ably illustrated by the late Mr. Rokewode k , 
who attributed those curious works of art to the reign of 
Henry III. A. WAY. 

* A very curious contemporary example Guy. See Grose's Ancient Armour, p. xvii. 

of this kind of shield was supplied by the pi. 42. 

effigy of one of the Hilary's, formerly in Tresorde Glyptique, Sceauxdes grands 

Walsall church, Staffordshire, now in the Feudataires, pi. xiv. 

gardens of Mr. Foster, in that town. k Vetusta Monuments, vol. vi. pi. 26 

h It is said to have belonged to Earl 39. 



Communicated by the REV. JOHN GuNN,in illustration of Roman remains, and drawings, 
representing fictile vases, exhibited at the Annual Meeting in Winchester, September, 1845. 


Discovery of Roman urns, at FeJmiu&ham. 

THIS parish is generally held to have been a Roman station. 
The late Samuel Woodward, in his map of " Roman Norfolk," 
places one here, and also a Roman road, as in actual existence. 
It is remarkable, however, that no coins, urns, or any other 
Roman remains, have ever, so far as I can learn, been dis- 
covered in it. After searching and inquiring in the parish an 
entire day, I found only one piece of pottery which bore any 
resemblance to the Roman ware, but this was by no means 
conclusive evidence. A perfect urn and coin of Faustina 
were discovered some years since on the borders of Burgh, in 
Oxnead ; but I cannot learn that any vestige of ancient Rome 
has ever been traced in the parish, except its name. 

The absence of Roman memorials is rendered very remark- 
able by the fact, that sepulchral urns in great abundance, and 
occasionally coins, are found in almost every adjoining parish, 
and, on the north and south, through an extent of two or 
three parishes. 

1CENIA. 247 

Brampton and Buxton to the south, and Oxnead on the 
east, furnished Sir Thomas Brown, mainly, with materials for 
his Hydriotaphia. 

In 1820, Mr. John Adey Repton wrote an account of the 
sepulchral urns discovered by him in opening several tumuli 
upon Stowheath, in Tuttington, to the north a . 

Last year the unique specimens described by the Rev. A. 
Hart b , were discovered in Felmingham, in ground formerly 
also a part of Stowheath ; and more recently I had the good 
fortune to be present when several urns and other vessels 
were found on the same spot. It is a natural sand-hill, about 
150 yards in diameter. The sand had been carted away in 
part, and the sides of a sand-pit so formed had fallen in, and 
left them exposed, as shewn in the accompanying drawing. 
They were seventeen in number, deposited together in the 
small space of two feet by eighteen inches. The uppermost, 
of common blue clay, about one foot in diameter, was placed 
in an upright position, so near the surface that it had been 
broken, probably, by the plough. It contained an iron sub- 
stance, which formed a solid mass with indurated gravel and 
sand. There were no bones or ashes to be seen. Possibly, 
had there been any, they would not have been discernible, 
from the oxidization which had taken place. On breaking 
this mass, I found one coin, a first brass, I believe, of 
Severus, but the legend had been dipt away and obliterated. 
Immediately under this urn were fifteen c other vessels, appa- 
rently thrown together in disorder, some upright, some side- 
ways, and one or two quite reversed ; all of them were filled 
with sand and with the roots of grass which had grown into 
them. They were of ordinary dark clay, except three, two of 
which were of red and the third of light-coloured earth. These 
latter were painted red and black, with an ornamented and 
variegated border upon them, of a very low class of art. The 
remaining piece of pottery, of which a representation is here 
given, might have served as a lamp on an altar. It measured 
about three inches in height. The smaller end appears to have 
been the base, as the other is more smooth, and discoloured as 
if by burning. It is perforated, and the aperture at either 
end is sufficiently large to admit one's little finger. 

a Arch., vol xvi. p. 354. lying at the bottom of the pit, and the re- 

b See his interesting Lectures on the maining half with the others. The repre- 

Antiquities of Norfolk and Norwich. sentations here given are drawn to one- 

c One was broken. I found half of it fifth of the size of the originals. 



Scalt one-fifth of the original I 


ICENIA. 249 

There is a striking difference in point of art, and the quality 
of manufacture, between this deposit of Roman remains, and 
that described by Mr. Hart. The latter are evidently of a 
more costly character, and indicate higher rank and dignity. 
At the same time they agree in other respects. In both there 
were no remains of bones or ashes there was a single coin, 
a brass in the one, and a silver coin of Valerian in the other 
and, probably, there were the implements of the individual 
craft or profession ; in the one, apparently a quantity of nails, 
in the other the utensils of a Soothsayer or of a Flamen. 

Mr. Wright, of Buxton Hall, who takes a lively interest in 
the antiquities of the neighbourhood, lately employed some 
workmen to excavate the soil in one of his fields in Brampton, 
on the borders of Buxton and Oxnead. It was a perfectly 
level spot, near to the place where the discoveries mentioned 
by Sir Thomas Brown were made. I was present, and wit- 
nessed with astonishment the profusion of fragments of sepul- 
chral urns, human and other bones, that were uncovered. The 
soil was black from frequent interments, and resembled that of a 
metropolitan church-yard. We noticed the rude attempt to pro- 
tect the remains by layers of flint stones, measuring about four 
feet by two feet, and two feet beneath the surface. We found 
no entire urns, although we were informed that they were fre- 
quently met with in this, and also in the parish of Marsham. 
There were other specimens of pottery besides sepulchral vases. 

Mr. Wright has traced an ancient way, leading from this 
field, through the marshes to the river at Burgh, near Oxnead, 
which would fall in with a line of road, pointed out to me by 
the Rev. James Bulwer of Aylsham, to Stratton (i. e. " Stratum 
or Street") on the south, and to Burgh on the borders of 
Oxnead ; thence direct to Stowheath, and the Tuttington and 
Felmingham depositories on the north ; this line of road 
will account for the extension of Roman remains to the north 
and south, rather than to the east and west. It deviates a 
little to the east from that marked out by Mr. Woodward. 


Spelman placed Garianonum here, where the mouth of the 
Garienis formerly was ; Camden considered it to have been at 
Burgh, in Suffolk, near the confluence of that river with the 
Waveney. Spelman urges, in support of his opinion, that the 
position at Caister is better adapted for the movements of horse, 


250 ICENIA. 

" Stablesianorum equitum," (which are recorded to have been 
stationed at the mouth of the Garienis,) than the more insulated 
and aquatic situation of Burgh. According to Woodward's 
map of Roman Norfolk, the balance of dry land is very little 
in favour of either ; but, from examinations of the country, I 
am inclined to believe that there was a free passage along the 
coast, from Caister to Happisburgh, and that, so far from the 
sea having receded in that line, it has nearly swallowed up 
two parishes, viz., Little Waxham and Eccles, and greatly en- 
croached upon others since the Roman period. The finding 
Roman coins at Eccles, which I have done, and some remains 
at Horsea, as I am credibly informed, prove that there was 
such a communication and access along the sea coast. But, 
however this might be, in one respect Camden decidedly has 
the advantage. The grandeur of the remains of the camp at 
Burgh favours his opinion ; and, probably, this was the reason 
why, as Spelman says, "Camdeno Burgh arrisit;" whereas 
the existence of the walls of a camp at Caister near the sea, 
mentioned by Spelman, has been questioned, and it has been 
hinted that he confounded the comparatively modern dwelling- 
house of the Fastolfes, called Caister castle, with a Roman 

Now, in justice to Spelman, I will mention a few facts 
which I have observed. Fragments of sepulchral urns, of 
pottery, and of glass, are found very extensively and in great 
profusion in the parish; I traced them in a line from a 
quarter of a mile to the north-east, to three quarters of a mile 
to the south-west. They are found in the greatest abundance 
in a field on the west of the church, where tradition has fixed 
the Roman camp. In this spot one can scarcely use a spade 
without meeting with foundations of buildings, and broken 
pieces of Roman tiles lie scattered on the surface. The vault, 
or building of Roman tiles, described by the Rev. Thomas 
Clowes d , was discovered here : Roman coins are found in dif- 
ferent parts of Caister, but most abundantly in this field. As 
far as my observation goes, those found at Caister are more 
ancient than those found at Burgh, which are chiefly of the 
period of Constantine, whereas coins of M. Antoninus and of 
Commodus Antoninus are very common at Caister. Among 
them one of John Zimisces, who succeeded to the empire in 
A.D. 961, may deserve especial notice, as it appears remark- 

* Gent. Mag., November, 1837. 

ICEN1A. 251 

able that a coin of that period should find its way into this 
country, at least in accordance with the generally received 
notion of the entire extinction of the Roman name in this 
island at that time. Pottery of various descriptions is also 
found here; a fragment of fine " Samian" ware, on which a 
hare hunt is represented, is in my possession ; also a perfect 
urn, which was taken from a clay pit on the north-east of the 
church, half filled with earth and bones : it was covered with 
a tile, and buried about two feet deep. On the same spot were 
discovered a large quantity of burnt wood, decayed wood, nails 
with wood adhering to them, and also a human jaw : the latter 
is partially fossilized; and the dryness of the soil, similar to that 
remaining in the urn, will account for its preservation. This 
may serve to exemplify the well-known fact of the occa- 
sional burial of the dead among the Romans, as well as cre- 
mation, which appears, however, to have been the more usual, 
although not the invariable practice. 

rfgfnal !9ocumentg. 

AMONGST the records in the possession of the Dean and Chapter of 
St. Paul's, London, numerous memorials of interest are preserved, which 
well deserve careful examination. For the following extracts from the 
archives, consisting of accounts of the sacrist and keeper of the treasury of 
that church, towards the latter part of the thirteenth century, we are in- 
debted to the kindness of the Ven. Archdeacon Hale. It were much to be 
desired that a series of documents of this nature could be formed, valuable, 
not merely as supplying information regarding ecclesiastical usages, but 
on account of the precise data which they afford for the comparison of the 
value of money at various periods, the price of merchandise, rate of wages, 
and other points of statistical enquiry. 

In the annual account of disbursements of Thomas de Culing, keeper of 
the treasury, from Easter, A.D. 1276, the following particulars occur. 

The consumption of incense during the year amounted to eighteen pounds 
and a half, at tenpence the pound, eight pounds at ninepence, and nine 
pounds and a-half at sevenpence. In other years it was purchased at a still 
lower price, namely at sixpence the pound. 

Item, in carbone, cum cariagio, ij.s. ix.d. Item, in brachinellis, die pentecostes, ij.s. 
Item, in cirpis, iiij.d. q. Item, Dominica in ramis palmarum, in bucsis et palmis, vj.d. 
In scopacione ecclesie, per annum, v.sol. xi.d. q a . Item, in mactis*, per annum, xj.sol. 

Charcoal was used, doubtless, for the patella or chafer, named in another 
place, which supplied embers for the censers. Regarding the " brachinellis" 
at Pentecost, it may be confidently surmised that the term relates to the 
feasting which occurred at the Whitsun-ales ; if, indeed, an error may 
have been made by the scribe or the transcriber, the true reading would be 
" crachinellis," cracknels 5 ; as, however, the chief preparation on these 
joyous occasions appears to have been the concoction of ale, the word may 
be some diminutive derivable from brachinum, or braciatorium, a brewery. 
Many notices might be given of the usage of strewing churches with rushes, 
a precaution, probably, as likewise the mactce, or mats, against cold and 
damp, when the daily services were followed with regularity . 

Item, in stipendio trium famulorum ecclesie, per annum, x.sol. Item, in stipendio 
lotricis, per annum, ij.sol. vij.d. Item, in stipendio consutricis, pro tribus quarterns' 
anni, iiij.s. vj.d. Item, in victu clerici, per annum, xv.sol. In stipendio ejusdem, vj.sol. d 

Item, in j. serico magno empto, viij.d. Item, in j. serico minore, j.d. Item, in tuni- 
cula cujusdam panni de serico, et inde offertorio effecto, xviij.d. Item, in ij. phialis de 
stangno, iij.d. Item, in quatuor clochis in festo dedicationis ecclesie, j.d. 

" In an account of the year 1279, the c Of the custom of strewing churches 

corresponding item gives this word as see the notes on country wakes, in Brand's 

" natis," mats ; in another " naclis." Popular Antiquities, by Sir Henry Ellis. 

b " Crakenelle, brede, Creputellus, fra- rt In another roll he is called clencus de 

ginellus, artocopus." Prompt. Parv. vestibule, and rated at 7d. a week. 


The term offertorium, occurs in various significations connected with the 
services of the altar ; in some instances it is used to designate an object of 
silver, or some solid material, set with gems and otherwise decorated, whilst 
from other authorities it is evident that the offertorium sericum was a kind 
of napkin, used by the deacon, for the sake of greater reverence, in which 
the chalice was wrapped when presented by him to the celebrant. It is 
a singular record of economy that, in this case, a certain tunicle of silken 
tissue should have been cut up to supply the material. The treasury of the 
church of London must have been greatly impoverished, when such niggard 
practices were admissible : the vessels even for the wine and water used at 
the service of the mass, called amulce, phials or cruets, were of pewter, and 
cost only threepence the pair. It is not easy to comprehend the kind of 
diminutive bells, or clochee, valued at four a penny, which were required on 
the feast of the dedication of the church : possibly they might be attached 
to the banner used on that occasion, as noticed subsequently. 

The accounts of Thomas de Culing proceed with much uniformity, from 
year to year. In 1277 he disbursed, 

In quadam olla aquatica, ob. In quadam tankarda aquatica, iij.d. ob. Item, in 
emendatione ferr' obbletarum, j.d. Item, in emendatione sicule argenti, ij.d. 

The derivation and original use of the term tankard is very obscure : 
this is perhaps the earliest instance of the occurrence of the word, and it 
appears to designate some vessel of larger capacity than the more modern 
quart-can so called. The wafers, or " oblys," for the service of the altar, 
were prepared in most churches as occasion might require : great precau- 
tion being observed to ensure their being perfectly free from mouldiness or 
fermentation. The iron stamps or tongs, used for this purpose, are here 

The canons enacted in the reign of Edgar, A.D. 960, enjoin that mass be 
not celebrated without " clsene oflete," pure obly, and pure wine and water 6 . 
Amongst the injunctions of the synod held at Exeter, A.D. 1287, it was 
ordained as follows : " Provideant sacerdotes quod oblatas habeant confectas 
de simula frumenti et aqua duntaxat; ita quod nihil immiseeatur fermenti. 
Sint et oblatce integre, candide, et rotunde, nee per tantum tempus custo- 
diantur quod in sapore vel aspectu abominabiles habeantur f ." The irons 
above mentioned served to impress upon the oblys the sacred monogram 
and symbol of the cross : the representation given by the Benedictines, in 
the " Voyage Litteraire," supplies a curious example ; the wafer-irons de- 
scribed by them, apparently of no slight antiquity, were preserved in the 
abbey of Braine g . 

The term sicula, used in these accounts of the treasurer of St. Paul's, 
occasionally signifies a measure of liquids, (sicla, sigla, or sicula, Ducange,) 

e Wilkins, i. 227. Ancient Laws and oblea, or oblata, in French oublie, terms 

Inst., ii. 253. In Anglo-Saxon the wafer derived from the Latin oblatus, offered, 

was termed also oblaten. The German ' Wilkins, ii. 132. 

word oblate, Dutch oblie, and Icelandic 8 Voyage Litt., ii. 35. 
oblata, signifies a cake or wafer, in low Latin 


it is possibly, however, here written for situla, the holy-water vat or stoup, 
not unfrequently made of precious metal, in wealthy establishments. 
In accounts of the years 1278 and 1279, the following items occur. 

In patella ferrea, xiiij.d. In zonis puerorum, ij.d. Item, consutrici, pro octo albis, 
novis vexillis, puerorum vestimentis, et aliis necessariis, vij.s. ix.d. ob. Item, in ij. pari- 
bus corporalium, xij.d. Item, in xij. ulnis panni linei, iiij.s. iiij.d. precium ulne, iiij.d. 
Item, in xliiij. ulnis panni lynei, xij.s. x.d. precium ulne iiij.d. ob. Item, in dealbacione 
ejusdem panni, ix.d. Item, in x. ulnis de karde, iij.s. v.d. Item, in kanevaz ad sus- 
tendas ij. tapetas, et ad emendendas paruras vestimentorum, v.s. iij.d. In custu et filo 
tapete, ij.s. iij.d. Item, in renovacione vexillorum majorum, xxi.s. x.d. Item, in emen- 
datione vexillorum minorum, ij.s. iijd. Item, in lanceis, j.d. iij.q a . Item, in capa no- 
viter de serico contexta, et in orfreis freseis, et in stipendio consutricis, Ixj.s. vij.d. 

Item, in brachinellis die Pentecostes, xxv.d. Item, in mundacione ecclesie contra 
Pentecostem x. 

Item, in scopis per annum, ij.d. q". Item, Dominica balmarum, vj.d. Item, in 
hokis, j.d. ob. Item, in j. howe. iij-d. Item, in tribus ulnis de kanevaz ad vexillum in 
dedicacione ecclesie, et in pictura ejusdem vexilli, xx.d. ob. Item, in j. ferro ad hostiam 
faciendam, iij.s. Item, in ligaturis tankard, j.d. 

In processions, especially on the rogation days, when parochial perambu- 
lations took place, various banners were used, of which the tradition was 
in recent times preserved, in some places, by carrying garlands suspended 
to poles, during the perambulation of boundaries. The service-book, called 
a processional, supplies full information in relation to the use of banners, 
and one of the earliest printed editions exhibits, by means of woodcuts, the 
proper arrangement of these decorations 11 . In wealthier churches the ban- 
ners were not only ornamented with sacred subjects, but they exhibited 
armorial bearings, as shewn in the list of the " vexilla pro rogationibus," 
belonging to Christ Church, Canterbury, printed by Dart from Cott. MS. 
Galba, E. IV. The banner of the lion, and that termed the dragon, were 
commonly displayed, and are enumerated in a MS. inventory of the church 
of Sarum, A.D. 1214. By Archbishop Winchelsey's constitutions the pro- 
vision of "vexilla" was required from the parishioners, and the injunction 
was repeated by Archbishop Peccham. Amongst the earliest instances 
of their use in England, the gifts of Bishop Leofric to Exeter cathedral 
may be cited, amongst which are mentioned "ij. guthfana," war-vanes, or 

Amongst various other extracts from the curious archives of St. Paul's, 
kindly communicated by the Archdeacon, there are accounts of sums re- 
ceived in the pixis, truncus, or money-box, entitled " Recepta de pixide 
crucis borialis," dated A.D. 1343, 44. These monies appear to have been 
taken out monthly, the amount received each month varying from 12/. to 
207. The account frequently mentions broken money, " argentum fractum, 
ferlingos fractos," not estimated ; the deficiency of small currency had 
occasioned the subdivision of coin into fractional parts. 

We hope to be enabled, by Archdeacon Hale's obliging assistance, to 
resume the consideration of the evidences supplied by these curious records. 

h See Processionale ad usuin Sarum, 1528. 



AMONGST the meagre evidences which can be adduced in relation to the 
earliest occupation of our island, there are none more valuable than observa- 
tions connected with sepulchral deposits ; and although little may remain 
to be added to the facts collected by Douglas, Cunnington, Sir Richard 
Colt Hoare, and other zealous investigators of British tumuli, it is of im- 
portance that the circumstances observed in the examination of any barrow 
or burial-place, should be faithfully recorded. However trivial and tedious 
such recitals may appear to some of our readers, it must be remembered 
that tumuli supply almost the only indications of the civilization, customs, 
manufactures and commerce of the first inhabitants of Britain ; that their 
comparison may ultimately enable the archaeologist to reduce to a scientific 
classification, facts, which at present remain in vague confusion, and thus 
tend to establish a distinction between the various tribes or successive occu- 
pants of the country. 

The following notice of the recent examination of two British tumuli, in 
Cambridgeshire, has been communicated by Mr. W. T. Collings ; one of 
them, opened on May 20th last, is in the parish of Bottisham, on the 
borders of Newmarket Heath. It is placed on an elevated range of hills, 
forming the escarpment of the chalk, which makes it conspicuous for 
miles over the flat country around. This position, with the fact that an 
immense quantity of charcoal was found throughout the composition of this 
tumulus, which is of large size, measuring about 90 feet in diameter, 
although the deposit was, in comparison, very trifling, would incline us to 
think that it had been used as a site for a beacon-fire, to guide the traveller 
over the wild waste of fen-country which spreads in all directions around, 
and hence, probably, the name " Beacon-course." The cutting was made 
from east to west, commencing at the eastern side of the tumulus, in the 
direction of its centre, in which, at a depth of about three feet, there 
was found a cinerary urn, in an inverted posi- 
tion, slightly tilted on one side, and surrounded 
by charcoal and burnt earth. It was filled with 
charcoal, but contained only one small fragment 
of bone. This vessel, which was of the simplest 
manufacture, moulded by the hand, and sun- 
baked, measured, in height, five inches, and its 
diameter, at the largest part, was five inches and 
a half. From the deep red colouring, and the 
general appearance of the surrounding soil, it would seem that a small hole 


had been first dug, charcoal and bones burnt in it, the vase placed on the 
fire in an inverted position, and the whole covered up. About ten feet 
eastward of the central deposit, on the south side of the line of excavation, 
and half a foot deeper, a deposit of fragments of bone was found, apparently 
calcined, with but little charcoal, or burnt earth, forming a layer not more 
than three inches thick, and two feet in circumference. There were several 
pieces of the skull, a portion of the alveolar process, inclosing a tooth, 
apparently that of a young person, pieces of the femur and clavicle, and 
other fragments. A little to the north of this spot there appeared a mass of 
charcoal and burnt earth, containing nothing of interest. After digging 
five or six feet deeper, operations were discontinued ; and on the next day 
shafts were excavated from the centre, so as completely to examine every 
part, without any further discovery ; and in every direction charcoal was 
found mingled with the heap, not in patches, but in fragments*. 

The other barrow was raised in a less conspicuous situation, about 300 
yards down the south slope of Allington Hill, part of the same range situ- 
ate about a quarter of a mile to the south-west. Both are marked in the 
Ordnance map. An entrance was obtained from the east-north-east, passing 
south-south-west, through the centre of the mound. Here a thin layer of 
charcoal appeared, extending many feet in every direction. Amongst the 
soil thrown out, portions of two vases, broken, probably, at a previous 
opening, were found, sufficing to prove that this had been an early Celtic, 
and not Roman, deposit. One was the lip of a vase of red ware, the other 
a portion of a jar of the usual coarse unbaked pottery, of black colour. 
In this tumulus were found two small rounded pieces of hard chalk, of the 
lower strata, called clunch. One was a perfect ball, 
smooth, measuring an inch in diameter ; the other was 
of the same size, ground down in a regular manner, 
reducing it to a turbinated shape, as here repre- 
sented. It had been, probably, intended to perfo- 
rate these as beads ; a specimen of the same mate- 
rial, ground down in a similar manner, and perforated, 
is in the possession of Mr. Collings b . 

It is very uncertain for what purpose the objects, designated by Mr. Col- 
lings as beads, were fabricated. They are frequently found in tumuli, or 
near earth-works and remains of early occupation : they are mostly formed 
of indurated clay, bone, or stone, sometimes almost spherical, whilst other 
specimens are of flattened form, perforated, in all cases, in the direction of 
the smaller diameter. They vary from about one to two inches in diameter. 
The conjecture appears probable that they may have been used in connec- 
tion with the distaff, and the occurrence of such an object in a tumulus 
might thus serve to indicate the interment of a female. Some northern 

Soil, light ; subsoil, gravel ; circumfer- since 1801. 

ence, about 300 feet ; diameter, from 80 b Diameter of the tumulus, 24 yards ; 

to 90 feet; present height, 14 feet; but composition of the tumulus, surface soil 

the plough has frequently passed over it, intermixed with chalk and fragments of 

for the land has been under cultivation flint ; subsoil, hard chalk. 



antiquaries, however, have regarded such perforated balls as weights used 
in fishing, either for the line or nets. 


Spear and Cell Mould. 

The very curious object here represented, is the moiety of a set of moulds 
for casting spear-heads and celts of bronze ; it is formed of hone-stone, and 
was found between Bodwrdin and Tre Ddafydd, in the western part of the 
Isle of Anglesea. It measures, in length, nine inches and a quarter ; each side 
measures, at one extremity, two inches, and, at the other, one inch and a half. 
It is obvious that a second precisely similar piece of stone was requisite, by 
means of which four complete moulds for casting objects of various forms 
would be obtained, comprising a celt of simple form, with a loop on the side, 
for the purpose of attaching it to the haft, spear-heads of two sizes, with 
lateral loops, for a like purpose, and a sharp-pointed spike, four inches and 
a half in length, probably intended to be affixed to a javelin, or some 
missile weapon.- This stone was unfortunately broken by the pick of the 
workman who found it : it was in the possession of Mr. David Pierce of 
Caernarvon, and the drawing from which the annexed woodcut has been 
taken, was executed by Mr. H. Pidgeon of Liverpool, whose accurate pencil 
has contributed many interesting subjects to the collections of the Institute. 
Rowlands remarks, in his History of Anglesea, that the weapons or imple- 
ments, termed celts, had often been found in the Island; he gives also 
representations of some having the loop at the side, similar in fashion to 
those which would have been produced in this mould. A considerable 
number were found, about the year 1723, under a stone on the shore, near 
Rhiedd, on the Menai, where, as Rowlands supposed, the Romans had 
effected their landing, the spot being still marked by the name Maes-Hlr- 
Gad, the great army's field. Considerable doubt has been entertained in 

VOL. III. L 1 



regard to the purpose for which these objects were fabricated : an argu- 
ment might perhaps be fairly drawn from this mould, that they were 
properly warlike weapons, and not implements for domestic or mechanical 
uses, the celt being here found in conjunction with objects unquestionably 
of warlike use. 


Details of supposed Snxon Tombs, Crypt, Bedale, Yorkshire. 

Sculptured remains of early character, by some accounted Saxon, and 
bearing much resemblance to the curious crosses at Carew, Nevern, Penally, 
and other places in South Wales, are found scattered throughout the Northern 
counties. Of some interesting fragments existing in Durham and York- 
shire, a notice, accompanied by drawings, has been received from Mr. W. 
Hylton LongstafFe, of Darlington. In forming graves in the choir of Bedale 
church, portions of ancient tombs were 
found, resembling in fashion the re- 
markable sepulchre existing at Dews- 
bury . The covering of these tombs 
was formed like a ridged roof, covered 
with diamond-shaped tiles, overlap- 
ping one another precisely like the 
Roman roofing found at Bisley, of 
which a representation has been 
given in the Archaeological Journal d . 
One portion, found at Bedale, in the 
spot now reserved as the family burial 

c See the representation given by Whi- 
taker in his Loidis : a foliated ornament, 
forming a repetition of volutes, runs along 

Sculptured stone and altar, Bedale crypt. 

the side : at the end, which is formed as a 
gable, there is a panel, enclosing a cross. 
d Vol. ii. p. 44. 



place of Mr. Harker of Theakstone, is now in the possession of that gentle- 
man : the side is rudely sculptured with foliage, the gabled-end being plain. 
The other is now placed on the stone altar, in the crypt beneath the choir 
of Bedale church : ^although much defaced, it surpasses the former in the 
character of decoration. On the end, as it has been supposed, was pour- 
trayed the Temptation in Eden ; on one side, the Saviour crucified ; on the 
other two serpents interwoven, biting their tails, and a demi-lion recum- 
bent. This kind of ornament, which may be noticed in many of our earlier 
monuments, is accounted by the northern antiquaries as appropriate to the 
period, termed by them, the iron age, and characterized, amongst various 
peculiarities, by these " Schlangenzierathen," and " Drachenzierathen," 
snake, and dragon ornamentations 6 . 
. In the churchyard at Bedale 
there are two fragments of a 
cross sculptured with knot- 
work ; of the larger a represen- 
tation is given on the next page. 
Several ancient ornamented 
stones existed there, which have 
been destroyed in rubbing floors 
and entrance-steps ; this, for- 
tunately, proved of too hard 
a quality to be thus employed. 
In the churchyard at Hawks- 
well, five miles distant from 
Richmond, there is the shaft 
of another sculptured cross of 
small dimensions, 5| ft. in 
height, and apparently the per- 
fect cross measured not more 
than 6 ft. In the pavement, 
within the altar rails, may be 
noticed a fragment of early 
sculpture, representing a ser- 
pent, with rude foliage, resem- 
bling the ornaments of one of 
the three sculptured crosses at 
Gainford, to which public atten- 
tion has recently been called 
by Mr. Walbran f . 

In the tower of AyclifFe 
church, near Darlington, Durham, two interesting crosses may be seen. 
Surtees conjectured that they had been erected in memorial of ecclesias- 
tical synods, there holden, A.D. 782, and 789. The base of the cross here 

e Leitfaden zur Nordischen Alterthum- f See his History of Gaiuford, where 

skunde, Kopent. 1837; p. 63. representations are given. 



- i '''' 1 1 f. at . 

Fragment of Cross, Bedale. 



represented had long stood in the churchyard, and during some repairs 
of the church the fragments were taken out of the walls, into which 
they had been built as materials, and re-united. Subsequently, having been 
injured by a storm, they were removed to the tower. It is elaborately 
sculptured with knot-work, the only figure being a Holy Lamb, rudely 
sculptured. The second cross at AyclifFe is of very curious character, 
greatly resembling the sculptured crosses preserved in various parts of 
Ireland. Its dimensions are, about 4| ft. high, by 15 in. wide. On the 
eastern side appear three figures, and a crucifixion ; adjoining to the 
crucifix appear figures holding up the spear and reed with a sponge ; above 
the limbs appear the sun and moon, according to early conventional forms 
of representation. On the southern side is the Crucifixion of St. Peter, with 
elaborate knot- work ; and other curious subjects decorate the western side. 


At the recent meeting of the 
Institute at York a remarkable 
original deed was exhibited, being 
a grant from St. Wolstan, bishop 
of Worcester, of fifteen hides of 
land in Alveston, formerly called 
from its Saxon occupant Eanulf- 
estune, Warwickshire, to the mo- 
nastery of Worcester. An impres- 
sion of the episcopal seal was ap- 
pended, and the deed bore date, 
the day of Pentecost, in the third 
year of king William,' the younger, 
A.D. 1099. This document had 
been given by Dugdale in the 
Monasticon from transcripts in the 
Worcester Cartulary, Cott. MS. 
Tib. A. 13, and the Annales 
Wigornenses, 'Claud. A. 10. He had printed it also in his History of War- 
wickshire, from a very ancient register in the custody of the dean and 
chapter of Worcester ; and it may be found in Heming's Cartulary, printed 
by Hearne, with the ancient Saxon description of the boundaries. The 
existence of Wolstan's original charter does not appear to have been 
noticed . This deed, independently of its fine state of preservation, is of 
considerable interest, as fixing precisely the period of the completion of the 
new buildings, erected by Wolstan. After reciting his purpose and 
endeavours to augment the monastery constructed by St. Oswald, his pre- 

Seal of Bishop Wulsmi 

8 The various readings noticed on col- 
lation with the original have not appeared 
sufficiently material to justify the re- 
printing of this curious document at 
length. It deserves notice, however, that 

in the Monasticon the date had been er- 
roneously printed M.lxxxviij. an error 
not noticed in the new edition. In the 
Hist Warw., and Hearne's edition of 
Heming's Cartulary, it is correctly given. 


decessor, both in the erection and appointments of the church itself, and in- 
crease of the establishment, he stated that he had added to the number of 
the monks, who were about twelve in number, and had formed a congre- 
gation of fifty, for whose sustenance he gave the lands in Alveston, long 
possessed unjustly by certain powerful persons 11 , and acquired by him with 
much labour and cost from William the Conqueror. He dated his gift in 
the twenty-seventh year of his episcopate, and the first of the occupation of 
the new monastery by him erected, of which the refectory and adjoining 
buildings, as also the crypt under the choir, and the transept, are now the 
principal remains '. William of Malmesbury informs us that these works 
had commenced A.D. 1084, and he gives an interesting relation of the 
emotion of St. Wolstan, when, on their completion, the old church, erected 
by St. Oswald, A.D. 983, was about to be demolished 11 . 


The tomb of St. Richard, bishop of Chichester, A.D. 12451253, has 
recently been " restored," and a series of small statues, representing his 
friends, and eminent contemporaries, have been designed in close conformity 
with the style of the period, as decorations of the sunken panels around the 
altar-tomb. The work was entrusted to the skilful hands of Mr. Edward 
Richardson, and it has been executed with great care and judgment. The 
prelate had been first interred, by his own desire, in a humble tomb in the 
north transept; when canonized by Pope Urban V., A.D. 1275, the re- 
mains were removed with solemn ceremony, in the presence of Edward I., 
Queen Eleanor, and the court, to a sumptuous sepulchre, or shrine, visited 
each year by numerous pilgrims and devotees, whose offerings greatly aug- 
mented the funds of the establishment. So highly in estimation were the 
relics of St. Richard, that the commissioners at the Reformation relinquished 
the purpose of destroying the shrine, from fear of popular commotion. The 
tomb and effigy appear to have suffered considerably when removed during the 
times of the Commonwealth, and they were replaced at the Restoration. In 
subsequent times they had been defaced by rude hands, and covered with in- 
numerable initials or dates, commencing about 1608, incised upon the stone. 
It was reported that it had been disturbed about sixteen years since, but, 
from appearances during the recent examination, this did not seem to have 
been the case. On removing the effigy and stone table for repair, the grave 
of stone courses appeared perfect ; the earth which covered the remains had 
sunk to the depth of several inches. On the surface lay fragments of hazel 
wands, or branches, such, probably, as pilgrims were accustomed to cut 
by the way, and suspend around the shrine, in token of zealous devotion. 

h These were, as we learn from Domes- ingressionis nostre in novum monasterium, 

day, Bricstuinus, who, in the times of the quod construxi in honore del genetricis, 

Confessor.heldamoiety of the lands granted primo." It would appear by the context 

by Wolstan; Britnodus, and Aluui, being that the church, rebuilt by Wolstan, had, 

occupants of the remainder. See the state- as well as the monastic buildings, been 

ment of their recovery by the bishop, completed previously to the date of his 

Domesday Book, f. 238. b. grant. 

1 The expression is as follows : "anno k Anglia Sacra, ii. 241. 


Part of a staff, resembling the remains of the crosier in the hand of the effigy, 
was found, with fragments of vessels of glass, earthenware, and other objects 
in the loose earth probably thrown into the grave when previously opened. A 
layer of black mould, an inch in thickness, visible on each side of the grave, 
with iron nails found amongst it, indicated that the remains of the bishop 
had been deposited in a plain wooden chest, not in a stone or leaden coffin. 
This appeared fully to accord with the narrative of his biographer, Ralph 
de Bocking, in regard to the simple and humble notions of the bishop. The 
bones were not disturbed : the form of the skull resembled that of the head 
of the sculptured effigy : the arms were crossed upon the body. The head of 
the pastoral staff was sought for in vain ; it had, probably, been taken away 
when the grave was formerly opened. Considerable traces of rich colouring 
were found by Mr. Richardson on the vestments, and on every part of this 
interesting tomb : no attempt to restore these decorations has been made. 
The oaken screen, which protected the shrine of St. Richard, still exists 
in the chapter-room of the cathedral. 

The remains of hazel- wands described by Mr. Richardson, if they may be 
regarded as tokens of pilgrimage, are deserving of notice. Similar staves, 
preserved and deposited in the graves of ecclesiastics, in Hereford cathedral, 
have been found in several instances, as related by the dean of Hereford ; 
Archaeologia, vol. xxx. Such a hazel-wand, roughly trimmed, as if cut by 
the way-side, lay in the tomb of Richard Mayo, bishop of Hereford, with 
sea-shells, tokens, as supposed, of a pilgrimage to St. James, made when that 
prelate was sent to escort Catherine of Aragon, the affianced bride of Prince 
Arthur, son of Henry VII., on her arrival in England. No other instance 
of a similar usage appears to have been noticed. 

The following communication of some curious details connected with a 
singular discovery in the church of Kingswear, Devon, is due to Arthur 
Holdsworth, Esq., and the Rev. John Smart, incumbent of the parish. That 
small church, adjoining to Dartmouth harbour, was in the patronage of the 
Premonstratensian canons of Torr, and it was served by a priest appointed by 
that house ; some have supposed that he resided in the tower, as there is a 
fireplace on the first story, with a chimney passing up through the wall, and 
terminating in 'one of the battlements. The church had become decayed, 
and has been taken down, with the exception of the tower. The south wall 
was removed to the foundation, and, in so doing, a grave was found just 
within the chancel screen, a little eastward of a door leading to the rood-loft. 
This grave was double, 4 ft. wide, by 7 ft. long, and sunk a few feet deeper 
than the foundation ; bones of a tall man were found in it, with a piece of 
leather of sufficient size to give the impression that the corpse had been 
wrapped in that material. Unfortunately, as it was known that, in 1604, 
Kingswear had been afflicted by malignant disease, when 145 corpses were 
interred, Mr. Smart directed that all remains should forthwith be reburied, 
and in consequence the contents of this grave were removed, without careful 
examination. When it had been cleared out, a cavity appeared in its side, 
leading through the natural soil under the foundations, of sufficient size to 



allow a man to creep through it, the double grave affording him room enough 
to kneel and accomplish his purpose. This hole was found to enlarge into 
a circular space, 3 ft. in diameter ; after the removal of the foundation wall, 
the maiden earth over the excavation was opened, and the cavity found to 
be 3 ft. in depth, surrounded by a rude wall of dry masonry, sufficing to 

North-east angle of the Chancel, Kingswear, Devon. 

prevent the falling in of the sides. It was partly filled with earth and 
rubbish, and the bottom contained lime mixed with bones of infants, to the 
depth of about 9 inches. The masons employed in the work affirmed that 
this had been quick-lime, and it was reckoned by a gentleman present that 
there were the remains of ten or twelve children. The skulls were as thin 
as parchment. Mr. Holdsworth conjectured that it had been sought to con- 
ceal these remains, where they could not be traced : no spot could be more 
secure than this mysterious hiding-place constructed under the foundation 
wall of the church, situate on the side of a hill, so that this portion of the wall 
externally was some feet below the surface. The cavity appears to have been 
made with most cunning skill, so as not to disturb the building, which would 
at once have aroused suspicion ; a large grave, as he supposed, was made 
within the chancel, near the south wall, to prove the ground, which was 
found to be a rock, sufficiently soft to be readily penetrated, yet solid 
enough not to fall in. The grave having then been enlarged to double 
size, so that a man might stoop and work in it, through its side, the cavity 
Avithin was excavated, surrounded by a rude wall, and the remains placed 


in it. Whether the corpse of a man were laid in the grave as soon as it 
was made, for security, and removed from time to time, to give access to 
the cavity within ; or it were buried afterwards, as a bar against intrusive 
curiosity, can only be matter for conjecture. The man who could have 
formed so curious a place of concealment for the bodies of the infants, 
would not have scrupled to use any means for the accomplishment of his 
object ; and the circumstance of the corpse having been wrapped in leather, 
had it been possible to ascertain the fact, might have shewn a provision for 
more ready removal, when access to the interior hiding-place was desired. 

The frequent discoveries of mural decorations in colour, recently made 
even in small parish churches, on the removal of the thick coats of white- 
wash with which their walls for many successive years had been beautified, 
appear to establish the fact, that all churches, from the Norman times until 
the Reformation, were decorated with colour in a greater or less degree, 
both on the plane surfaces and the mouldings. Mr. Charles Dorrien has 
forwarded to the Committee sketches of subjects brought to light during 
the restoration of the church of Mid-Lavant, Sussex ; these paintings, ap- 
parently of the latter part of the fifteenth century, are arranged in compart- 
ments, and seem to have formed a series representing the Sacraments and 
Services of the Church. One of them exhibited the rite of interment; 
the priest, vested in an alb, touches with the processional cross the corpse 
wrapped in the shroud, marked upon the breast with a large cross patee. 
On the south wall of the nave appeared a large figure of St. George, date, 
about t. Hen. VII. Mr. Dorrien remarked that indications were discernible 
of three successive decorations; the earliest being coeval with the fabric, 
and consisting of designs in outline in coarse red paint. Many traces of 
mural paintings have been found in the churches of that part of Sussex, 
but mostly foliated ornaments and zig-zag patterns. 

A notice and representation of similar paintings, recently uncovered on 
the north side of the nave in Melcombe-Horsey church, Dorset, has been 
communicated by the Rev. Charles Bingham. They are in very imperfect 
condition, the design apparently of the earlier part of the fifteenth century. 
In one compartment appeared a gigantic St. Christopher, at whose feet 
were pourtrayed' a siren and numerous fishes. Adjoining to this figure 
was seen St. Michael weighing a soul in the balance. Near to the personi- 
fication of the departed spirit was introduced a figure, in very small pro- 
portions, with the right hand upraised in benediction, and a book in the 
left. It may possibly represent an ecclesiastic, supplicating mercy towards 
the deceased ; there is no nimb around the head. The church is a building 
of Decorated character, without any portions of earlier date. 

The attention of the Central Committee has been called, by Mr. Richard 
Hussey, to the existence of a good example of the domestic arrangements 
of the fourteenth century, in Somersetshire. The rectorial manor-house at 
Crewkerne, consists of the original buildings, apparently in the style of 
the reign of Edward II., with an addition in the Perpendicular style. It is 
in a very dilapidated condition, and will, probably, be soon pulled down to 

VOL. III. M m 


make way for a modern dwelling-house. The original features are in .part 
concealed by ivy, but some of them are perfectly visible : a window in one 
of the gables is of two lights, and, as is not uncommon in domestic buildings 
of that age, has a transom. There is a projection on the eastern side of the 
house, possibly intended as a chapel. This building appeared to be a 
valuable specimen of domestic architecture, during a period of which few 
similar works exist, and it deserves to be carefully planned and drawn. The 
original part seems to have been but little altered ; the general composition 
is very picturesque, and the site, adjoining to the western side of the 
church-yard, was well chosen. Mr. Hussey expressed the hope that some 
Member of the Institute might be disposed to examine this fabric without 
delay, and preserve memorials of its character and details. 

The market-place of the town of Ashburton, Devon, a curious timbered fabric 
of considerable antiquity, consists of an open arcade, formed with pointed 
arches of wood, supporting a lean-to roof, on either side, and a single upper 
story. Its dimensions are about 150 feet in length, by 10 or 12 feet in width, 
the upper part of the building being considerably less wide, on account of the 
pentise roof on each side. This ancient structure has fallen into decay, and, 
according to the report of the Rev. Arthur Hussey, it will inevitably, unless 
some steps be taken to prevent its removal, be demolished on the expiration 
of an existing lease, terminating at the death of a person above eighty years 
of age. He suggested that, at least, some examination of its construc- 
tion should be made by a competent person, and a representation, plan, or 
section, preserved, as a memorial of an interesting specimen of a class of 
buildings, of which few now remain. 

Mr. E. J. Carlos, in reference to the singular matrix of a mayoralty seal 
for the city of London, found in the chateau of Giez, of which a representa- 
tion had been given in the Archaeological Journal 1 , communicated the fol- 
lowing observations. He stated that he had regarded it as the seal made 
in lieu of the former mayoralty seal, on occasion of the avoidance of the old 
charter of the city of London, by a writ " quo warranto" in the year 1683. 
The new charter granted to the city would render requisite the fabrication 
of new seals for the corporation, and the office of mayoralty. The old 
charter was restored by King James II., previously to his forced abdica- 
tion, and he, probably, carried the civic seals to France, with the great 
seals of England and Ireland. These last are enumerated in the inventory of 
his effects, published in the Archseologia, xviii. p. 229. The mayoralty seal, 
being of base metal, might not be considered deserving to be included in that 
inventory. Mr. Carlos remarked that the seal found in Touraine, which 
clearly could not be assigned to the period of the regent, duke of Bedford, 
resembled the ancient one in general design, the debased character of the ar- 
chitectural ornaments, and the changes made in the saints and armorial 
scutcheons excepted. The figures, as he supposed, represent St. Edward the 
Confessor, and St. Thomas of Canterbury, in place of St. Peter and St. Paul. 
The design of the matrix well accords with the age of Charles II. or James I. ; 
1 See p. 74 of this volume. 


Jiad it been a fabrication for any improper purpose, it is obvious that a 
more close imitation of the original would have been produced. 

In Trinity Term, 35 Car. II., 1682, judgment was given on the famous quo 
tvarranto, that the corporation be seized into the king's hands as forfeited ; 
and the charter appears to have been surrendered, an example which was 
successively followed by the other corporations of England. Considerable 
sums were exacted by the crown for their restitution. King James II., in 
the last year of his reign, restored the charter to the citizens of London by 
Lord Chancellor Jefleries, and one of the first acts of the new regime, after 
the revolution, was to reverse the judgment on the quo warranto, and declare 
the city a corporation. Mr. Carlos is of opinion that King James had con- 
templated the grant of a new charter as an act of grace from himself, and in 
anticipation of such intention had caused new seals to be fabricated for the 
corporation and for the mayoralty. There is, however, no evidence that 
any such seal was delivered, or used, and the old seals continued in use, 
with perfect propriety, as they bore no allusion to the charter, and as the 
quo tcarranto did not abolish the corporation, but only seized it into the 
king's hands. When, however, King James, according to the supposition of 
Mr. Carlos, contemplated the grant of a new charter, in order to palliate an un- 
popular measure, he very probably would cause new seals to be made, to shew 
that the matter of the new charter emanated from his prerogative. At last, the 
Prince of Orange being in motion, the king restored the charter to the city. 

The seal in question appears to have been intended as the mayor's official 
seal, used on his own authority, and attached to precepts for the election of 
common council men, and other documents. Its ancient use was for sealing 
statutes as mayor, probably in pursuance of the statute of Acton Burnel 
(2 Edw. I.) which authorized the mayors of London, York, and Bristol, 
to have seals for statutes acknowledged under that act. The corporate 
seal was distinct from this ; it was used to certify acts of the whole corpora- 
tion, and always affixed in the presence of the court of common council, 
the "parliament of the city." 

Rinfc, Bredicot. Ear-rinf, Bredon Hill. 

Several curious objects of personal ornament, found in Worcestershire, 
have been submitted for examination by Mr. Jabez Allies. Amongst them 
may be noticed an ear-ring of silver, weight sixty grains, found with Roman 
brass coins of Allectus, Quintillus, and Constans, the acus of a fibula, and 
a silver penny of one of the Edwards, struck at London, in a field called 



Nettlebed, situate on the south side of Bredon Hill, near the ancient camp "* 
On the lower part of the ring appears a cavity formed to receive a gem. 
The ring of base metal, plated with gold, and inscribed with a cabalistic or 
talismanic legend, represented in p. 267, was recently dug up, near to the 
church-yard at Bredicot. It appears to be of the fourteenth century. 

A ring of later date, formed of silver consider- 
ably alloyed or plated with baser metal, and 
strongly gilt, found in dredging in the bed of the 
Severn, in January last, at a place called Saxon's 
or Saxton's Lode, a little southward of Upton, 
supplies a good example of the signet thumb ring 
of the fifteenth century ; the hoop is grooved 
spirally, it weighs 17 dwts. 18 grs., and exhibits 
the initial H. Signet rings of this kind were 
worn by rich citizens, or persons of substance, 
not entitled to bear arms. Falstaff bragged 
that in his earlier years he had been so slender in figure that he could 
readily have crept through an " alderman's thumb ring," and a ring thus 
worn, probably, as more conspicuous, appears to have been considered as 
appropriate to the custo- 
mary attire of a civic dig- 
nitary at a much later 
period. A character in 
the Lord Mayor's show, 
in the year 1664, is de- 
scribed as " habited like 
a grave citizen, gold 
girdle and gloves hung 
thereon, rings on his fin- 
gers, and a seal ring on 
his thumb." 

The Rev. C. Boutell, 
M.A., Local Secretary, 
placed at the disposal of 
the Committee the accom- 
panying engravings of two 
early stone coffin-lids, 
the one discovered in 
the year 1843, in the 
church-yard at Bircham- 
Tofts, in the county of 
Norfolk, and remarkable 
for the singular arrange- 
ment of the sculptured 
letters on either side the 
cross : the other, now 
Described in the " Antiquities of Worcestershire," by Jabez Allies, F.S.A. 

Early coped coffin-lid, Repps , 

ly coped coffin-lid. Bircbam-Tofts, 


forming part of the pavement of the small Decorated church of Repps, in 
the same county. This stone is slightly coped, and the cross with its 
accompanying ornaments are rudely, but still boldly executed in low relief. 
The church of Repps, though a very unpretending structure, possesses an 
excellent specimen of the circular flint towers of such frequent occurrence 
in this district ; it is surmounted by an octagonal heading of ashlar, so 
arranged as to form an arcade pierced towards the cardinal points with 
open windows, all in good preservation. It is probable that the stone last 
described commemorates the founder of the Norman tower of this church, 
and that consequently its date would be in the eleventh century. 

The singular ring, of which 
a representation is here given, 
is in the possession of the Rev. 
Walter Sneyd. It is of mixed 
yellow metal, gilt; on either 
side of the hoop there is a 
crown, of the form commonly 
seen on coins or money of the 

twelfth century, and on the signet are the words, ROGERIVS REX, chased 
in high relief. In the form of the character they correspond closely 
with legends on coins of Roger, second duke of Apulia of the name, 
crowned king of Sicily, A.D. 1129: he died A.D. 1152. Roger I., 
deceased A.D. 1101, had expelled the Saracens, and taken possession 
of the whole of Sicily. This ring has every appearance of genuine 
character ; but it is difficult to explain for what purpose it was fabricated, 
the inscription not being inverted, and the letters in relief ill-suited for pro- 
ducing an impression. It seems very improbable that King Roger should 
have worn a ring of base metal, and the conjecture may deserve considera- 
tion, that it was a signet not intended for the purpose of scaling, but en- 
trusted, in lieu of credentials, to some envoy. 

The gold ornament here represented is in the 
possession of Mr. J. N. Paton, sen., F.S.A., 
Scotland ; it is reported to have been found on 
the field of Floddon. Its weight is 8 dwts. 17 grs. 
A somewhat similar gold ring, but of less weight, 
found in the church-yard of Dunfermline, the 
burial-place of King Robert Bruce, was purchased a ***> Fiadon psia. 
few years since by Mr. Paton ; but it is no longer in his possession. The junc- 
tion of this ring had been ornamented with a precious stone. A third, resem- 
bling the ring above represented, was dug up, a few years since, on the field 
of Bannockburn, and is now in the possession of a person residing in Stirling- 
shire. These particulars, with a drawing by the skilful hand of Mr. Pidgeon of 
Liverpool, have been received through the Rev. Dr. Hume, Local Secretary 
of the Institute in that city, who is engaged in preparing for publication a 
detailed account of the curious remains discovered near the mouth of the 
Dee, to which allusion has been made in the last Journal. 


Two gold rings, resembling in general character the ornament found at 
Floddon, were exhibited at a recent meeting of the Society of Antiquaries. 
One of them, in the collection of Mr. Whincopp, of Woodbridge, was found, 
as stated, in an earthen vase, near Bury. The other was ploughed up 
on the Sussex Downs near Falmer, and is now preserved by Dr. Mantell 
amongst the curious antiquities found at Lewes, and in the adjoining dis- 
trict, of which some account has been given by Mr. Horsfield. It is not 
easy satisfactorily to define either the purpose for which these ornaments 
were intended, or the period to which they should be assigned. By some 
persons they have been regarded as ear-rings, a purpose for which their 
weight alone renders them ill-suited. They appear to offer some analogy 
with the tore of the Celtic age, whilst examples of twisted and intertwined 
ornaments, apparently of Saxon workmanship, may be adduced, especially 
those discovered in Cuerdale, Lancashire, and the armilla found at Halton, 
in the same county. 



The Central Committee, in laying before the members of the Institute the 
following financial statement, as submitted to the general meeting, at York, 
on Monday, July 27th ult., would observe, that it has been considered inex- 
pedient to offer on the present occasion any summary abstract of the pro- 
ceedings of the annual meeting. Such report, inserted in the ArchaBological 
Journal, however concisely given, might be justly regarded by many readers 
as a needless sacrifice of space which should have been devoted to subjects 
of more general interest. The volume of proceedings of the annual meet- 
ing at York, destined to be presented to every subscribing member and 
visitor who attended that meeting, is already in the press, and in the antici- 
pation that it may be promptly issued, the Central Committee are unwilling 
to anticipate the interest of its contents, by any previous statement, which 
must necessarily prove inadequate. 


We, the auditors appointed to audit the accounts of the Archaeological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, do report to the members that the 
treasurer has exhibited to us an account of the receipts and expenditure of 
the Institute, from the llth of March, 1845, to the 31st of December, 1845, 
and that we have examined the said accounts, with the vouchers thereto 
relating, and find the same to be correct and satisfactory. And we further 
report that the following is the abstract of the receipts and expenditure of 
the Institute during the period aforesaid. 



An abstract of the receipts and expenditure of the Archaeological Institute 
of Great Britain and Ireland, from March 11, to December 31, 1843. 

Dr. s. d. 


To donations received from 
members to December 31 . . 370 14 

To subscriptions .... 552 16 

Cr. t . d. 


By rent of apartments and 
attendance 41 13 11 

By advertisements for an- 
nual and monthly meetings, in 
London and provincial papers 58 3 9 

By furniture for apartments 69 19 

By printing circulars, list of 
members, and committee lists 47 7 

By stationery 680 

By salary of resident secre- 
tary 75 

By postage, carriage of ob- 
jects for exhibition, porterage, 
and incidental expenses, as per 
petty cash-book 68 13 9 

By expenses of the general 
meeting at Winchester, as in 
hire of rooms, cases for the 
museum, and attendants 


Balance . . 458 

923 10 

923 10 

And we, the auditors, further state that much of the expenditure has been 
incurred by the establishment of the Institute in their apartments, and there- 
fore will not occur in the accounts of the current year. 

We further find that considerable property, consisting of books, prints, 
drawings, and miscellaneous antiquities, is in the possession of the Institute, 
having been presented by various members as contributions to the library 
and collections of the Institute. 

Given under our hands, this twentieth day of May, 1 846. 

Q. j I" A. J. B. Hope (for William Burge, Esq.) 

I Charles Henry Hartshorne. 

We hereby certify that the above abstract of receipts and expenditure 
was submitted to the annual meeting of the Committee, on the twentieth 
day of May, 1846, according to the 29th rule. 

f A. J. B. Hope (for William Burge, Esq.) 
\ Charles Henry Hartshorne. 

In addition to the auditors' report, the following statement of the actual 
balance in the hands of the bankers of the Institute, and of sums received 
during the meeting at York, was submitted to the general meeting. 

Balance in favour of the Archaeological Institute, at Messrs. Cockburns, 
on July 18, 181-6 - 370 10 

Annual contributions of subscribing members received during the York 
meeting ............. 75 



Payments received for tickets taken by residents in York, and the county, s. d. 

not being annual subscribers . . . . ... . . . 145 

Contributions to the fund for defraying the local expenses . . . 74 10 

Donations for the general purposes of the Archaeological Institute . . 15 


A proposal having been formally made by the auditors to the Central 
Committee, for the amendment of the seventeenth rule, relating to the close 
of the financial year, and by them submitted for the approval of the general 
meeting, the following resolution was adopted unanimously, 

That the financial year shall be considered as closing with the 31st. of 
December, from which time the subscriptions for the ensuing year shall 
become due. 

The names of the Vice -President, and six members of the Central Com- 
mittee, selected to go out in annual course, having been submitted to the 
general meeting, the following members, nominated by the Committee, in 
accordance with the rules, were unanimously elected to fill up the vacancies. 





JOHN WINTER JONES, Esq., of the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. 




THOMAS HENRY WYATT, Esq., Fellow of the Institute of British Architects. 

The Rev. Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., one of the Assistant Keepers of the 
Records, was also proposed for election as a member of the Central Com- 
mittee, in the place of Thomas William King, Esq., Rouge-dragon Pursui- 
vant, who had retired, and he was unanimously elected. 

Several requisitions having been presented, inviting the Institute to visit 
certain cathedral towns and cities of the kingdom, in the course of their 
annual meetings; especially by Sir Charles Anderson, Bart., on the part of 
the Lord Lieutenant, and many influential persons of the county of Lincoln, 
as also of the mayor and municipal authorities of Lincoln ; by W. B. Turn- 
bull, Esq., Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, on the part of 
the council of that society ; by Edward Foss, Esq., on the part of the 
Recorder, and many persons of influence in Rochester, and its neighbour- 
hood ; the invitations received from Norwich and Wells, at the previous 
general meeting at Winchester, having also been recalled to the consider- 
ation of the meeting, it was resolved, that the annual meeting of the Institute 
for the year 1847 should be held at Norwich. The Lord Bishop of Norwich 
was then unanimously elected President for that year. 

A recommendation was then proposed to the meeting, and adopted 
unanimously, that in future the subscribing members should be entitled to 
attend the monthly meetings, held during the season in London, to have 
access to the library and collections of the Institute, and to receive the 
annual volume ; the tickets of admission to the annual meeting being issued 
to subscribing members or non-subscribers at the usual price. 

Hotices of Neto ^Publications. 

ITS ABBEY, with illustrations, now first collected by GEORGE GRANT 
FRANCIS, F.S.A., Hon. Secretary for South Wales to the Archaeological 
Institute, &c. Swansea, not published, 8vo. 1845. 

NUMEROUS are the sources of information valuable to the historian and 
the archaeologist, still left in obscure neglect in the principality of Wales ; 
the labours of a few zealous investigators have scarcely sufficed to enu- 
merate, or call attention to the various ancient remains which present them- 
selves at every step in that interesting country. The recently established 
periodical, indeed, devoted exclusively to the illustration of the antiquities 
of Wales, must be hailed as a presage of a spirit of more earnest and careful 
research in that fertile, although neglected, field of enquiry*. Much com- 
mendation is due to the intelligent labours of those, who, like Mr. Grant 
Francis and Mr. Dillwyn, have toiled with little hitherto of the tide of 
public opinion in their favour, and to whose zealous endeavours we are 
indebted for various valuable contributions to local or personal history. 

The materials for a History of Neath and its Abbey form an important 
addition to the collections, connected with the antiquities of Glamorgan- 
shire, put forth by Mr. Francis, and they hold out an encouragement to 
anticipate the extension of his researches in so interesting a locality. The 
mass of curious facts and traditions, still unsearched, and almost inaccessible 
in MSS., to which the taste and attention of recent times has but imper- 
fectly been drawn, constitutes only a portion of the vestiges of antiquity in 
Wales. An important monument, in connexion with the political and civil 
institutions of that country, has recently been given to the public, in the 
ably edited compilation of its Ancient Laws, one of the most valuable pro- 
ductions which have appeared under the auspices of the Commission on the 
Public Records. The appearance of such authentic materials would en- 
courage the hope that some writer competent to the task, may, ere long, be 
stimulated to undertake that desideratum in our historical literature, the 
ancient Annals of Wales and its Marches. The neglected traditions regard- 
ing those, whose labours and sufferings aided in the diffusion of Christianity 
in early times, are full of interest, as tending to throw light upon the esta- 
blishment of the faith in these kingdoms, by the ministration of men whose 
memory has been regarded as holy, although their sainted names may not 
be enregistered on the calendar of Rome. Some materials towards Welsh 

Archaeologia Cambrensis, a record of and its Marches. London, 8vo. Pickering, 
the Antiquities, Historical, Genealogical, Two quarterly parts, with a Supplement, 
Topographical, and Architectural, of Wales have already appeared. 

VOL. in. N n 


Hagiography have, indeed, been collected by Mr. Rees, but much remains 
for investigation. Many evidences might, doubtless, be elicited by a careful 
survey of those early sculptured and inscribed memorials, crosses reared by 
the way-side or in the cemetery, still attesting in their simple yet impressive 
character, the existence of a pure faith established in those remote parts of 
our island at a very early period. We may hope that Mr. Westwood, whose 
accurate and skilful pencil, united with an intimate acquaintance with the 
distinctive character of ornament at different periods, well qualify him for 
the task, may shortly carry out the investigation of these curious memorials, 
so happily commenced b . 

The remains of a later period, the monastic structures and churches of 
Wales, are replete with interest, but thither more especially should the in- 
vestigator of military architecture resort. The picturesque and instructive 
examples of the Edwardian castle, in the northern counties, with their varied 
details, yet uniform principles of constructive adaptation, are well known ; 
whilst in South Wales, at Pembroke and Manorbeer, at Ogmore, Neath, 
Caerphilly, and Cydweli, the enquirer may find specimens of successive 
periods, and trace advancing perfection in the science of military defences, 
in vain to be sought in other parts of the realm. These, indeed, reared by 
the hands of the Norman conqueror, may not be the objects of hoar an- 
tiquity to which the first care of the Welsh archaeologist will be addressed, 
but they supply admirable illustrations of a neglected subject of enquiry, 
intimately connected not merely with the history of architecture, but with 
the usages of daily life, the character and habitual feelings of former times. 

Neath is generally admitted to have been the NIDUM of Antoninus, and 
the " via Julia maritima," as also the Sarn Helen, lead towards the town. 
It is, however, remarkable that no coins, or vestiges of the Roman period, 
have been hitherto found there, although many traces of Roman occupation 
have been noticed on each side of Neath. Amongst these the inscribed 
stones discovered at Port Talbot and at Pyle, on the road to BOVIUM, 
deserve notice, and Mr. Francis has kindly communicated the fac-similes, 
carefully designed by himself. The latter, rescued by his hands from de- 
struction, and deposited amongst the antiquities in the Royal Institution at 
Swansea, has been explained as bearing the name of Victorinus, one of the 
thirty tyrants, slain A. U. C. 1019. The inscription at Port Talbot, pre- 
served in the Harbour Office, bears on one side the name of Maximian, 
which occurs also in an inscription found in Cumberland, given by Horsley c . 
On the other side appears a sepulchral memorial, probably of later date, 
written, as on other early slabs existing in Wales and in Cornwall, in a 
perpendicular direction. Coins of both these emperors are of frequent 
occurrence in this country, and a number of coins of Victorinus were found 
near Neath in 1836 d . 

The remains of the castle of Neath, erected, as it is supposed, by Richard 
, de Granavilla, to whom, in the reign of Henry I., the lordship was allotted, 

b See representations of the crosses of e Brit. Rom., p. 192, N. 40. 

Nevern and Carew, from drawings by Mr. d Dillwyn's Swansea, p. 56. Numism. 

Westwood, Archaeol. Journal, iii. 70. Journal, i. 132. 






consist of a gateway flanked by two massive rounders, portions of the cur- 
tain walls, and of a tower which appears to have commanded an ancient 
passage across the river Neth e . The annexed plan, for the use of which 

A. Principal Entrance portcullisei 

an ancient ford or bridge. 
C. Supposed to be a modern wall. 

Portion of the ancient wall. 

Ancient wall, faced with modern work 

Supposed Sally port, or second entrance. 

we are indebted to the kindness of Mr. Francis, shews the general arrange- 
ment of the works, which were of no considerable extent. The principal 
bailey consisted of an area of irregular form, measuring in diameter about 
85 feet in either direction. The remains of this structure, although less 
important than some of the fortresses of South Wales, may be examined, as 
likewise the ruins of the adjoining abbey, with no ordinary interest, on 
account of the curious record of the architect employed by the founder, as 
preserved in the Myvyrian Archaeology. Richard de Granavilla, one of the 
twelve Norman knights who accompanied Fitz-hamon, assisting him in the 

* Representations of the castle, as also 
of Neath abbey, as they appeared about 
1725, have been preserved amongst Buck's 

Views. A view of the castle gateway is 
given by Woolnoth, in his work on the 
Castles of England and Wales. 

sain oiisnvoNa 


conquest of Glamorganshire, returned to Wales about A.D. 1 1 1 1. He had 
visited the Holy Sepulchre, and brought with him from Palestine a man 
eminent in the art of construction, named Lalys, to whose skill the most 
noted structures in the county, both of a sacred and military character, have 
been attributed. The relation adds that he built Lalyston, called after his 
name, and, that having gone to London, he became architect to Henry I., 
and taught his art to many of the Welsh and English f . The remains of 
Neath abbey, founded, as Mr. Francis supposes, about the year 1129, are 
considerable : he has given an interesting plan of the conventual church and 
adjacent buildings. Their aspect is not of that picturesque character which 
attracts notice to many monastic ruins, but the vestiges of the structure, 
which, as Leland remarks, " semid to him the fairest abbay in all Wales," 
well merit attention. In the year 1803 some excavations were, with Lord 
Dynevor's permission, undertaken by the Rev. H. Knight, and part of the 
eastern end of the church, having been cleared, a pavement of decorative 
tiles was brought to light, of which Mr. Francis has enabled us to submit a 
representation to our readers. This pavement cannot be regarded as coeval 
with the Norman founder ; its character is that of the period, termed, in 
regard to architectural remains, Decorated: and it supplies a pleasing 
example of design in the general arrangement, which may be attributed to 
the times of Edw. II. Lewis Morganwg, a poet of the latter part of the reign 
of Hen. VII., has described in glowing terms the painted glass, the richly 
decorated ceiling, and floor " wrought of variegated stone," which were then 
to be seen in the abbey church. His ode, addressed to Lleision, abbot of 
Neath, is included amongst the collections printed by Mr. Francis. The 
tiles exhibit the single bearing of England, with those of Clare, earl of 
Gloucester, Turbervile, and Mowbray, 
or, possibly, Fitz-hamon. John de Mow- 
bray, lord of Gower, granted to the 
abbey a charter of confirmation, A.D. 
1 334, given by Mr. Francis from a docu- 
ment in the possession of Mr. Thomas 
Faulkner, and the connection of the Tur- 
bervile family with the affairs of the 
monastery, about the same period, is 
clearly shewn. The patronage of the 
abbey was in the great family of the 
Clares, earls of Gloucester and lords of 
Glamorgan, and the three chevronels 
were, doubtless, displayed in various de- 
corations. The arms attributed to de 
Granavilla, three rests, which appear on 
the common seal of the abbey, those also 
of Le Despenser and Montacute (?) have 
occurred on tiles, found at Neath by Mr. Dilhvyii 

' See Sir Richard Hoare's Notices of Neath, in his edition of Giraldus, Itin. i. 162. 


The materials for a history of Neath comprise many other memorials of 
interest to which we are here unable to advert. The ichnography of the 
town, taken in the reign of Elizabeth, from the original in Lord Dynevor's 
possession, may well deserve notice, as also the memorials extracted from 
the contemporary account of the progress of the duke of Beaufort, as Lord 
President, in 1684, and communicated from the archives at Badminton. 

In conclusion, we can only express regret that Mr. Francis should not 
have been disposed to extend the impression of this interesting little volume 
to a number of copies, more in accordance with the growing taste and 
demand for such publications. The days are, we hope, passed, when a pro- 
vision, limited by the Roxburghe standard, or even extended to fifty copies, 
as in the present case, can prove adequate to meet the desire to possess any 
volume of sterling materials connected with matters of national antiquity. 

CHARLES MAITLAND, D.M. 8vo. pp. 312. 

AMONGST the innumerable treasures of the Vatican, where the highest 
works of art in painting and sculpture are, in their respective departments, 
congregated, a series of inscribed sepulchral slabs, collected together and 
arranged in a long corridor at the entrance to the museum, many bearing 
upon them the impress of a rudely incised or sculptured symbol or figure, 
hardly seem to invite attention. They rather urge the visitor onwards, the 
more leisurely to view and examine the choicest sculptures of ancient pagan 
art, the Apollo and the Laocoon, or those wonderful productions of the 
Renaissance school, the frescoes of Buonaroti, besides a multitude of objects 
of every style of art and of all ages, with the endless repetition of which the 
mind and eye are sated and bewildered. 

But the simple tablets which fill the Lapidarian Gallery, for such is this 
corridor called, possess a deeper and more enduring interest than at first 
sight is readily apparent. They comprise numerous monuments illustrative 
of the early Christian Church at Rome, memorials of many who sought a 
refuge from persecution in the subterranean labyrinths beneath or near that 
city, and who, having suffered much for the faith, at length ' rested in peace,' 
and were buried in the sepulchral recesses of the catacombs, simply com- 
memorated, as the inscriptions or symbols on the tablets in some way or 
other indicate, in conjunction with their names, as members of the Christian 

The interesting volume Dr. Maitland has published, treats of these 
remains as bearing upon the history and practices of the early Church at 
Rome, especially during the third and fourth centuries. Our limits do not 
allow us to give that full notice which this work deserves, and to the merits 
of which our cursory extracts are insufficient to do justice. We shall pro- 
ceed with a few passages we have selected, but we strongly recommend our 
readers to peruse the work itself. 


The subterranean galleries which penetrate the soil surrounding the city of Rome, 
after having for four centuries served as a refuge and a sanctuary to the ancient Church, 
were nearly lost sight of during the disorder occasioned by barbarian invasions. As the 
knowledge of their windings could be preserved only by constant use, the principal 
entrances alone remained accessible ; and even these were gradually neglected and 
blocked up by rubbish, with the exception of two or three, which were still resorted to, 
and decorated afresh from time to time. In the sixteenth century the whole range of 
catacombs was re-opened, and the entire contents, which had remained absolutely un- 
touched, during more than a thousand years, were restored to the world at a time when 
the recent revival of letters enabled the learned to profit by the discovery. 

The history of the catacombs, since their recovery from the oblivion in which they had 
remained during the dark ages, consists principally in a succession of controversies, pro- 
voked by the indiscriminate veneration paid to every object found in them. During the 
reign of Sextus the Fifth, who ascended the pontifical throne in 1585, some discussions 
having occurred respecting relics, the attention of antiquarians was strongly directed to 
the subject, and a diligent examination of the catacombs, then recently discovered, was 
undertaken. Foremost in this investigation was Bosio, whose posthumous works were 
edited by Severano, in the year 1632, under the title of Roma Sotterranea, including an 
original chapter by the editor. The same work translated into Latin, and still further 
enlarged, was republished by Aringhi. 

The elaborate and valuable work of Aringhi, contains, amongst the 
numerous illustrations, plans of several of these catacombs. These evince 
them to consist of innumerable tortuous passages. 

The number of graves contained in the catacombs is very great In order to form a 
general estimate of them, we must remember that from the year A.D. 98, to some time 
after the year 400, (of both which periods, consular dates have been found in the ceme- 
teries,) the whole Christian population of Rome was interred there. 

Prudentius, the Christian poet, of the fourth century, whilst describing 
these cemeteries, observes : 

Many sepulchres marked with letters, display the name of the martyr, or else some 

The consular epitaphs are our principal means of fixing the dates of graves and ceme- 
teries. That belonging to A.D. 102, is the earliest that we possess, with the exception 
of one found by Boldetti, in St. Lucina's cemetery, of the year 98. 

D M 






Publius Liberio lived two years, three months, and eight days. Anicius Faustus and 
Virius Gallus being consuls. 

The following consulates have been copied without selection from the Christian inscrip- 
tions contained in the Vatican Library and Lapidarian Gallery; they shew the usual dates 
of the consular epitaphs. 

Caesarius and Albicus . . A.D. 397 

Victor and Valentinianus . . . 369 

Cl. Julianus Aug. and Sallustius . 363 

Marcellinus and Probinus . . . 341 

Datianus and Cerealis .... 358 

Valcntiiiianus and Valens, Aug. in. 370 



The mode of thus indicating a date has proved extremely valuable. We 
find also that palimpsest monuments are more ancient than is generally 

The employment of old pagan tombstones was common after the time of Constantino : 
but the usual custom in such cases was to reverse the marble and to engrave the 
Christian epitaph upon the opposite side. According to antiquarians, many stones have 
been discovered with unequivocal marks of paganism on one side, and of Christianity on 
the other: but of this there is now no opportunity left us of judging, as every catacomb 
tablet has been carefully plastered upon some wall or pillar. 

The principal symbols found on these tablets are the ancient Christian 
monogram, the palm branch, the dove, and the fish. The expression in 
Pace is of frequent occurrence, often the only ostensible indication of the 
faith of the person commemorated. 

Lamps of terra cotta are found abundantly in the catacombs; they are generally 
marked with the cross, with the likenesses of Peter and Paul, or with some other 
Christian symbol. 

At p. 127, we are presented with the fac-simile of an inscription comme- 
morative of a martyr, at the head of which appears the symbol of the cross. 


Lannus, the martyr of Christ, rests here. He suffered under Dioclesian. (The sepul- 
chre is) also for his successors (Boldetti). This fac-simile represents one of the very few 
epitaphs actually inscribed on the grave of a martyr, specifying him to be such. Its 
chief value lies in the letters E.P.S., shewing that the tomb had been legally appropriated 
to Lannus and his family after him et posteris suis. 

Dr. Maitland endeavours to disprove the notion suggested by Aringhi, 
that the implements marked upon the grave stones, or inclosed in the tombs, 
were the instruments by which the deceased had suffered martyrdom, and 
states that whilst " we have no historical evidence that it was the custom of 
the Church to bury instruments of torture or of death with the martyrs, 
the habit of designing the emblems of a trade or profession upon the tomb- 
stone, was, on the contrary, extremely common." The usage of representing 



on tombs the symbols of profession and trade, was common in this country, 
during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. In Wales it lingered down 
to the seventeenth century. 

As to the cups so often found inclosed in the tomb, or cemented to the 
rock outside, Dr. Maitland observes : 

The custom of depositing small vessels with the bodies of the dead, was common 
among pagans as well as Christians. Vessels of terra cotta, glass, alabaster, and ivory 
found in Christian tombs, have generally been considered as receptacles for blood, whilst 
those belonging to pagans, though exactly similar, have been termed lachrymatories. 
Two important questions here present themselves : 1st Were these vessels used by the 
Christians to contain blood? and 2ndly. Were they exclusively affixed to martyrs' 
graves ? 

He then proceeds somewhat at length to combat the notion commonly 
entertained, and to decide the questions raised, in the negative. Repre- 
sentations are given of two of these cups copied from Boldetti. The inscrip- 
tion on one of these is usually read Sanguis Saturnini, Dr. Maitland sug- 
gests it might be read Sanctus Saturninus. On this point the reader may 
form his own judgment from the representation. 

In treating of ancient symbolism, Dr. M. thus writes : 

Perhaps the cause which most powerfully contributed to the adoption of Christian 
ymbols was the ignorance of reading and writing then prevalent .... The symbols 
employed in the catacombs, exclusive of those supposed to belong to martyrdom, are of 
three kinds : the larger proportion of them refer to the profession of Christianity, its 
doctrines, and its graces: a second class, of a purely secular description, only indicate 
the trade of the deceased : and the remainder represent proper names. Of the first class, 
the cross, as the most generally met with, claims our early consideration. 

It would be difficult to find a more complete revolution of feeling among mankind, 
than that which has taken place concerning the instrument of crucifixion: once the object 
of horror and a symbol of disgrace, it is now the blessed emblem of our faith ; the sign 
of admission by baptism to all the benefits of Christian fellowship. . . . The change from 
cross to crucifix, in ancient monuments, is gradual: first occurs the simple cross ; after- 
wards a lamb appears at the foot of it. In a third stage there is Christ clothed, on the 
cross with hands uplifted in prayer, but not nailed to it ; in the fourth, Christ fastened 




to the cross with four nails, still living, and with open eyes. He was not represented at 
dead till the tenth or eleventh century. 

The lamb appearing at the foot of the cross is mentioned by Paulinus, who wrote about 
the year 400. Beneath the ensanguined cross stands Christ in the form of a snow- 
white lamb : as an innocent victim is the lamb consigned to unmerited death. 

From the 82nd canon of the Quinisextan council, held A.D. 706, we learn at what time 
the change from the lamb to the victim in human form was generally adopted. " We 
ordain that the representation in human form of Christ our God, who takes away the sin 
of the world, be henceforward set up, and painted in the place of the ancient lamb." 

In the medieval monuments in this country, the different symbols of faith 
thus enumerated are also to be found. Of sepulchral slabs, impressed with 
the cross, in a variety of forms, from the plain Greek or Calvary cross to 
the floriated cross of the most ornate description, we have innumerable exam- 
ples. The 'Agnus Dei' occurs but seldom on our ancient sepulchral monu- 
ments, still more rarely does the crucifix appear on such. We have met 
with two instances only, the one in Bredon church, Worcestershire, of 
which an illustration is given in a former number of the Journal ; the other 
in the priory church at Brecon. Both these are sculptured monuments of 
the fourteenth century. 

The fish was a symbol expressive of 
the name of Christ; .... the phonetic 
sign of this word, the actual fish, was 
an emblem whose meaning was entirely 

concealed from the uninitiated 

Sometimes the word 

was ex- 
pressed at length, .... at other times the fish itself was figured, as recommended by 
Clement of Alexandria. The specimen here given is from the Lapidarian Gallery. 
The symbols of trade, figured upon grave-stones, were long regarded by antiquarians 

as indicating the instrument by which the deceased had suffered martyrdom The 

dates of some contradict the supposition. The tomb-stone of Adeodatus (Lap. Gall.) 
expresses tolerably well the implements of a wool- comber. They consist of a pair of shears, 
a comb, and a plate of metal, with a rounded handle. 




The rebuses, which occur on monuments of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries in this country, have their antitypes in the phonetic figures on 
some of the ancient Christian monuments at Rome, thus : ' the tomb of 
Dracontius exhibits a dragon ; that of Onager an ass.' 

The author has great pleasure in being able to contribute, to the small number of pho- 
netics already published, the annexed, from the Lapidarian Gallery. A fragment only 
has been copied, the entire inscription being long 


Pontius Leo, and Pontia Maxima his wife. The 
former while living, bought this tomb. Their sons 
set up this. 

Two well-known instances are those of Doliens 
and Porcella. 


Doliens the father, to Julius his son. 
Dolium is the Latin for cask; Por- 
cella signifies a little pig, as in the next : 




Here sleeps Porcella in peace. She lived three years 
ten months, and thirteen days. 

Anciently the symbolic manner in which the Almighty Father was indi- 
cated, was by the image of a hand issuing from a cloud, and two instances 
of this appear among the catacomb sculptures, of which Dr. M. gives 
illustrations. In the Vetera Monimenta of Ciampini more early examples 
from mosaics are given of this symbol. It occurs in this country over the 
sculptured rood, a work of the twelfth century, on the south side of Romsey 
abbey church, but it was not till the fifteenth century that the usage of 
representing the first person of the Holy Trinity in human form became at 
all prevalent : we then find it on sculptured bosses, in painted glass, on 
ecclesiastical seals, and, as at Chacombe, Northamptonshire, and Great 
Tew, Oxfordshire, on sepulchral brasses. Milman attributes to the French 
the introduction of this representation, so early as the ninth century, an 
illuminated bible, supposed of that age, being his authority; but M. De 
Caumont, the learned antiquary of Normandy, was unable to find sculp- 
tured representations of the Trinity, with the Almighty Father thus per- 
sonified, of an earlier era than the fifteenth century. 

Whatever difference of opinion there may be as to the theological tone 
in which Dr. Maitland's remarks are written, and on this we offer no com- 
ment, his work is well worthy of a careful perusal, and possesses more than 
a mere transient interest. He has undoubtedly done much service in 
affording to many few of whom have ever heard of the thirty years 
labours of Bosio, or of the folio tomes of Aringhi a full, descriptive, and 
critical account, bearing evident marks of much labour and learning, of the 


catacombs of Rome and their sepulchral deposits, and we cannot do better 
than conclude our notice with the remarks which finish his introductory 

Perhaps it may safely be asserted that the ancient Church appears in the Lapidarian 
Gallery in a somewhat more favourable light than in the writings of the fathers and 
historians. It may be that the sepulchral tablet is more congenial to the display of 
pious feeling than the controversial epistle, or even the much-needed episcopal rebuke. 
Besides the gentle and amiable spirit every where breathed, the distinctive character of 
these remains is essentially Christian: the name of Christ is repeated in an endless 
variety of forms, and the actions of His life are figured in every degree of rudeness of 
execution. The second Person of the Trinity is neither viewed in the Jewish light of a 
temporal Messiah, nor degraded to the Socinian estimate of a mere example, but is 
invested with all the honours of a Redeemer. On this subject there is no reserve, no 
heathenish suppression of the distinguishing feature of our religion : on stones innumer- 
able appears the Good Shepherd, bearing on His shoulders the recovered sheep, by which 
many an illiterate believer expressed his sense of personal salvation. One, according to 
his epitaph, " sleeps in Christ ffanother is buried with a prayer that " she may live in 
the Lord Jesus." But most of all, the cross, in its simplest form, is employed to testify 
the faith of the deceased: and whatever ignorance may have prevailed regarding the 
letter of Holy Writ, or the more mysterious doctrines contained in it, there seems to have 
been no want of apprehension of that sacrifice, " whereby alone we obtain remission of 
our sins, and are made partakers of the kingdom of heaven." 



DECEMBER, 1846. 



IT has been usual with those who have made enquiries into 
the style of our early ecclesiastical buildings, to assign all 
those exhibiting marks of long and short work to the period 
of the Anglo-Saxons. Yet it may be reasonably doubted 
whether construction of this nature, taken by itself, affords 
sufficient evidence to favour such conclusions : and unless this 
kind of masonry be found united with proofs of another cha- 
racter less ambiguous, there is great room for disbelieving such 
buildings to have been erected before the Norman Conquest. 

It is indeed not a little remarkable that the church of 
Brixworth, a building whose claims to priority of age are 
better established than most others by historical inference, is 
entirely deficient in the marks so universally assumed to be 
decisive of the question. 

This church, as it is well known, does not shew the least 
fragment of this peculiar kind of construction, yet there is 




perhaps more extrinsic evidence in favour of its age, than 
most other buildings that can be adduced. The history of its 
erection seems simply to have been this, that from its scite 
having been fixed upon close to a great Roman thoroughfare 
leading from the Watling Street, at Stoney Stratford, through 
Northampton to Leicester, as is sufficiently indicated by the 
direct trending of the line, and the etymologies of the places 
bordering upon it, such as, Potterspurry, Alderton, Barrow 
Dykes, Lamport, Market Harboro', Stonyland, Stony Gate, 
&c. ; and also being on the very edge of a Roman single 
walled entrenchment, there were already on the spot most of 
the materials which the Romans themselves had used for 
building purposes. Within this entrenchment, some kind of 
building had existed, and the bricks that were employed were 
found, when the church was in progress of erection, extremely 
useful to work up with the bad materials already dug. We 
are told by William of Malmesbury, that Benedict Bishop 
on his return from Rome introduced a new kind of architec- 
ture into this country, what he calls building more Romano ; 
now in whatever sense these two words are interpreted, I 
think they will still be applicable to the masonry of Brixworth 
church, and this, coupled with the casual passage quoted in 
Leland's Itinerary, will go very far to confirm its Anglo-Saxon 
pretensions ; in fact it is more evidence of an early practical 
kind than can be brought to bear upon any other building of 
a Christian character in England. 

It is now some years since I became entirely convinced that 
Brixworth church presented no proof whatever of being a 
Roman building. I have examined its foundations, its con- 
struction, and the nature of its cements, all of which are 
totally unlike the substructions, the masonry, and the mortar 
so invariably adopted by the Romans. 

Whilst, however, its Roman claims are completely untenable, 
it certainly offers very strong marks in favour of an Anglo- 
Saxon origin. They are not only as convincing as any we 
may ever hope to obtain elsewhere, but they are moreover 
capable of being divided into two periods. 

It has already been stated that Brixworth does not present 
any specimen of long and short work ; this peculiarity is not 
visible in any portion of the building. It is desirable to state 
this distinctly, because having presumptive historical evidence 
of being an Anglo-Saxon church, it is deficient in that feature 


which is accounted the leading characteristic of Anglo-Saxon 

It is not my intention to disprove (for that would be a 
difficult matter) the title to great antiquity those churches 
may claim, where long and short coignings are used, but I 
wish to throw out a caution to enquirers, lest this appearance 
should lead them to assign all these buildings to the same age. 

That they are for the most part early structures there can 
be no doubt, and this epithet may be even extended above 
the Norman Conquest, if we are justified in applying the 
words lapidei tabulatus, as used by William of Malmesbury in 
his description of Benedict Bishop's churches, to those towers 
rising in stages from the perperit blocks of stone that run 
transversely on their four sides. 

For instance, at Earl's Barton and Barnack this system 
occurs, at both of which places the towers rise in stages, dimi- 
nishing as they rise, and forming separate divisions or stories, 
marked also by the horizontal bands of perpent stone, from 
which the superior portions of the building alternately spring. 

This mode of construction was clearly borrowed from the 
Romans, who, as is sufficiently known, employed bonding 
courses of brick, running parallel with the ground, to 
strengthen their walls, so that the inferior materials used in 
the intervening space might become more effectually tied 

The Romans, as may be observed in all their military build- 
ings now remaining in England, used their bonding courses 
horizontally ; the Anglo-Saxons used them perpendicularly. 
At Pevensey there are courses of tile laid flat, at fixed intervals ; 
at Earl's Barton there are perpent stones placed upright, also 
at fixed intervals. The object of both was the same, namely, 
to supply the want of good building materials by such mate- 
rials as would hold them best together, and the English 
masons, placing these large blocks of Shelly oolite or Barnack 
Rag (for Earl's Barton is supplied with this Shelly oolite from 
that distance), had merely to fill in the rubble between them, 
much in the same manner as brick-work is used in timber- 
framed houses. 

The talus table of Colchester castle is geologically of this 
formation, and, owing to the want of native materials, the 
architect used the Roman bricks he found in such abun- 
dance on the spot, both for coigns and bonds, in the same 



way as they were used in the castle church at Dover, and in 
nearly all the town churches of Colchester, and in several of 
the neighbourhood. 

This being, as I conceive, the origin of long and short work, 
and its primary intention, I conie next to consider two 
varieties that are observable, which shews that, taken by itself, 
it furnishes no criterion of early date. 

Long and short work is, first, that used for coigning; 
secondly, that used for upright bonding, and appearing like 
strips on the face of the wall. 

Of the former kind there are examples in the towers at 
Barnack, Earl's Barton, Brigstock, and Green's Norton, and in 
the nave and chancel at Wittering. Of the latter kind, they 
may be seen at Barnack, Earl's Barton, and Stowe Nine 
churches, all in Northamptonshire ; also at Sompting, in 
Sussex, Headbourn Worthy, in Hampshire, and Stanton Lacy, 
in Shropshire. At each of these four last-mentioned places, 
the long and short differs from the previous examples at 
Barnack, Brigstock, Earl's Barton, and Wittering. The dif- 
ference may be thus described. In the Northamptonshire 
churches the long and short work is an important member 
of the angle of the towers, whilst the short stone consider- 
ably projects beyond the line of the long one : in the other 
examples both long and short stones are in the same line. 

Of the second kind of long 
and short, namely, that used 
for perpendicular bonds, ap- 
parently only ornamental 
strips, but in reality very es- 
sential for the stability of the 
building, we have numerous 
examples besides those at 
Sompting, Headbourn Wor- 
thy, and Stanton Lacy. It is to 
some of these examples that 
attention shall now be directed. 

In the first place, by stating 
my conviction that the build- 
ings where they occur are not, 
in reality, churches of so early 
a period as the preceding ones, 
although presenting certain 

Window, Caistor, NorthampUubhi; 


marks of resemblance common to each other; and in the next, 
their resemblance to work of a later, in fact the Early English 
period, may be readily shewn. 

In illustration of this I have selected examples taken from 
the churches of Headbourn Worthy and Stanton Lacy, which 
shall be contrasted with the masonry of these Northampton- 
shire churches, as well as with the upper portion of Oxford 
castle. It will be at once seen that these, although in some 
measure analogous to parts of Barnack and Earl's Barton, do 
yet materially differ from them in appearance, whilst they are 
also the creations of a later time. 

Window, Headboum Worthy. 

Window, Oxford Castle. 


For instance, though in Headbourn Worthy we find the 
perpendicular long and short bonds as at Earl's Barton, they 


are in conjunction with work belonging to the time of Henry 
III., or Edward I., that is, long and short work in union with 
equilateral arches ; or as in the uppermost stage of the castle 
at Oxford, long and short work united with late Norman, or 
as at Stanton Lacy with earlier Norman. 

It might naturally have been supposed that a reference to 
the Domesday Survey would have tended to settle a question 
of so much obscurity as the age of several of these rude and 
unquestionably early churches. But little that is conclusive is 
supplied from this source. The precept issued for the direc- 
tion of the surveyors laid no injunction upon them to make 
a return of churches, and therefore their notice is extremely 
irregular, and for this reason no direct conclusion can be 
drawn, nor can the question be settled by reference to this 
document. It mentions about 1700 churches, but whilst 222 
are returned from Lincolnshire, 243 from Norfolk, 364 from 
Suffolk, 7 from the city of York, 84 from the county, only 
about 20 are returned from Shropshire, one from Cambridge- 
shire, and none from Lancashire, Cornwall, or Middlesex. 
Yet it cannot be doubted that all the counties which are 
passed over without any mention of their ecclesiastical struc- 
tures, possessed them like those enumerated. This will at 
once raise the number of Anglo-Saxon churches existing at 
the time of the Conquest, not to the extent of 45,011, men- 
tioned by Sprott in his Chronicle, which seems incredible, but 
to a very considerable number, since certainly the other counties 
would have a proportionable amount. Is it probable that these 
structures were all built in the short reigns of the Confessor, 
Canute, and Ethelred, a period extending only over eighty- 
eight years? If this period should be found too short for the 
completion of all these buildings, then we must suppose several 
to belong to what may be termed the pure age of Anglo-Saxon 
architecture, and then it will be a consideration whether or not 
several buildings now held to be Norman be not in fact of an 
earlier date. Again, contrast the large number of edifices 
throughout the country which are commonly called Norman, 
let the style range to the accession of John (1199), with the 
number mentioned in the Survey, and enquire whether all these 
reputedly Norman buildings were likely to have been erected 
in the course of a hundred and thirty -three years ? And may it 
not be probable that several of them belong to an earlier age 
than we have latterly been accustomed to assign them to? Nor 


are these all the difficulties of the question, for of the churches 
mentioned in Domesday, few of those reputed by us at present 
to be Anglo-Saxon are noticed, although churches generally 
through those particular counties where they exist, are com- 
prehended in the Survey. For instance, the Northamptonshire 
churches of Barnack, Earl's Barton, Wittering, Brigstock, Stowe 
Nine churches, and Green's Norton, which all contain long and 
short work, are passed over. Nor yet have I been able to 
trace in the Survey the names of any other Anglo-Saxon 
churches, presumed to be so from their having long and short 
work, than those at Bretford in Wiltshire, Stow in Lincoln- 
shire, Rapendune (Repton) in Derbyshire, and Stanton be- 
longing to Roger de Lacy in Shropshire. On the other hand, 
no notice occurs of the church of Dorchester in Oxfordshire, 
although the seat of a bishopric had been removed from it but 
a short time before the Survey was taken. These facts, it will 
be observed, apply in different ways to the question before us, 
and it is for this reason they are adduced for examination. 

Two sources of information bearing upon the history of 
ecclesiastical architecture seem hitherto to have met with little, 
if indeed any, attention. The abbatial chartularies of Great 
Britain probably contain a vast amount of matter bearing on 
this subject that deserves both carefully sifting, and comparing 
with the buildings to which it relates. This manuscript know- 
ledge might very profitably be brought to bear on churches 
that are known to have been connected with those great esta- 
blishments. To the importance of viewing ecclesiastic archi- 
tecture by the aid of manorial history, as exhibited in the 
Inquisitiones post mortem, a more decided testimony may be 
borne. These illustrations may be very briefly, but conclu- 
sively, explained by the following examples, where such a 
method has been pursued. Passing over the noble speci- 
mens of regal architecture of a military description at Har- 
lech, Conway, Beaumaris, and Caernarvon, where the iden- 
tity of styles, age, molds, and architecture, must be undis- 
puted, we cannot help being struck with the extraordinary 
resemblance in certain points of detail existing betwixt the 
churches of Crick in Northamptonshire, and those of Bilton 
and Astley in Warwickshire, all built or re-edified by Sir 
Thomas Astley. The same method of comparison will also be 
found deserving attention when applied to the churches built 
or enlarged by Sir Ralph Crumbwell, the lord treasurer to 


Henry VI., at Colly Weston in Northamptonshire, Lamb- 
ley in Nottinghamshire, and Tattershall in the county of 
Lincoln : and equally so the works of Bishop Burnell at 
Acton Burnell in Shropshire, and the chancel of the great col- 
legiate church of Wolverhampton in Staffordshire, one of the 
twenty-eight manors belonging to this talented and wise pre- 
late. The buildings in Sussex marked by the Pelham badge 
and buckle are well known. The students of William of Wyk- 
ham's works will probably find no difficulty in detecting at 
St. George's chapel, Windsor, at Adderbury and Hanwell in 
Oxfordshire, and probably at Wolverhampton, the same kind 
of analogy. This may, when pursued out fully, also tend to 
explain further the family likeness that exists between village 
churches throughout particular parts of a county. It is well 
known that the Cistercian and Cluniac orders had their own 
peculiar ritual and monastic arrangements, and is it therefore 
too unreasonable a supposition, that the friends of those and 
other orders likewise should have endeavoured to copy on a 
smaller scale the ornaments, the decorations, and the mouldings 
they admiringly observed at the great church of the district ? 
At the present day the handling of a chisel indicates to his 
fellow labourers the workman who was employed : the style of 
a building often shews by unmistakeable marks in its propor- 
tion, its design, or general character, who is the architect; and 
it is not hoping too much when I express the conviction that 
we may still obtain, by means of the present practical know- 
ledge so generally diffused on these subjects, if united to a re- 
search of the foregoing nature, a clearer insight into, a better 
classification, and a positive assignment of certain structures to 
the piety of tenants in capite whose mouldering effigies still lie 
within the walls themselves, or else to other individuals whose 
memory may only be preserved by the national archives. 

These examples will not unappropriately serve to shew how 
desirable it is to refrain from drawing crude and hasty gene- 
ralisations, from attempting to affix precise dates to structures 
simply because there are found co-existing in them some features 
in common with similar ones elsewhere. Tor this reason then, 
caution should be observed in coming to conclusions from 
anomalous or isolated portions of a building, seeing that 
as yet we have much enquiry to make from careful measure- 
ment, as well as from records, knowing that churches were 
progressive in their erection, built by degrees, as the money 


could be obtained for the purpose, or as the masons could 
proceed with their undertaking, frequently commenced by 
one person and finished by his successor, or built by one, and 
improved and decorated by another. An instance in proof 
of this occurs in the church of Stratford in Suffolk ; the lower 
part of the north aisle shewing in the flint-work the name of 
the builder and the date of 1430, whilst the porch where the 
inscription terminates is marked 1462. This will at once 
explain why incongruities so frequently exist, why we see such 
perpetual modifications and adaptations, and it will supply 
the reasons for those transitional appearances that exist at Rom- 
sey, at St. Alban's, and at many other of our most important 
edifices. Nor is it undeserving consideration, when chronolo- 
gical difficulties arise, that mai.y of our parish churches were 
built by country workmen, by men who had little creative 
genius, and few opportunities of examining the purest ecclesi- 
astical models, and who therefore were constrained to copy 
the best things near them, (which I think will at once help to 
account for local styles,) and whilst they were necessarily to a 
certain extent imitators, they would often, through negligence or 
through a want of fully appreciating the merits of the original, 
disfigure their own works by introducing into them some of 
its defects, probably reducing the depth of the mouldings, or 
disregarding the relative proportions on which much of its 
beauty might depend, or depriving it of those decorations 
which enchanted the eye, and caused it to dwell with admira- 
tion on the harmony that prevailed throughout the whole 

There is also another reason why we should be cautious in 
drawing direct and positive conclusions respecting the age of 
village churches, namely, that the styles were always in advance 
in cathedral or collegiate, whilst they were retrograde in 
parochial buildings. It was with architectural taste as with 
modern fashions, the rural population were the latest in catch- 
ing the new mode. 

It has, indeed, often excited astonishment, that so many 
beautiful fabrics should have been erected in the middle ages, 
when the difficulty of finding resources to build a church at 
the present day is so well known that the fact only needs 
stating. But the surprise will be diminished upon considering 
the altered circumstances of each period. When monastic 
buildings and parish churches were erected, the ecclesiastics 

VOL. in. 


were both influenced by different feelings than what guide 
them at present, and their condition also was dissimilar. At 
that earlier time, it is true, they were personally more indigent, 
especially the parish priests, but they had fewer wants, neces- 
sarily fewer from the vow under which many of them lived ; 
they were also more zealous and skilful in carrying on the 
architectural works that surrounded them ; they lived more- 
over amongst those who were animated by kindred feelings, 
amongst brethren, equally enthusiastic and self-denying, who 
sympathized arid helped in the labour ; thus, whilst it consti- 
tuted a part of their duty, as it were, it became one of their 
recreations to decorate the religious house where they wor- 
shipped; and this again caused them to infuse the same 
ardour and the same taste at once into their superiors and 
their dependants. 

The materials that were wanting for the purpose were usually 
at hand, and cost them little ; the stone and the marble and 
the wood were easily wrought by their own tenants, whose 
unremitted toil they could always command ; or when wages 
were paid they were extremely low, an opinion which is not to 
be negatived by urging that human wants must always keep 
pace with human demands and expectations, and that the 
difference in this respect between different periods is merely 
in terms of money. For after all the fact is not true; the 
wants of these men were the wants of nature, less artificial 
than those of the same class at present : their fare was coarser 
and simpler, beans supplied the place of wheaten food, their 
beverage was less stimulating and expensive, and their general 
habits of life were disproportionably cheaper than those of a 
modern artizan ; added to which, these poor men believed 
themselves, whilst occupied in such works, to be serving the 
cause of God and religion, and therefore they submitted to 
privations and toil with patience and even joy. 

Et patiens operum, exiguoque assueta juventus 
Sacra deum, sanctique patres. 

The persevering spirit of the priesthood was another reason. 
They were satisfied to begin a great work, and content to 
leave the merit and the fame of accomplishing it to their suc- 
cessors. This unselfish and unambitious spirit will at once 
account for its durability. Theirs was an uniform aim directed 
to the same object by several in succession, and all of them 


being imbued with the like feelings, and concentrating their 
means upon a common purpose, they became enabled to 
accomplish the great works which now call forth our admir- 

In military buildings we behold nothing at all parallel, no 
successive additions, no intermingling of styles, no needless 
decorations or profuseness of ornament, but evidences of co- 
temporary workmanship carried throughout the whole fortress, 
every part presenting the appearance of having been run up 
simultaneously, as if it were designed to meet a sudden emerg- 
ency, which in point of fact was usually the origin of its 
existence. And here again the exigency was provided for by 
a state of things unlike any existing at present : for the barons 
of these noble castles had on their estates numbers of slaves, 
personal and predial, whose services they could enforce ; such 
were the subinfeudatories who held their cottages or their 
petty fiefs by these and similar tenures. 

Again, when necessities of a more urgent nature arose, the 
ecclesiastics made the same appeals to the consciences or to 
the generosity of men that would still be adopted. The sale 
of articles to increase the building funds of a church was not 
unattempted in the fourteenth century, and by resorting to 
this method John de Wisbeach, a simple monk of Ely, was 
enabled to procure money enough to build the chapel of the 
Virgin Mary attached to that cathedral. For twenty-eight 
years and thirteen months, as the chronicle states, he was not 
ashamed to take whatever he could procure for the continuance 
of the work, not only by asking, but by begging through the 
country, and thus passing his life in various labours in further- 
ance of his pious design: by begging, and offering from a large 
pack at his back, such wares as he was licensed by his order 
to expose for sale, he completed the beautiful fabric, and trans- 
mitted his office unburdened of debt to his successor. 

Again, the foundation of chantry chapels produced much 
of the irregularity that swells the size of churches, the gift of 
mortuaries, the bequest of sums of money, in some cases so 
profusely given, that among the wills preserved at Lynn, I 
have found as many as twenty churches thus enriched by the 
liberality of the same individual, not to mention more particu- 
larly the sale of pardons and indulgences, and the offerings 
left by pilgrims and devotees at the shrines of those who had 
a widely spread reputation for sanctity. These and similar 


causes were in active operation for four or five centuries, and 
they were in themselves productive of vast political and moral 
effects. It would be unfair to conceal the results of such a 
system; its defects were apparent in the popular insurrec- 
tions that from time to time broke out and marked a progres- 
sive extension of liberty, in the gradual emancipation of the 
human mind, and in the naturally inherent right of following 
up private conviction by private judgment ; it is needless to 
do more than barely allude to what followed. Yet in concluding 
the explanation I have offered it would be incomplete if I did 
not add that the spirit of the age was both warlike and devo- 
tional at the same time, and whilst a love of military glory 
inflamed the mind and aroused the fiercest passions, it was 
the influence of the religious orders that served to soften and 
lull them again to rest. 

A conquering aristocracy took possession of all things, 
feudalism was the only form society would accept. Both 
Church and State were alike under its influence ; the clergy 
alone sought to claim, on behalf of the community, a little 
reason and humanity. He who held no place in the feudal 
hierarchy, or who had not won his territory by the sword, had 
no other asylum open to him than the sanctuary of the church, 
nor any other protector than its priests. It was a feeble pro- 
tection, but the best that an enslaved people could obtain, 
and to a certain extent it became powerful, inasmuch as here 
some food was offered to the moral nature of man, and such 
abilities as he possessed had also the usual chance that pro- 
fession offers for temporal advancement*. 

The sight of those sacred buildings which still rear their 
hoary pinnacles in silent praise to heaven, inspired our 
countrymen of old, as they should us, with a veneration for 
holy places. And we discharge no superstitious debt of 
gratitude by separating the exalted deeds of our forefathers 
from the lawless confusion that was mixed up with many of 
their actions, and giving them praise for executing the build- 
ings we must all admire, and but vainly hope to excel. 

It was no selfish or sordid spirit that was then so actively 
at work, no mercenary desire to aggrandise themselves by nicely 
balanced calculations, no speculative visions of worldly profit, 
from sharing in which others were excluded, but the motive 
power impelling them onwards through their earthly journey, 

a Guizot. 


was untainted by avaricious love of gain, or private gratifica- 
tion. The rising church absorbed every consideration ; within 
its walls was entombed the love of native home, and family 
attachment and personal ambition ; and thus the strongest 
affections, being withheld in their natural current, they were 
poured forth with all the increased energy of impassioned 
devotion upon the service of God. 




THIS is a cruciform church, consisting of a nave, south 
aisle, central tower with transepts, and chancel. Its general 
character is that of the Decorated period, though rough in 
workmanship, and without much ornament. In this it re- 
sembles other churches in the same district. But on the 
west end and north side of the nave, and on the east and 
west sides of the north transept, occur those pilaster strips 
which are observed in many buildings supposed to be Saxon. 

This church is referred to in the preceding article. 


There is also a round-headed 
doorway on the north side, 
which will best be described by 
a drawing and a section of the 
moulding of its label. The cen- 
tral voussoir, whether design- 
edly or accidently, projects 
downwards, so as to form a de- 
cided keystone. The pilaster 
strips, which have evidently been 
curtailed in their height, are 
composed of stones of different 
lengths, and are about five 

inches wide, and three in pro- Htad of Cbaccel D r - 

jection from the wall, which has been carefully cleared of 
plaster and shewn to consist of irregular masonry. These 
strips do not quite touch the ground, but are terminated by a 
short transverse bar, and a similar bar also terminates the 
strips on which rest the label of the doorway. On the east 
and west sides of the north transept the pilaster strip is 
crossed by a short transverse bar at a height of about nineteen 
feet. The angles of the nave and transept, though dressed 
with masonry of a more regular character, do not present 
what is generally known under the name of " long and short 
work." Westward of the tower, and en- 
gaged in the northern wall of the nave, is a 
buttress, the masonry of which projects a 
little beyond the face of the wall, and its 
base also appears in the interior, as if a 
portion of the nave wall had been destroyed 
for its insertion, with the view of giving 
the central tower a more certain support. ; ||j 
The support indeed of the tower is in no 
place trusted entirely to the walls in which 
the pilaster strips appear, there being a buttress on each side 
of the transept, which is much narrower than the tower. If 
these remains are Saxon (a question of course open to con- 
troversy), they are the more valuable, as indicating a cruci- 
form church of that date. 

j. L. P. 



IN many of our ancient churches we find in various parts 
of the building oblique openings or perforations through the 
walls, technically called SQUINTS. The use of these openings 
is not always obvious, and for want of any better explanation, 
they are frequently called Confessionals. The most usual situa- 
tion for them is by the side of the chancel-arch, sometimes on 
one side only, in other instances on both sides, but when in 
this situation they are always so arranged as to enable a per- 
son in the nave, or aisle, or transept, to look towards the high 
altar, and in whatever part of the church the openings occur, 


they are usually but not invariably in this direction. There 
can be little doubt that their purpose was to enable some 
person or persons to see the elevation of the Host, but whether 
any members of the congregation indiscriminately, or some 
particular person, is not so clear. It has been conjectured 
that their object was to enable the priests at the side altars 
and in the chantries to take part in the service, and that 
when the holy Eucharist was administered to very large con- 
gregations, the bread or wafers which had been consecrated at 
the high altar were first divided into portions and carried to 
each of the side altars, and from thence distributed to the 
communicants, by which means a much larger number were 
enabled to communicate simultaneously. The revival of this 
practice has even been recommended in the English Church, 
for our large metropolitan churches, and if the number of 
communicants increases in proportion to the congregations, 
some such practice appears to be very desirable. 

Whether such was the purpose of these openings or not, affords 
a curious subject for the investigation of ritualists, but whatever 
their use may have been, the object of the present paper is 
merely to call attention to the great variety of plan, of form, and 
of design which they exhibit. They are found at all periods, 
from the earliest Norman to the latest Perpendicular, and they 
vary as much in size as in form. In some instances the object 
must have been to see the celebrant at a chantry altar only, 
without reference to the high altar at all, and some are so 
small that one person only could look through the opening at 
the same time. In such cases it has been conjectured that 
this was to enable the sacristan to see the elevation of the Host, 
and ring the sanctus-bell at the proper moment a . In other cases 
the openings were so large and afforded such direct aspect from 
the nave to the altar, that they would appear to have been in- 
tended for the use of the congregation, and as a mode of 
remedying the inconvenience arising from the small size of the 
chancel-arch. A remarkable instance of this kind occurs at 
Ashley church, Hampshire, in early Norman work. See p. 299. 
In this case the squints are nearly of as wide a span as the 
chancel-arch itself. The same arrangement occurs also at 
Littleton. In the neighbouring church of Crawley, there 

a "In elevatione vero ipsius corporis fuerint, sen in agris, seu in domibus, 

Domini pulsetur cainpana in uno latere, ut flectant genua." Constit. John Peckham, 

populares, quibus celebration! missarum A.D. 1281. ap. Maskell's Anticnt Liturgy 

non vacat quotidie interesse, ubicunque of the Church of England, p. 95. 


is a similar Squint on the 
north side only of the chancel- 
arch, and in the sill of the 
opening is a flat round basin, 
with a drain for a piscina, 
shewing that there was a small 
altar here, westward of the 
chancel-arch, which was very 
customary, even though the 
small size of the church does 
not seem to require it. In 
the small Norman church of 
Boarhunt in the same county, 
the situations of two altars, 
one on each side of the chan- 
cel-arch, are distinctly marked, 
the recesses for the altar being 
partly in the side wall of the 
church, and partly in the wall 
of partition, but the altar must 
have been placed sideways, the celebrant probably standing 
at the west end of it. Similar recesses for altars may often 
be observed in the side walls immediately to the west of the 
chancel-arch, as at Iffley, and Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire. 
Another usual situation for the chantry altars was on the 
east side of the transepts, where some marks of them may 
generally be found, and occasionally Squints looking towards 

In North Hinksey Church, 
Berkshire, there is the same 
arrangement in Norman work, 
the small arch ornamented 
with the zigzag, though the 
chancel-arch was plain ; the 
opening had long been blocked 
up and its use forgotten, but 
it has lately been re-opened 
the chancel-arch taken down 
and a new one of larger size 
inserted in its place, will 

St. Mary a. CraWley, Hauti. 

bad imitations 

of Norman 

St. Lawrence B, North Hmkwy, Builubue. 

In the Early English style a good example of the large kind 


u r 




of Squints occurred in the old church at Otterbourne, Hamp- 
shire; the plan of this was the same as at Ashley, allowing 
for the difference of style. A similar arrangement occurs at 
Capel le Feme, Kent, with other openings above. 


In the Decorated style there is one in the form of a spheri- 
cal triangle at Langley, near Chippenham, Wiltshire ; and 
in St. Peter's church at Irthlingborough, Northamptonshire, 



there is a remarkable example, through the north-east angle 
of the wall of a south chapel, towards the high altar, from the 
evident site of the chantry altar, of which the brackets and 
piscina remain. 

In the Perpendicular style veiy 
remarkable and fine examples occur 
at Minster Lovell, Oxfordshire ; these 
are under the tower, and being 
placed diagonally, serve as a sort of 
flying buttresses to it, while they 
serve at the same time to open the 
chancel to the transepts, and similar 
but larger openings throw open the 
nave to the chantry altars in the tran- 
septs. The ground plan of this church 
is very remarkable, the central tower 
being considerably smaller than the 
space left at the intersection of the 
cross, and the chancel narrower than 
the nave; the whole is made to fit and 
to harmonize admirably by means of 
these small arches at the angles con- 
necting the piers of the tower with 
the side walls ; the effect of the in- 
terior is singularly elegant and beauti- 

Minster Lovell. Ozon 

AA Sim. nts 




In the church of St. Mary 
Magdalen at Tannton, Somer- 
setshire, there is an elegant 
one through the east wall of 
the north aisle, looking direct 
to the high altar. 

The smaller openings by 
the side of the chancel-arch, 
are of such frequent occur- 
rence that it is only necessary 
to mention a few which pre- 
sent some peculiarities. At 
Newnham Murren, Oxford- 
shire, in very plain Norman 
work, the Squint is a small 
opening nearly round, not 
more than a foot in diameter, 
and as it is carried through a 
very thick wall, has almost the 
appearance of looking through 
a telescope. 




In St. Sepulchre's church, at Cambridge, there are small 
Squints on each side of the chancel-arch, which were formerly 
filled with Perpendicular tracery now destroyed. 

Occasionally the Squints are carried through the side walls 
of the chancel, either from the sacristy, or from chantry chapels: 
a good example with a tref oiled head occurs at Bishop's Sut- 
ton, Hampshire, another in the chapel at Sudeley. In Kenton 
church, Devonshire, there is a very good example near the 


end of the north aisle, through the north wall of the chancel, 
passing in the usual oblique direction towards the high altar. 
The opening from the aisle has a trefoil head, and forms part 
of the panelling of a pier, in the side wall of the chancel the 
opening is plain and square, passing through the wall in a 
very oblique direction. Sometimes also from the priest's 
room over the vestry, as at Warmington, Warwickshire. Or 
this room may have been the residence of a recluse, called 
a " Domus inclusiV There are many of them remaining in 

b " Overhead were two chambers which 
common tradition hath told to have been 
the habitation of a devout lady, called 
Agnes, or Dame Agnes, out of whose lodg- 
ing chamber there was a hole made askew 

in the window, walled up, having its pros- 
pect just upon the altar in the ladies' 
chapel and no more." Gunton's History 
of Peterborough Cathedral, p. 99. 



different parts of the country with fireplaces in them, some- 
times in the tower, more often over a chantry chapel, or 
vestry, on the north side of the chancel, and they are usually 
said to have been the residence for the priest. In other in- 
stances there are Squints from the room over the porch, 
usually now called the Parvise, though it would be difficult 
to find any ancient authority for this appropriation of the 

In some cases the Squint is carried through the wall at the 
back of the sedilia, as in St. John's church, Winchester, (see 
an engraving of this in the volume of the Proceedings of the 
Institute, Churches of Winchester, p. 14.) More frequently 
it is through the back of a piscina, as at Stanton St. John's, 
Oxfordshire, at the east end of the north aisle, now blocked 
up. A very elegant example occurs at Enford in Wiltshire ; 
this is very positively asserted to have been a confessional, 
because the ear applied to the smaller 
opening catches every sound from 
the larger one, but a comparison 
with other examples leaves no doubt 
that this belongs to the same class 
with the rest. 

The basin of the piscina is broken 
off, but enough remains to leave 
no doubt of its use, and there can 
be little doubt that the opening 
through the pier at the back of it, 
was for the purpose of enabling 
some person or persons to see the 
chantry altar to which this piscina 
belonged, or possibly, as before sug- 
gested, to enable the priest officiating at this altar to see 
the high altar simultaneously. 

In Bridgewater church, Somersetshire, there is a very re- 
markable instance of the use of these openings, by which 
a view of the high altar could be obtained from the north 
porch, which is attached to the west side of the north transept ; 
there is first an opening through the west wall of the transept 
from the porch, then in an oblique line, from this another 
opening through the east wall of the transept, by which a view 
of the altar is obtained looking across the aisle and an angle 
of the chancel. At the present time the opening from the 

All Saints', Knford, Wilts. 



porch is blocked up, but by placing the back against it in the 
transept, the view may still be obtained through the second 
opening, and between the bars of the rich screen which partly 
intercepts it. 


A North Porch 
B First opening. 
C Second openiug 



At Charlton, Wiltshire, there is another example very 
similar to this at Bridg- 
water, in which the 
Squint was carried 
through the east wall 
of the tower, the lower 
part of which is used 
as a porch, across a side 
chapel, and through 
the side wall of the 
nave in the direction 
of the high altar. The 
chapel is said to be of later date than the rest of the church, so 
that the Squints would appear to have been originally carried 
across an external space . 

In some churches in South Wales, in the neighbourhood 
of Tenby, and in some other places, the Squint is carried 
across the angle of the chancel and transept, through a low 
structure erected for the purpose externally, filling up the angle. 

St. Peter's, Charlton, Wiltshire 



In St. Nicholas' church, Gloucester, there is a series of 
oblique openings of this kind through the south wall of the 
chancel from the south aisle. These are of Perpendicular 
work, and their direction towards the altar is too evident 
to be mistaken. There is a nearly similar arrangement on 
the north side of the chancel of Chipping Norton church, 
Oxfordshire. I.H.P. 

c At the moment of going to press, this 
notice of the Squint at Charlton and the 

sketch of the plan which accompanies it, 
were received from a friend. 


AT the time of the Conqueror's survey the possessions in 
the town of Northampton lay divided betwixt the crown, some 
of the abbatial ecclesiastics, and other persons of rank and 
consequence. Amongst the names of these various proprietors 
that of Countess Judith, a daughter of Odo earl of Albemarle, 
by Adeliza, half sister of William I., is not the least remarkable, 
whether regarded in reference to her dignity and her affinity 
to the new sovereign, or in connexion with one of his bravest 
supporters. She had been given in marriage to the Earl 
Waltheof, a warrior whose prowess greatly assisted her uncle 
in the arduous subjugation of Yorkshire, and probably out of 
consideration for this valuable service, as much as with a view 
of conciliating a noble whose hereditary influence might have 
been dangerous to his ambitious projects, he loaded him with 
fresh accessions of territory in various parts of England. 

The history of secular dignities at this early time is involved in 
great obscurity, and it would be foreign to the present enquiry 
to attempt to elucidate a question so pregnant with difficulty. 
Waltheof' s father was the Saxon earl Siward, unquestionably 
a name of dignity, both before and after the Norman invasion, 
and Waltheof himself has been called earl of Northumber- 
land, Northampton, and Huntingdon, but of this no sufficient 
proof has ever been adduced. Besides this reputed rank, he 
however inherited large estates ; several of the tenants held 
their lands from him during the time of Edward the Confessor, 
and the dowry of the countess considerably augmented them. 
It may be readily imagined that the Conqueror would find him- 
self little at ease in his new kingdom ; the people had scarcely 
had time to become reconciled to their slavery, and a sudden 
endeavour to liberate themselves from its yoke could hardly 
have been unsuspected. In this age of darkness and inhu- 
manity, an age when the broad distinction betwixt might and 
justice was universally confused, the slightest cause, whether 



real or apparent, was sufficient to awaken suspicion, and call 
forth the exercise of tyranny. From some cause, we know not 
what, history has not however exempted the character of his wife 
from the perfidy of betraying him ; the earl suddenly fell under 
the displeasure of his royal kinsman, who, after suffering Wal- 
theof to languish by a long confinement in prison, ordered him 
to be beheaded at Winchester. The Conqueror now desired to 
bestow the Countess Judith's hand on Simon de St. Liz, a 
Norman in his confidence, who had come to seek his fortunes 
in England, but whose bodily deformity caused her to reject 
him. Indignant at such an unexpected resistance to his 
wishes, the king seized her possessions, amongst them sixteen 
houses in Northampton, and part of the revenue of the town, 
and transferred them, with her eldest daughter Matilda, 
into the hands of his favourite. It is to this inheritor of 
Waltheof's united rank and estates that the erection of 
Northampton castle has been assigned, nor does there seem 
to exist any strong reason for discrediting the generally- 
received opinion. 

After so great a lapse of time, and considering the distrac- 
tion and civil war that prevailed within a century after the 
castle is reported to have been built, such structures being the 
first to suffer in the general disturbance, it is not surprising 
that so little of the first edifice should remain. Enough 
however is still traceable to mark the outline of its bulwarks, 
to shew where the bastions stood out from the curtain wall, 
where the moat separated the inner from the outer bailey, 
whilst the postern gate yet continues. In regarding the 
general figure of the plan, and judging from the existing 
mounds of earth, the debris of ancient buildings, the line of 
decayed and ruinous walls, and then comparing these with 
other buildings of a similar kind which still remain in a more 
integral state, for example, with Pevensey or with Pickering, 
there appears to have been a keep within the inner bailey, 
probably at the north-east end ; in connection with this, the 
enceinte or boundary wall, which was occasionally flanked 
with circular towers, the enclosed area being occupied with 
erections, usually of wood, of a more domestic nature. The 
Nen flowed in its natural channel to the west, and the waters 
of the same river filled the moat, and encompassed the fortress 
on every side, though the moat itself is only visible at present 
as a dry ditch to the south. The few existing marks of a strictly 


architectural kind exhibit features in perfect accordance with 
the characteristics of the period to which its origin has been 
already assigned. Before pursuing the history of this building 
any further, or bringing in review the incidents that have 
tended to invest it with interest, I will briefly recur to the life 
of its founder. Under the hope of improving his fortunes, he 
had with two friends accompanied the Conqueror to England ; 
they indeed returned early to their native country, but the 
bright prospects of Simon de St. Liz naturalized him on 
British soil. Within a few years after his marriage he founded 
the neighbouring priory of St. Andrew, and filled it with 
Cluniac monks. The order was indeed never numerous in 
this country, and it is not a little remarkable that most of the 
endowments arose out of this early Norman intercourse. 
Simon de St. Liz, towards the close of his life, made the 
common journey to the Holy Land, and had even entered 
upon a second, when death arrested his pilgrimage, and he was 
buried within the walls of the abbey of St. Mary of Charity, 
in France, upon which his own recent foundation in North- 
ampton was dependant. Were it within the scope of this 
enquiry, we might here linger to reflect on the contradictory 
feelings that actuated the sentiments of the age, contrast the 
early life of the soldier, his ambition, his rapine, his thirst 
for bloodshed, with the remorse and devotion of his declining 
years ; we might observe how the two extremes of human nature 
became strangely blended together in the same individual, how 
the restless and savage warrior, whose hands were stained with 
violence and crime, became transformed, under a happier im- 
pulse, into the humble penitent and the mortified recluse. But 
for such a retrospect we have not leisure, nor indeed would 
the present be a fitting opportunity. Yet we may not omit the 
avowal, that it is by such comparisons history delights to 
teach her moral lessons, and that a habit of drawing contrasts 
whilst instituting enquiries of any intellectual kind, will 
unveil its really philosophical aspect; and thus too, to carry 
out the idea a little further, in estimating the relative beau- 
ties betwixt military and ecclesiastical architecture, we may 
observe how, in their intentions so discordant, they mutually 
engage the attention, the one impressing the mind by its 
stern solidity, its severe simplicity and dignified repose ; the 
other captivating the eye of taste by its elegancy, richness and 
variety of decoration, and awakening the deepest feelings of 


emotion by the solemn grandeur, the holy symbols, and the 
sacred purpose of a pile dedicated to the glory of God. 

There is another apparent contradiction betwixt the two 
styles, namely, that whilst the age of devotional buildings is 
for the most part wrapt in obscurity, the builder being seldom 
known, there often existing a wide interval between the date 
of the foundation and that of its actual erection or consecration, 
and therefore the date becomes merely conjectural, left to the 
guess of ingenuity to settle, or to the diligence of induction to 
establish, or to fix by analogy, from some peculiar resemblance 
to other religious buildings presumed to be coeval, the mass 
of information relating to military structures, unhappily them- 
selves too often swept away, is afforded to us in minute and 
continuous completeness. So that it may be truly asserted 
we have, on the one hand, Gothic buildings still rearing their 
lofty heads in pristine magnificence, proclaiming in notes of 
harmony the duties of men, without any record being left us 
to indicate whose skill and piety constructed them; and on 
the other hand there are military remains, mere roofless, 
tottering walls, crumbling, venerable ruins, whose darkest, 
dampest nook may be often explained by an entry on an 
official document, by a record of a genuine and undoubted 
nature laid up among the national archives. Nor, whilst they 
furnish every needful illustration, is their value less remark- 
able for the curious light they frequently throw upon the 
manners and domestic usages of the period, for the political 
and statistical information they abound in, for the animated 
reality and freshness of their facts, as contradistinguished 
from all other sources of cotemporaneous history. 

Before proceeding to adduce a few extracts from these evi- 
dences, the attention must be re- directed to the noble family 
already mentioned. We have seen how there was united in the 
same person the character of warrior, architect, and devotee, 
and his son the third earl of Northampton strove with filial 
enthusiasm to emulate the actions that have transmitted his 
father's name to posterity. He too in his day became an archi- 
tect. He assisted in laying a corner-stone to the honour of 
St. Guthlac at Croyland, and placed thereon a gift of a hundred 
marks for the workmen : he endowed the abbey of Sawtry in 
Huntingdonshire, and terminated his labours by erecting a 
similar religious house to St. Mary de Pratis in the verdant 
meads of De la Pre near Northampton. It cannot be said 


these virtues perished with the first possessors of the earldom 
of Northampton, since a higher amount of architectural know- 
ledge, a clearer insight into its principles, and a better appre- 
ciation of its beauties, attended by more disinterested benevo- 
lence, by a self-devotion to the cause of humanity and the 
progress of social refinement, seem to have descended as the 
indefeasible attributes of the title. 

In returning to the immediate consideration of Northampton 
castle, I shall not so much restrict myself to an architectural 
investigation into what it actually was, as I shall endeavour 
to follow those notices occurring on the rolls relative to its 
history as the temporary abode of the English monarchs, and 
the seat of our early legislative assemblies. Architectural 
notices would indeed be of little comparative value, as the 
object to which they refer is laid nearly level with the ground. 
Nor again does it seem easy to settle how the building first 
came into the hands of the crown, since we find it enumerated 
as one of the royal possessions in 1174, though the grandson 
of the founder was still alive. What became of the possessions 
of this last Earl Simon de St. Liz 'in Northampton or else- 
where, it is now perhaps quite impossible to ascertain ; none 
of his family succeeded him in his dignity, and the title became 
extinct after his death. This happened in the year 1184, yet 
ten years previously the castle was in the hands of Henry II. 
From this period downwards it is often mentioned on the Pipe 
Rolls, as the " turris de Northampton." In the Pipe roll of 
Richard I. it is spoken of thus, "Adam de Sanford renders an 
account of five marks of Winchester money which had been de- 
posited in the tower of Northampton and lost through bad cus- 
tody." The date of this extract is in the year 1189. Passing 
over a few notices of minor importance we reach the reign of 
King John. Both he and his predecessors on the throne oc- 
casionally visited this district for the sake of the hunting if 
not for weightier reasons of state, and there can be little doubt 
that at such times they made the castle their residence. In the 
Chancellor's roll of the third of this king's reign (1201) we 
meet with an entry conclusive of the assertion, and it is so 
illustrative of the nature of this description of document, and 
presents by its ample details so vivid a picture of the business 
habits, the easy spirit and recreations of the time, that little 
excuse will be necessary for quoting it. 

"In repairing the king's houses in the castle of Northampton 


five marks. To Serjeants who brought the heads of six outlaws, 
six shillings a . In repairing the aforesaid castle five marks. 
For four carriers bringing the hunting gear of the king from 
Northampton to Westminster half a mark. In repairing the 
houses of the king in the castle of Northampton and Silveston 
forty shillings. To the chaplain at Geddington fifty shillings 
of his salary for the past year. The cost of a carriage and 
harness for the use of the queen twenty-eight shillings and 
sixpence. For a judge, and doing justice, three shillings and 
sixpence. In the purchase of hay for feeding the beasts in 
the park of Northampton thirty-seven shillings ; and for the 
expence of taking six prisoners from Northampton to Stamford, 
and thence to Nottingham, seventeen shillings and ninepence." 
Remember you are now entering into the age of feudalism, a 
time of ignorance, illegitimate force, and moral imperfection, 
where you will observe every thing in the system discordant 
to our modern notions, every thing opposed to our general ideas 
of liberty and civilization ; bear this in mind when you examine 
these facts, and without measuring them by the standard of 
the present day, contrast them with each other. What is the 
picture you behold, and what are the results of your reflections ? 
You see from a single extract on the sheriff's accounts the 
manner in which the revenue was expended, how freely the 
personal pleasures of the monarch were gratified ; and with 
what singularity do these payments stand in juxtaposition 
with each other ! The head of an outlaw valued at a shilling, 
whilst the services of the king's confessor, with his salary in 
arrears, fetched no more than the same price per week b : again 
the keep of the royal deer considered worth an outlay of 
seven and thirty shillings, whilst the remuneration of an 
officer of justice fell down to three and sixpence. Any 
comments of mine would be superfluous, the facts them- 
selves will elicit their proper reflections . Let us pass 
onwards in search of other information. We are at the 

a A similar entry exists on the Rotulus that a number of poor begging alms at the 

Misse, 14th John. Willielmo homini Ade hospital of St. John in Northampton had 

Crok qui tulit vj. capita Wallensium ser- been killed by the press of those entering 

vientium Cadewallani amputata ad Domi- the gate, and several wounded and killed 

num Regem apud Roifam vj. sol. by the blows of the vergers; and he sends 

b It seems to have continued such till William Tilly, mayor of Northampton, to 

the sixth of Edward I. Rot. Claus. m. 6. explain the circumstance, and begs to be 

c An illustration of another character informed what ought to be done. Rep. 

offers itself in a letter of Fulke de Breaute Dep. Keeper. V. Append. II. No. 738. 
to Hubert de Burgh, in which he states 


commencement of the reign of King John, a period of 
pure administrative despotism, when intestine divisions began 
violently to convulse the realm : when the rising energies 
of the people sought for some consideration of their natural 
rights, when they finally freed themselves from political 
thraldom and obtained a redress of their grievances. The 
monarch himself became aware that personal activity, a 
quality he never wanted, was more than ever necessary. 
We accordingly find him constantly on the alert, seldom 
a week together in the same place : as a proof of his restless- 
ness he visited Northampton in fourteen different years of 
his reign. He placed the royal castles in an effectual state 
of defence, and entrusted their custody only to those per- 
sons who were supposed to be attached to his interests, and 
upon whose faith he could place implicit dependance. The 
office of castellan or constable of the castle was one of great 
importance, as it has remained an honour to the present day. 
It was an office held during the king's pleasure, usually for a 
year, but among the earliest appointments in connection with 
Northampton it was retained for three. Four of these officers, 
Robert de Braybroc, Richard Marshall, Roger de Neville, and 
Fulke de Breaute, took a prominent part in the transactions of 
this and the succeeding reign, and will probably again present 
themselves to the notice. When the king appointed the last 
of these nobles, and impatiently forced him upon the keeper 
by a second writ under his private as well as the public seal, 
he was little aware of the vexation he was destined to awaken 
in his mind, or that one for whose promotion he evinced 
such extraordinary solicitude should render him and his son 
so ungrateful a return. 

Pursuing chronological order, the next account we meet 
with deserving attention is a writ on the Close rolls, (1216,) 
addressed to the barons of the exchequer, wherein the engineer 
is ordered to be paid at the rate of ninepence a day, with a 
grant of thirty shillings for a robe for his wife. Other en- 
tries occur authorizing payments for general repairs and the 
transport of military engines, which may be passed over. In 
the year 1215 we have another writ addressed to the barons 
of the exchequer, ordering them to remunerate Henry de 
Braibroc for forty quarters of grain, and twenty-four hogs, 
bought for the royal use and placed within the castle, at the 
rate of two shillings for each quarter of grain and the same 


sum for each hog. In the middle of this year the custody of 
the castle was transferred to Roger de Nevil, and the manor 
of Thorpe granted him for keeping it in a proper state of 

We pass on to the next reign, when during the constable- 
ship of Fulke de Breaute (1222) we meet with the first ex- 
press mention of the gaol in the castle, the order given that 
the verderers of Salcey should deliver to him materials for its 
reparation, as well as for the royal houses at Silveston and 
Brigstock. The troublesome state of public affairs, the suc- 
cessful resistance and growing power of the barons, had 
become by no means diminished through the accession of 
Henry III. to the throne. The early age at which he com- 
menced his reign was also in many respects unfavourable for 
the establishment of domestic peace. The separation of 
Normandy from the possessions of the English crown, and 
the consequent loss to the royal revenue, contributed to render 
him more dependant than his father upon his subjects for aid : 
whilst the severity of the forest laws, ever a fruitful cause of 
popular discontentment, though mitigated in some degree by 
the enactments of the Great Charter, had by no means lost 
their force. An entry in illustration of this occurs on the 
Close rolls in an order of release granted to Radulphus de 
Eyneston from the castle gaol, where he had been confined 
for merely leading three greyhounds without a leash through 
the royal forest. It may probably be considered that he 
underwent an excessive punishment, but when it is known 
that the most trifling infringements of the law were usually 
visited by loss of life or bodily mutilation, he seems to have 
received but gentle correction for his transgression. The king 
himself was at this time at Northampton, and is stated, in 
the document referred to, to have exercised this act of 
clemency at the suit and for love of master Roger Lacoc 
the physician. The same fondness for the pleasures of the 
chace pervaded all classes of society alike ; peasants and pre- 
lates were equally within its influence, and sought together 
the same excitement; even Richard Poore, bishop of Salis- 
bury, for his trespasses on the royal hunting ground, called 
forth the severe reprehension of his sovereign, and has left, 
in this respect, no enviable reputation behind him d . During 
this visit, Henry issued various writs of a local character. 

d Rot. Glaus. 6th Hen. III. p. 517. 


As they throw considerable light on the personal habits 
of the monarch, as well as evidence the minute attention 
paid to matters of a public and private nature, a few of 
them shall be brought under review. We have a writ 
addressed to the barons of the exchequer authorizing them to 
repay the bailiffs of the town eight shillings which they had 
laid down for the carriage to London of cloth bought for the 
royal use at the fair, and for canvass and wrappering to pack 
it up : one to the bailiffs, bidding them purchase for Nicolas 
the squire, six ells of bleu at eighteen-pence an ell, and a 
dressed lamb-skin : one to Hugh de Neville, authorizing him 
to give the prior of St. Andrews eight poles for making joists 
for the tower of his church : the king had previously granted 
thirty rafters from the royal forest, to the abbot of St. James, 
whose buildings had been burnt down. About two months 
after this visit, Henry III. again took up his residence in the 
castle of Northampton. He was then in his eighteenth year, 
on his way to Bedford, with the intention of crushing the in- 
surrection of Fulke de Breaute. It was an arduous under- 
taking, and the siege of that castle occupied him little less 
than eight weeks, since we find him there from the 21st of 
June to the 19th of August, (1224). Immediately he had 
proceeded on his journey as far as the castle then existing at 
Newport Pagnell, oppressed perhaps by the heat of the 
weather, he suddenly recollected having left behind him the 
royal store of wines, and a mandate was forthwith addressed 
to the sheriff of the county, desiring him to forward without 
the least delay the four casks that had been left in his custody 
at the castle. 

Though the legitimate title of Henry III. to the English 
crown was undoubtedly clear, yet it can hardly be said 
his pretensions to it were undisputed. He went however 
through the ceremony of a coronation, though the symbol of 
royalty itself had been lost, with the rest of the regalia, whilst 
being transported across the Wash. He was youthful, and 
inexperienced, but the discretion of bis protector the earl 
of Pembroke, aided by the activity and valour of his high 
justiciary, Hubert de Burgh, made some amends for these 
deficiencies, and enabled him to resist for a time the growing 
power of his barons, as well as permanently to crush the 
danger menacing his possession of the sovereignty from Louis 
king of France. A caution has been already dropped against 

VOL. III. T t 


forming judgments of the past by the standard of the present 
age. Such modes of thinking will often invest facts with an 
unreal colouring, and both distort their own features, and the 
consequences they are intended to produce. The historical 
enquirer should exercise habitual caution and discretion, duly 
balancing against each other the events of the period, estimat- 
ing them by the prevalent opinion of that particular time, not 
being himself unaware that the march of civilization, and the 
progress of enlightenment are, as Christian perfection ought to 
be, daily advancing. Without going into the whole transac- 
tions connected with the fall of Bedford castle 6 , I will briefly 
state that exasperated by the dilatory nature of the siege, 
Hubert de Burgh tarnished the first great victory of his 
master by hanging eighty of the garrison after it fell into his 
hands. We shudder upon reading such an act of barbarity, 
but in our detestation of the deed forget that this was the 
custom of the age : we forget that the lower as well as the 
upper classes, true to the degradation of fallen humanity, had 
their minds alike familiarized with deeds of cruelty, and looked 
on if not as regardless as exulting spectators. No doubt it 
was an execrable deed, and the more frightful mockery of 
justice from being carried into effect under the sanction of the 
highest legal officer of the realm. Yet modern parallels may 
readily be found, and to press the subject homewards to the 
feelings, it can scarcely be a point of dispute how posterity 
will estimate the humanity and refinement of a nation which 
with all these offensive examples before it as warnings still 
enforces the same mode of criminal punishment. 

During the blockade just spoken of, the castle of North- 
ampton rendered considerable relief to the king, and the town 
likewise furnished towards it several carpenters, and other 
persons whose ingenuity was serviceable. When at length 
the fortress was taken, several of the engines were dismounted 
and returned home, whilst the harness of the king was sent by 

e An extract from the Scutage roll in militum quae tenentur in capite de wardis 

the Tower may serve to shew the nature of et honoribus quae sunt in custodia sua in 

the military service performed on this balliva tua scilicet de scuto duas marcas, 

occasion ; it is headed Scutagium exercitus pro exercitu nostro Bedeford in quo fuit no- 

domini Henrici regis de Bedeford scilicet biscum per praeceptum nostrum. Episco- 

de scuto duas marcas. Rex vicecomiti pus Wigorniensis qui hahet milites sues in 

Ebor. salutem, praecipimus tibi quod exercitu hahet litteras directas viceeomiti- 

habere facias R. comiti Cestrias et Lin- bus Wigorn. Glouc. Warv. de feodis mili- 

colniae scutagium suum de feodis militum turn quae de domino rege tenet in capite, 

quae tenet de nohis in capite, et de feodis &c. Misc. Roll, No. 10. 8th Hen. III. 


the sheriff of Bedford to London f . Of a building that with- 
stood for so many weeks the most vigorous efforts of Henry 
to reduce it to subjection, nothing now remains but a conical 
mound of earth, whose base is washed by the silent waters of 
the Ouse. On this gentle eminence originally stood the donjeon, 
within whose massive walls the besieged, inspired with all 
the hopeless courage of despair, entrusted their last chance of 
safety. But whoever seeks for these vestiges of its former 
importance in the modern town, or delights to visit a spot 
consecrated to liberty by this unavailing struggle, and ren- 
dered dear to the lovers of national freedom, vainly seeking for 
the living monuments of its ancient greatness, will still be 
gratefully repaid in beholding those stately piles, which are 
devoted, through the extensive charities of a London citizen, 
and the purer philanthropy and patriotism of the present 
noble owner of Woburn, to the social improvement and 
sanitary wants of the district. 

In 1253 Henry directed a survey to be made of the condition 
of the castle of Northampton, at the time John de Grey re- 
ceived the custody of it : his commissioners found that the park 
was " decently kept in vert, venison, and pasture," and that 
new works had been executed in the castle, by the sheriff of the 
county, as in walls, houses and other matters : that all the 
houses of the said castle might be maintained at slight cost ; 
that the same sheriff had bestowed much expenditure on the 
great wall of the castle, which, however, still needed great re- 
pairs, and that there were then in the castle hewn and unhewn 
stone, lime and sand, which might be applied to that work g . 

Towards the close of this reign the castle and town of 
Northampton were the scenes of important events, owing to 
the rebellion of the barons headed by Simon de Montfort. 
In 1265 the town was invested by the royal army ; the castle, 
which resisted all attempts at assault, was taken by stratagem, 
and Simon de Montfort the younger and many of his principal 
adherents were captured 1 *. Although the burgesses of North- 
ampton had taken no more active part in the commotions of 
this period than the inhabitants of other towns in the kingdom, 
yet in accordance with the custom of the times, they obtained, 

f The various expenses connected with Ancient Letters in the Tower, No. 442 

this memorable siege, an account of the a and 442 b. 

military engines, and the different methods b Bridges' Hist, of Northampton, vol. i. 

of attack, are given on the Close rolls of p. 425, and the authorities there quoted, 
the year witli the utmost minuteness. 


on the final suppression of the rebellion by the king's victory 
at Evesham, a general pardon for past transgressions, and 
more especially for having defended the town against the 
royal army, an act to which they had been compelled by the 
forcible occupation of it by the adherents of Montfort. Simi- 
lar letters of grace were granted by Henry to many other 
towns ; the original grant to the men of Northampton, under 
the great seal, is still preserved among the muniments of the 
corporation 1 . In the year following the battle of Evesham, 
1266, a parliament was held at Northampton, when many of 
the nobles who had been forfeited for their participation in 
Montfort's rebellion were restored to their estates ; sentence 
of banishment was pronounced on the younger Simon de 
Montfort, and the bishops of Worcester, Winchester, and 
London, were excommunicated by the papal legate for their 
adherence to the popular party. From this period downwards, 
the notices occurring relative to the castle of Northampton 
decrease in value as they descend in the order of time. 

It continued however to be, as before, one of their principal 
residences whenever the English kings visited the county, but 
improved methods of warfare gradually began to lessen its 
importance as a fortress. The energies of Edward I. were 
called into exercise upon a different field; his anxiety was 
directed towards the northern borders, as well as to subdue 
the Welsh ; he had consequently but little comparative need 
of military defences in the central districts of England. His 
successor had enough to do in protecting himself against the 
incursions of the Scotch, yet the general troubles of his reign 
rendered it necessary that the royal castles should be restored, 

1 See also Rot. Pat. 52 Hen. III. ; the et pacem nostram admisimus, nolentes 

document is as follows : quos ipsi per nos heredes nostros justi- 

Henricus dei gratia Rex Angliae Do- ciarios ballivos seu alios ministros nostros 

minus Hibernise et Dux Aquitaniae om- occasione predicta decetero graventur in 

nibus Ballivis et fidelibus suis ad quos aliquo seu molestentur. Ita tamen quod 

presentes littere pervenerint, salutem. Vo- stent recto in curia nostra si quis de trans- 

lentes majori et probis hominibus nostris gressionibus aliquibus versus eos loqui 

de Norhampt. gratiam facere specialem voluerit, et erga nos et heredes nostros 

remisimus et pardonavimus eisdem et toti bene et fideliter se habeant in futurum. 

communitati ville ejusdem omnem indig- In cujus rei testimonium has litteras nos- 

nacionem et animi rancorem quos erga tras fieri fecinms patentes. Teste me ipso 

ipsos conceperamus occasione detentionis apud Windes. sexto die Mail anno regni 

ville nostre Northampton contra nos et nostri quinquagesimo secundo. Seal in 

captionis ejusdem, et eciam occasione green wax ; broken. 

transgressionum et excessuum si quos con- The Jews of Northampton, who had been 

tra nos fecerunt tempore turbacionis habite expelled during the disturbance there, on the 

in regno nostro et eis transgressiones et restoration of peace are ordered to return 

excessus hujusmodi quantum in nobis est to the town and be under the protection of 

similiter perdonavimus et ipsos ad graciam the burgesses. Patent Rolls, 48 Henry III. 


and maintained in an efficient state. In 1 323 another survey 
of the castle of Northampton was taken, from which we learn 
some most interesting particulars as to its condition and ex- 
tent in the early part of the fourteenth century. It appears 
that some time before the date of this document, the great 
hall, the two principal chambers, and the lower chapel had 
been destroyed by fire, and the jurors estimated the cost of 
their restoration at 702/. They found also that the chambers 
of the " new tower " in the said castle, and also six turrets on 
the circuit of the wall, were for the most part destroyed by 
Nicholas de Segrave, keeper of the castle, in 1307: among 
other dilapidations are enumerated ruined walls, a crazy gar- 
den-gate, a ruinous barbican, and a certain " old tower called 
Faukestour, which was begun in the time of King Henry the 
Elder." This passage seems to indicate that popular opinion 
attributed the erection of this " old tower" to the celebrated 
Fulke de Breaute, the terrible "Falkesius" of the monks of 
St. Alban's, who, as we have seen, was warden of the castle in 
1216. Although the times of Fulke and of King Henry the 
Elder (Henry II.) were not the same, yet some accidental cir- 
cumstance now unknown, may have led to the association of 
the name of that redoubted foreign mercenary with a work 
constructed before his arrival in England. The jurors found 
that it would require the sum of 39 5/. 6s. &d. to repair the 
defects last named : thus it is evident the castle was in a most 
decayed state ; the estimated outlay necessary for its restora- 
tion would have exceeded 12,000/. of the present currency k . 

Edward III. was too deeply intent on securing the pre- 
carious advantages obtained by his father, and the fairer 
territories won by his own valour in France, to bestow 
much of his attention on this quarter of his dominions. 
The castle remained as a prison until nearly the commence- 
ment of the last century, when it fell into private hands. 
Hitherto we have only mentioned it as a place of defence, 
as one of those unhappy spots where the wretched felon 
and suspected violator of the forest laws lay famishing amid 
the palatial profuseness of the proud Plantagenets, and the 
Christmas luxuries of de Breaute, or as the occasional abode 
of the English kings ; but henceforth it opens upon the 
attention with more agreeable as well as more universal 
interest. We shah 1 now observe it as a place where laws 

k Inquis. ad Quod Damnum, 16 Edw. II. No 119. 


became agitated, pregnant with loftier views of responsibility, 
and where the general mark of humanity was accelerated by 
wiser provisions for the regulation of commerce and the 
administration of justice. 

Without perplexing ourselves by a long enquiry into the 
nature of our early legislative assemblies, I will merely state 
as a reason for passing over by a rapid enumeration the earlier 
ones convened at Northampton, that it is not until the 
latter end of the reign of Henry III. that we are able to dis- 
cover the rudiments of that popular mode of representation 
existing at present. During the antecedent period, the spiri- 
tual and temporal peers were the only persons admitted to the 
royal councils, and their privileges seem to have been very 
indefinitely laid down. On some occasions the former out- 
numbered the latter, on others there was a preponderance on 
the side of the barons, and as in the instance of the parliament 
at Shrewsbury during the reign of Edward I., sometimes the 
bishops were not even summoned. Nor are these deviations 
from the general system the only ones on record, as we find 
parallel instances in the Cortes of Castile, to which in 1370 and 
1373 neither the nobles nor the clergy were called. Although 
the title of 'parliament' has been freely given to several of these 
early conventions, we must not connect them with our modern 
application of the term, nor suppose that the principle of 
receiving representatives from the community was fully recog- 
nised. Parliaments were not in fact identified with the more 
ancient forms of the British government. This will enable us 
at once to pass over, without discussion, the conferences held 
here between Robert duke of Normandy and his brother 
Henry I. ; the settlement of the succession by the latter prince 
upon his daughter Maud ; the council held both by Stephen 
and Richard I. ; the convention to try the traitorous a Becket, 
and the ratification of the Constitutions of Clarendon. Each of 
these, historically interesting, deserves more attention than the 
present occasion will suffice to afford, but none taken by itself 
involves any point of sufficient constitutional importance for 
us to pursue further its examination 1 . 

1 Of the councils held at Northampton, twelve abhots, and many other foreign and 

the following are the principal. In 1131, English nobility, and " inferioris ordinis 

.a great curia, placitum, or council, at personas." In 1164, when Becket was 

which were present all the " Principes ordered into banishment. In 11 76, when the 

Angliae." In 1157, a convention of the Constitutions of Clarendon were ratified. 

Praesules, Principes regni, eight bishops, In 1177, 1190, 1194, 1223, 1224, 1227, 


It was not until the forty-ninth of Henry III. (1265), when 
two knights were first summoned by the sheriffs from the 
counties, and two burgesses from the cities or towns, that the 
outline of our actual representative system can be distinctly 
traced. Before this indeed the spirit of lawless force was pre- 
dominant; the absolute power of the crown prevented any 
thing like national development, and the varied elements of 
political life and freedom had not burst forth into existence. 
The kingdom was now undergoing all those intestine miseries 
which sooner or later enforce upon bad governors the neces- 
sity of renovation and cure. It was in a sadly distracted state 
when in the midst of the general distress and confiscation that 
prevailed, Henry suddenly convoked a great assembly to meet 
him at Northampton (1268.) But it was not to discuss the 
wretched condition of his subjects, to adopt remedies for alle- 
viating their wants, or to conciliate the disaffection of his 
barons, that he issued his writs for the convention. It was 
not a meeting to be confounded with our ideas of a parliament, 
but a mere gathering of the upper classes, which should afford 
the papal legate an opportunity of preaching a crusade ; and 
judging from the result, his exertions were far from being un- 
successful, since the monarch himself, with a large number of 
the nobility, took up the cross and proposed to accompany his 
sons to the Holy Land. 

We are now arrived at a period when the popular voice was 
the first time plainly heard in the councils of the state, and 
amongst the earliest of those towns enjoying the privilege of 
sending their representatives to parliament, were Northamp- 
ton and Bedford, a right acquired in all probability from their 
being attached to the royal demesnes. Although various mo- 
difications and successive changes were henceforward perpe- 
tually arising, the burgesses appear from the 23rd of Edward I. 
to the present day, to have been legally considered both as 
constituent as well as necessary parts of the legislative body. 
Edward I. died on the 7th of August 1307, at Burgh on Sand, 
in his last expedition against the Scots, and on the 26th of 
the same month, his feeble successor summoned a parliament 
to meet him ' for a special purpose' at Northampton. One of 
the ostensible reasons for the present convention was to make 

1266, 1268, 1283, 1329, 1336, 1338. At abbey of Pipe-well, now entirely destroyed, 
Clipstone in 1290. At Geddington in in 1189. 
1188, to consult about a crusade. At the 


arrangements for the funeral of his father. Whatever amount 
of incapacity or moral obloquy may have attached itself to the 
character of Edward of Caernarvon, it can scarcely be said that 
filial affection was a virtue in which he was deficient. The 
performance, however, of the melancholy solemnities so natu- 
rally due to the memory of the late king, was not the sole 
reason for parliament meeting so immediately after his death, 
since the writs, our chief source of information, (the rolls of its 
proceedings having, like most of those of the reign, become 
lost,) further mention, as subjects for discussion, the new 
sovereign's coronation, and his espousals with Isabella of 
France. There was another latent motive for its convocation, 
one involving more important political rights. The active 
reign just ended had left the young prince surrounded with 
difficulties, against which he was in every way unequal to 
contend. The discontentment of his barons, the increasing 
demands of the pope, the long and expensive wars in which 
his ancestors had been engaged, now bequeathed as a legacy 
upon his impoverished exchequer, had to be provided for, not 
as formerly from the private revenues of the crown, but to be 
supported by extraordinary grants from the people. The per- 
sonal resources of the king had gradually become lavished 
away, and we thus trace the earliest causes of the diminishing 
power of the royal prerogative, as well as the subsequent 
influence of the national voice in regulating taxation. The 
three estates of parliament assembled at Northampton on the 
13th of October" 1 , four months before the king was actually 
crowned, and did not entirely separate until the beginning of 
the following year n . It was in the twenty-fifth year of the 
preceding reign, about twelve years before this time, that the 
laws exacting pecuniary aids from the subject, first became 
clearly defined : nevertheless they continued for a length of 

m The Liberate rolls of this year contain might have no reason to leave the king's 

no mention of Northampton whatever, but service. 

the Close rolls of the same time have n It was at this period that diplomatic 

entries recording orders to bailiffs to pay and official relations began to be esta- 

to Nicholas de Segrave the constable, sixty Wished betwixt European and Asiatic 

pounds for repairs of walls and buildings nations ; mongols of distinction visited 

of the castle also to fortify the castle, for some of the chief cities of Spain, France, 

better security and safety of the people and Italy, and during the present parlia- 

also to repair walls and paling of the park. ment an answer was sent to the king of 

(Rot. Claus. 1 Edw. II.) On the Patent Tartary in return for his friendly embassy, 

roll 18 John, there is an order for the pay- See Rymer, vol. ii. p. 8. new edition, and 

ment of arrears and wages due to the king's Memoires sur les Relations Politiques des 

servants in garrison of the castles of North- Princes Chretiens avec les Empereurs 

ampton and Rockingham, so that they Mongols. Vol. ii. Mem., pp. 154 157. 


time to press with unequal force upon the rising energies of 
the people, and in illustration of this, we find in the trans- 
actions now under review, that whilst the clergy and the 
burgesses contributed in this parliament a fifteenth from the 
towns, the knights granted from the counties a twentieth of 
their moveables, to prosecute the war against the Scots. 

Other important matters were for the first time settled by 
this parliament; such as the terms of the coronation oath, 
and the oath tendered to the representatives upon taking 
their seats. By the general tenor of the latter, more espe- 
cially in its fourth and sixth clauses, every precaution seems 
to have been taken to support and strengthen the royal pre- 
rogative, whilst the provisions of the former not only recog- 
nised the limitation of the royal power by existing laws, but 
that the power of altering those laws and enacting others, 
could only be exercised with the consent of the 'commu- 
naute,' or the lords and commons assembled in parliament. 
On the present occasion, then, we witness the conflicting 
elements of the English government balanced against each 
other with the nicest appreciation of their relative value, those 
mighty parts formerly brought together in such discordant 
and hostile collision, now firmly cemented in peaceful union, 
and the entire fabric laid on so wide a basis, that not only 
may it be said, the constitution was for the first time securely 
established, but that however much corruption in the elective 
franchise, municipal abuses, or natural decay, may have de- 
formed its fair proportions in the lapse of succeeding ages, 
a reformation and cure has always been found for them by 
recurring to the pure spirit of these early principles. 

The parliament again assembled at Northampton in the 
second year of the succeeding reign (1328), meeting imme- 
diately after the one summoned to York, in consequence of 
several of the representatives being absent on that occasion. 
No constitutional questions came under review; these, indeed, 
had been pretty generally fixed in the preceding reigns as 
they now stand, but much business of a momentous charac- 
ter occupied attention. In the first place, the writs of sum- 
mons prohibited tournaments, and the appearance of that 
tumultuous retinue of armed men which had usually attended 
upon these occasions. The representatives were thus enabled 
to carry on their deliberations without distraction, personal 
fear, or restraint. Here both the origin and authority is 



found for that resolution of the Long Parliament (1645) 
forbidding the appearance of the military at an election, ' as 
a high infringement of the liberties of the subject, and an 
open defiance of the laws and constitutions of this kingdom ;* 
a resolution subsequently established by act of parliament. 
(8th George II.) The Scottish convention and a treaty of 
peace were confirmed at the present meeting, the preliminary 
of a commercial intercourse with Flanders settled, the first 
annual payment made of Queen Philippa's dowry, and power 
given to the bishops of Worcester and Chester to demand 
and ask for, in the king's name, the right and possession of 
the kingdom of France. Amongst other business also now 
transacted was the custody of the great seal, which was 
transferred from the keeping of Master Henry de Clyf and 
William de Herlaston, to Henry de Burghersh, bishop of 
Lincoln. This transfer was publicly made by the king him- 
self, in the presence of several of the nobility, immediately 
after the celebration of mass, in a certain chapel of the priory 
of St. Andrew, and the same document states that the keeper 
used it in sealing briefs the next day. It appears from a 
subsequent document, printed in the Fcedera, that the cus- 
tody of the great seal was again changed by the king taking 
it himself on Sunday the 15th of January following (1329), 
in a certain chamber where Queen Isabella was lodged, in 
the same priory, and he retained it till Thursday, when he 
restored it to the bishop in the presence of his lords, in the 
garden of the prior of Newenham, near Bedford. In this 
parliament was enacted the FIRST STATUTE OF NORTHAMPTON. 
It commenced by confirming the Great Charter and the 
Charter of the Forest. By subsequent clauses the pardon of 
felons was placed on a better system, and the administration 
of justice carried on under less restraint, since all persons 
were forbidden to present themselves armed before the royal 
ministers. Sundry provisions were made relative to the de- 
livery of writs to the sheriff's ; legal officers were appointed 
to enquire into robberies, manslaughter, theft, oppressions, con- 
spiracies and grievances, as well by the servants of the crown 
as by others ; justice was not to be delayed at the bidding 
of the great or little seal ; the county cess was put on an 
improved footing, and all staples were to cease. In the 
various provisions of this admirable statute of Northampton, 
there is the highest regard evinced for individual liberty ; the 


crown itself is limited in its interference with the equal course 
of justice, its powers being confined, by the terms of the 
royal oath, to granting charters of pardon for offenders. The 
criminal law was much amended by these and other regu- 
lations ; aristocratic influence in gaol- deliveries was checked ; 
the common rights of the people were carefully respected. 
Nor is it undeserving observation that in abolishing those 
mercantile monopolies which had sprung up in the late 
reigns, how clearly the parliament understood their injurious 
tendency, whilst, to shew how repugnant it thought them 
to be to the earlier theory of the constitution, the present 
statute allowed " merchants, strangers, and others to go 
and come with their merchandise into England after the 
tenor of the Great Charter" of the 17th of John. So jealously 
watched and guarded indeed was the freedom of commerce 
during Edward III.'s reign, that, independently of the present 
statute, a full recognition of its unfettered principles was set 
forth in the preamble and first clause of the tenth parlia- 
ment held at York, (9th Edward III. 1335.) It would be 
opening the subject far too wide were I to mention in this 
enquiry the various occasions when royalty visited the town 
of Northampton, and I have merely noticed the foregoing 
incident, amongst many, to shew how frequent those visits 
formerly were, and to furnish some kind of idea of the 
business habits of the period, and the simple modes of regal 
life. The parliament opened its sittings on April 24th, and 
did not conclude them until the 21st of May, during the 
whole of which time Edward III. remained here. 

In the twelfth year of his reign, when the third parliament 
assembled at Northampton, we find him actively engaged in 
prosecuting his claims upon the kingdom of Philip of Valois ; 
and in pursuing this favourite object of his ambition he spent 
much of the early period of his life on the continent. He was 
now on the eve of embarking upon one of these expeditions, 
but previously to his departure he addressed writs to the 
usual persons, informing them that he had appointed Edward 
his eldest son keeper of the realm during his absence, and 
summoned them to attend a great council at Northampton 
on the morrow after St. James the Apostle, (July 26, 1338.) 
The writs were tested on the 1 5th of June, and the parlia- 
ment was duly convened at the appointed time; the king 
himself, however, sailed for the continent a few days before 


it met. One of the monarch's first acts on reaching Antwerp 
was to address an order to the great ecclesiastics, revoking 
the power he had confided to them to treat of peace with 
Philip of Valois as king of France. Meanwhile his son, the 
Black Prince, effectually urged the parliament to supply the 
necessary aids for carrying on the campaign abroad. This, 
with a few regulations for victualling the royal castles of 
Scotland, and some acts of minor consequence, brought the 
session to a close at the end of about ten days. 

The last parliament at Northampton was summoned for the 
5th of November, in the fourth year of Richard II. Most of 
the great officers of state assembled at the appointed time, by 
order of the council, in a chamber of St. Andrew's priory, where 
they heard read the great charter of English liberties, but after 
waiting in vain for some time the arrival of the other repre- 
sentatives, who were deterred from attending in consequence 
of the heavy rain and floods, it was agreed to adjourn the 
parliament until the following Thursday, the members being 
permitted to retire in the meanwhile to their hostels for their 
ease. The roads had been rendered so impassable by the 
bad weather that it was with considerable difficulty the king 
reached his manor of Moulton, where he was lodged, in the 
immediate neighbourhood to the town. 

Richard II. , now in his fifteenth year, met the parliament 
in person on the 8th of November. It was not a very 
numerous convention, as several of the nobility were still 
detained on business in the marches of Scotland. The 
chancellor, (Simon de Sudbury, archbishop of Canterbury,) 
on the part of the king, opened the proceedings by stating 
the motives that had induced him to call this parliament 
together, how desirous he felt that the liberties of the Church 
and the peace of the realm should be maintained and 
guarded ; he next referred to the matter with which he was 
charged by the king, saying emphatically , " Sirs, it cannot 
be a thing unknown to you, how that nobleman the earl of 
Buckingham, with a great number of other great lords, knights, 
esquires, and other good gentlemen of the realm, whom may 
God save by His mercy, are now in the service of our lord 
the king and his realm in the parts of Prance, upon which 
enterprise the king has expended as much as you have granted 

This speech and the proceedings of the parliament are in Norman French. 


him in the last parliament, and beyond this grant, much from his 
private resources ; and what is more, he has greatly contributed 
from his own substance for the expedition against Scotland, 
and for the defence and succour of his lieges in Guienne, and 
for the last debts due to the earl of March for Ireland, as well 
as in other ways ; he has pledged the greater part of his jewels, 
which are at the point of being lost, and you may observe how 
the subsidy of wool is the cause of the present riot in Flanders ; 
nothing, in effect, is reserved : the wages of the troops in the 
marches of Calais, Brest, and Cherbourg are in arrears more 
than a quarter and a half, in consequence of which the castles 
and fortresses of the king are in such great peril, that the 
soldiers are on the point of departing. Be well assured that 
neither our lord the king, nor any other Christian monarch is 
able to endure such charges without the aid of the community; 
and moreover, consider how deeply the king is indebted, how 
the crown jewels, as it is said, are at the point of being for- 
feited, how he is bound by covenant to pay the earl of Buck- 
ingham and his companions, what outrageous expenses he 
wUl be put to in guarding the sea-coasts nearest France next 
season, so that the malice of the enemy may be better resisted 
than it was before, when, as you are well aware, they wrought 
such grievous damage and villainy against the state. Will you 
counsel our lord the king, and shew him what better provision 
can be made to meet these difficulties, and how the kingdom 
may be defended more securely against its enemies by land 
and sea. Be pleased to deliberate on this as soon as you are 
able, to the end that you may speedily render his majesty, 
these nobles, and yourselves, that effectual assistance which is 
necessary." With such weighty arguments the chancellor 
opened the present parliament, adding also, at the close of 
his speech, that the king both wished and commanded all 
persons who had any grievance which could not be redressed 
without the interposition of parliament, that they should 
present their petitions to the clerks of chancery appointed 
to receive them, who would hand them over to the prelates 
for judgment. After this address, they all departed to their 
respective hostels, and on the morrow consulted together in 
the new dormitory of the priory, on the business he had pro- 
pounded. A lengthened debate ensued, in the course of which 
Sir John Gildersburgh, who was deputed by the commons, de- 
clared they were very poor, and unable to bear any further 


charge; that the present demands of 160,000 were out- 
rageous and insupportable, and prayed that the prelates and 
lords would treat by themselves, and set forth the ways by 
which a reasonable sum, at less distress to the people, might 
be levied and collected. After considerable discussion and 
mutual conference, the commons proposed that if the clergy, 
who occupied one-third of the kingdom, would support one- 
third of the charge, they would grant 100,000, so that the 
laity should be rated at 100,000 marks and the clergy at 
50,000. Upon this the clergy replied, with less liberality 
than adherence to legal precedent, that their grant was never 
made in parliament, neither ought to be; that the laity neither 
ought nor had the power to bind the clergy, nor the clergy the 
laity, but that if any ought to be free, it was themselves; 
praying moreover, that the liberty of Holy Church might be 
saved to them entirely, and that what the commons deemed 
fit to perform, they would certainly do the like themselves. 
The commons then imposed a capitation tax on all the laity, 
male and female, above fifteen years old, of three groats, very 
beggars only excepted, which, with the sudden emancipation 
of the serfs in the following parliament, was the occasion of 
the insurrection under Wat Tyler and Jack Straw the next 
year. The same kind of revolt had, from a similar enlarge- 
ment of their liberties, broken out amongst the French pea- 
santry some time previously. 





7 John, 1205. An order to the sheriff of Northampton to expend 40 
marks in repairing the castle*. 

8 John, 1206. Writ tested from Porchester to the harons of the ex- 

chequer ordering repayment of the sums paid by Peter de Stoke to 
Peter the engineer at the rate of ix.d. a day : also xxx.s. for a robe for 
his wife, and moreover the expenses he was at for the utensils and 
other necessaries for the engines, as well as for repairs at the castle b . 
By a subsequent entry in a writ addressed to the sheriff of Notting- 
ham, the sum of ix.d. a day seems to have been his usual remuneration. 
1207. Payment ordered from the sheriff to the same individual . 

15 John, 1213. Writ to the barons of the exchequer, ordering them 
to settle with Henry de Braybroc his expenditure for repairing and 
strengthening the castle from the time it was in his custody d . Ex- 
emption from castle-ward granted to William, the son of Hamon, and 
his soldiers, and order issued to Henry de Braibroc not to inconve- 
nience them about this service e . 

16 John, 1215. Order to the forester of Salcey to let Gaufredus de 
Marteney, constable of the castle, take materials and brushwood from 
the forest of Salcey to strengthen the castle of Northampton f . 

Writ to Gaufredus de Marteney to deliver up the castle to Roger de 
Nevil and come to the king with his soldiers and all the garrison of the 
castle, bringing with him all his harness, and all his own as well as 
all the royal implements, such as wooden engines and quarells, (the 
king was then at Marlboroughe.) The custody of the castle was 
then transferred to Roger de Nevill, and the manor of Thorp, with all 
its returns, granted to him for guarding and keeping the fortress in a 
state of defence 11 . 


1175. Humphrey de Bohun*. 1215. Roger de Neville". 

Simon de Pateshull. 1216. Fulke de Breaute . By writ 

1203. P. de Stokes, appointed con- the 2nd of May, and enforced by 

stable and moneyer, in 1206 J. a second under the private and 

1206. Walter de Preston k . public seal on the 19th of the 

1208. Robert de Braybroc 1 . same month P. 

1215. Richard Marshall. 1216. William Aindrei. 

Rot. Claus. p. 51. j Rot. Pat. p. 30. 

"> Id. p. 70 6. " Id. p. 67. 

Id. p. 76. ' Id. p. 84. 

d Id. p. 137. m Id. p. 131. 

e Id. p. 154. n Id. p. 146. 

' Id. p. 195. - Id. p. 179. 

f Id. p. 218. " Id. p. 183. 

i> Id. p. 218. i Rot. Claus. p. 267. 

1 Rot. Pip. 20 Hen. II. 


1253. John De Grey 1 . 

1278. Thomas de Ardern 8 . 

1279. Robert le Band*. 

1307. Pagan Tibetot. Justiciary of 
the Royal Forests beyond the 
Trent, and constable 11 . 

1307. Nicolas de Segrave v . 

1315. John de Ashston w . 

1316. John de Honby*. 

1319. John de Whitelburyy. 

1320. Ralph Basset of Drayton z . 

Richard de Lemesy a . 

1323. John Daundelyn b . 
1331. Thomas de Button . 

William de Pillarton, vallet 

of the king's buttery d . 

Eustace de Brunneby 6 . 

Lit. Antiq. in Turr. Lond. 442 a. 

Abbr. Rot. Orig. p. 32. 

Id. p. 34. 

Id. p. 154. 

Id. p. 157. 

Id. p. 222. 

Id. p. 233. 

Id. p. 252. 

Id. p. 255. 

Inq. ad Q. D., 16 Ed. II., No. 119. 

Id. p. 278. 

Id. ii. p. 4. 

Id. p. 10. 

Id. p. 21. 


Thomas Wake of Blisworth'. 
William Levels. 
Thomas de Buckton h . 

Ralph Basset of Sapcote 1 . 

John Lovell of TitchmarshJ. 
John Grey of Wilton k . 
Alan Zouch of Ashby 1 . 

Reginald Grey of Wilton. 

Nicholas Segrave n . 

Payn Tibetot . 

Ralph Basset of Drayton P. 

Richard Wydeville 1. 

John Wydeville r . 
Richard Wydeville 5 . 

{ Id. p. 30. 
s Id. p. 68. 

. p. . 
Id. p. 83. 

Dugdale's Baronetage, p. 
Id. p. 558. 


. . 
Id. p. 712. 
1 Id. p. 689. 
"> Id. p. 713. 
n Id. p. 675. 
Id. p. 39. 
P Id. p. 380. 
q Id. p. 230. 
r Id. p. 230. 
s Id. p. 230. 



THE usages of social life amongst our ancestors present a 
subject of interesting enquiry, appearing to deserve more 
careful consideration than it has hitherto received. The most 
minute details connected with pagan customs, and the illus- 
tration of domestic usages, costume, or the refinements of 
advancing civilisation amongst the Greeks and Romans, have 
been investigated with the utmost diligence, whilst the curious 
evidences relating to the private life of bygone times, in our 
own country, have been very imperfectly noticed. Those 
national monuments which display the constructive genius of 
our forefathers in their ecclesiastical, castellated, or domestic 
edifices, have for some time arrested the attention of numerous 
lovers of antiquity, and the smallest details of architectural 
ornament or arrangement have been examined with keen 
interest. Should the numerous scattered evidences which 
remain be regarded as devoid of interest, which may enable 
the antiquary to revive the stirring picture of daily life and 
social manners within those ancient walls, of which every 
feature has become now so familiar to us ? 

The investigation of the domestic habits of former times 
is a subject of much variety and extent, and the vestiges pre- 
sented to us may frequently appear so trivial in their nature 
as to be unworthy of consideration. Amongst minor objects 
connected with festive usages, those now brought before the 
notice of our readers may possibly appear to be of that trivial 
character, and to have received already from antiquarians as full 
a share of attention as they can deserve. It does not appear, 
however, that any correct representation of the curiously orna- 
mented "fruit-trenchers," in fashion during the sixteenth 
century, has hitherto been given, in illustration of various 
conjectures advanced regarding them; and 1 would hope 
that the examples, which I have been kindly permitted to 
submit to the readers of the Journal, may not prove devoid 
of interest; possibly, even that they may prove the means 
of drawing forth some further information. 




The only set of tablets, or trenchers, of this description, 
rectangular in form, hitherto noticed, are in the possession 
of Mrs. Bird, of Upton-on-Severn. They are twelve in 
number, formed of thin leaves, of some light-coloured wood, 
possibly that of the lime-tree, measuring about 5f inches by 
44 inches, and enclosed in a wooden case formed like a 
book with clasps, the sides being decorated with an elegant 
arabesque design, imitating the patterns of impressed bind- 
ings, such as were found in the libraries of Grolier or Maioli. 

On removing a sliding piece which forms the upper margin 
of this little tome the tablets may be taken out. They are 
curiously painted and gilt, every one presenting a different 
design, and inscribed with verses from holy writ conveying 
some moral admonition. Each tablet relates to a distinct 
subject. These legends are enclosed in compartments, as 
shewn in the annexed representation, surrounded by various 
kinds of foliage and the old fashioned flowers of an English 
garden, the campion, honeysuckle, and gilliflower, each tablet 
being ornamented with a different flower. The trencher, of 
which a representation is given, bears the oak-leaf and acorns, 
and the texts inscribed upon it relate to the uncertainty of 
human life. Upon the others are found admonitions against 


covetousness, hatred, malice, gluttony, profane swearing and 
evil speaking, with texts in which the virtues of benevolence, 
patience, chastity, forgiveness of injuries, and so forth, are 

The specimen here given may shew the quaint arrangement 
of these inscriptions. 

The following are the texts relating to inebriety, and it may 
deserve remark that, having been taken from a version of the 
Scriptures, previous to the subdivision into verses, the chapters 
only are indicated. In the centre, "Wo be vnto you that 
ryse vppe early to geue your selues to dronkenes, and set all 
your myndes so on drynckynge, that ye sytte swearynge 
therat vntyll yt be nighte. The Harpe, the Lute, the Tabour, 
the Drumslade, the Trumpet, the Shalme, and plentye of wyne, 
are at your feastes, but the worde of the lorde, do ye not be- 
holde, neyther consydre ye the workes of hys handes. Esaie 
the Prophete i the 5. Chap." In the four compartments of 
the margin, " Take hede that your hart' be not ouerwhelmed 
wyth feastynge and dronkenship. Luk. 21. Thorowe glotonye 
many peryshe. Eccl. 35. Thorowe feastynge many haue 
dyed but he that eateth measurably p'longeth lyfe. Eccl. 37. 
Be no wyne bybber. Eccl. 31." 

The sides thus ornamented were coated with a hard trans- 
parent varnish, arid have suffered very slightly by use ; the 
reverse, which probably was the side upon which the fruit or 
comfits were laid, is smooth and clean, without varnish or 
colour. These curious " fruit-trenchers" were found amongst 
a variety of old articles at Ehnley castle, Worcestershire, 
about twenty years since ; and they were presented to Mrs. 
Bird, by Mr. P. Woodward, of Pershore. 

By the obliging permission of the lady amongst whose col- 
lections these singular tablets had thus been deposited, they 
were included in the assemblage of interesting objects of 
antiquity and art, exhibited at the Deanery during the meeting 
of the Institute at Winchester, September, 1845. The kind- 
ness of Mrs. Bird in this instance was the cause of bringing 
to light other sets of " fruit-trenchers." One of these, belong- 
ing to Jervoise Clarke Jervoise, Esq., of Idsworth Park, Hants, 
consisted of ten trenchers, of the more usual form of roundels, 
ornamented in precisely similar style to those already de- 
scribed ; they measure 5 J inches in diameter, and are enclosed 
in a box, which bears upon its cover the royal arms, France 



and England quarterly, surmounted by the imperial crown. 
The supporters of the scutcheon are the lion and the dragon, 
indicating that these roundels are of the times of Queen Eliza- 
beth. On each is inscribed a rhyming stanza and Scripture 
texts, each relating, as those on the tablets already described, 
to some different subject of moral admonition. The following 
examples may suffice to shew the character of these quaint 

Under the symbol of a skull, 

" Content y 1 selfe w th tliyn estat 
And sende noo poore wight from thy gate 
For why this coucell I y e giue 
To learn to die and die to lyue 

Set an order in y 1 house for y u shalt die & not lyue. Eel. 3. 
Thy goodes wel got by knowledge skile 
Wil healpe y 1 hungrie bagges to fyll 
But riches gayned by falsehoodes drift 
Will run awaie as streame ful swift. 


Haue noo pleasure in lyeng for the vse ther off is naught. Eel. 7. 

Though hungrie meales be put in pot 

Yet conscience cleare keept w th out spot 

Doth keepe y e corpes in quiet rest 

Than hee that thousandes hathe in cchest. 
With out faith yt is vnpossible to please God. Hebrew the. 11." 

It must be admitted that these uncourtly rhymes seem ill 
deserving to be designated as " posies." They are of the same 
doggrel character as various others communicated from time 
to time to Mr. Urban, amongst which may be mentioned a 
roundel formerly in the possession of Ives, the historian of 
Burgh castle, arid described by him as a trencher for cheese 
or sweetmeats. These roundels have, however, been con- 
sidered by some antiquaries as intended to be used in some 
social game, like modern conversation cards : their proper use 
appears to be sufficiently proved by the chapter on " posies" 
in the "Art of English Poesie," published in 1589% which con- 
tains the following statement. " There be also another like 
epigrams that were sent usually for new yeare's gifts, or to be 
printed or put upon banketting dishes of sugar plate, or of 
March paines, &c., they were called Nenia or Apophoreta, and 
never contained above one verse, or two at the most, but the 
shorter the better. We call them poesies, and do paint them 
now-a-dayes upon the back sides of our fruit-trenchers of wood, 
or use them as devises in ringes and armes." 

It was the usage in olden times to close the banquet with 
" confettes, sugar plate, fertes with other subtilties, with Ipo- 
crass," served to the guests as they stood at the board, after 
grace was said b . The period has not been stated at which the 
fashion of desserts and long sittings after the principal meal 
in the day became an established custom. It was, doubtless, 
at the time when that repast, which during the reign of Eliza- 
beth had been at eleven before noon, amongst the higher classes 
in England, took the place of the supper, usually served at five, 
or between five and six, at that period . The prolonged revelry, 
once known as the " reare supper," may have led to the custom 
of following up the dinner with a sumptuous dessert. Be this 
as it may, there can be little question that the concluding 
service of the social meal, composed, as Harrison, who wrote 
about the year 1579, informs us, of " fruit and conceits of all 

Cited by a correspondent of the c Harrison's description of England, 

Gentleman's Magazine in 1797. c. 6. in Holinshed's Chron. ii. 171. 

b Lelaud, Coll. vi. 21. 


sorts," was dispensed upon the ornamental trenchers above 
described. It is not easy to fix the period at which their use 
commenced : in the " Doucean Museum" at Goodrich Court, 
there is a set of roundels, closely resembling those in the pos- 
session of Mr. Clarke Jervoise, which, as Sir Samuel Meyrick 
states in the Catalogue of that curious collection, appear, by 
the badge of the rose and pomegranate conjoined, to be of the 
early part of the reign of Henry VIII. d Possibly they may 
have been introduced with many foreign "conceits" and 
luxuries from France and Germany, during that reign. In 
the times of Elizabeth mention first occurs of fruit-dishes of 
any ornamental ware, the service of the table having previously 
been performed with dishes, platters, and saucers of pewter, 
and "treen" or wooden trenchers; or, in more stately esta- 
blishments, with silver plate. Shakspeare makes mention of 
" China dishes 6 ," but it is more probable that they were of 
the ornamental ware fabricated in Italy, and properly termed 
Maiolica, than of oriental porcelain. The first mention of 
" porselyn" in England occurs in 1587-8, when its rarity was 
so great, that a porringer and a cup of that costly ware 
were selected as new year's gifts presented to the queen by 
Burghley and Cecil f . Shortly after, mention is made by 
several writers of " earthen vessell painted ; costly fruit-dishes 
of fine earth painted ; fine dishes of earth painted, such as 
are brought from Venice g ." 

Those elegant Italian wares, which in France appear to 
have superseded the more homely appliances of the festive 
table, about the middle of the sixteenth century, were doubt- 
less adopted at the tables of the higher classes in our own 
country, towards its close. The wooden fruit-trencher was 
not, however, wholly disused during the seventeenth century, 
and amongst sets of roundels which may be assigned to the 
reign of James I. or Charles I., those in the possession of 
Mr. Hailstone may be mentioned, exhibited in the museum 
formed during the meeting of the Institute at York. They 
were purchased in a broker's shop at Bradford, Yorkshire ; 
in dimensions they resemble the trenchers of the reign of 
Elizabeth, already described; but their decoration is of a 
more ordinary character. On each tablet is pasted a line en- 
graving, of coarse execution, and gaudily coloured, represent- 

d Gent. Mag., VI. N. S. 492. f Nichol's Progresses, ii. 528. 

Measure for Measure Act ii. se. 1. Minsheu, Florio, Howell, &c. 


ing one of the Sibyls. Around the margin is inscribed a 
stanza. The following may serve as a specimen. 

" The Phrygian Sibill named Cassandra. 
God readie is to punishe mans mischance, 
Ore swolne with sinne, hood-winckt with ignorance 
Into the Virgins wombe to make all euen, 
Hee comes from heauen to earthe, to giue vs heauen." 





IT is to be regretted that, although the attention of learned 
antiquaries has lately been drawn to the subject of Winchester 
and its memorials, no one has been tempted to analyze and 
illustrate the venerable record called the Liber Winton or 
Winchester Domesday. The earlier of the two inquisitions, 
which are included under that name, is one which needs ex- 
planation, and presents several topics of great interest. I am 
aware of no general observations which have been published 
on this subject, except those contained in the communication 
made by the late Bishop Lyttleton to the Society of Antiqua- 
ries, and referred to by Gough in his British Topography a . 
It is with a view to correct what appear to me to be two 
material misapprehensions in the statement of those eminent 
antiquaries, that I have thought it worth while to offer the 
following observations. 

In enumerating the houses and other tenements within the 
city, and the various pecuniary and other duties and services 
attached to them, the record occasionally mentions one which 
is called wata. Dr. Lyttleton supposes this to be a tax in the 
nature of Danegeld. The following are some of the entries in 
which the word occurs : 

Fol. 3. A house, held by Will, de Albinneio and Herbertus Camerarius 
under Wolwardus Harengarius, " nullara reddit consuetudinem prseter b 

a Sir H. Ellis, in his Introduction to b The word prater is sometimes con- 

the supplemental volume containing the tracted, but both syllables are also found 

Exeter and Winchester Domesdays, par- in extenso ; so that there is no doubt about 

ticularly cites the opinion of l)r. Lyttleton the word, 
on the points hereafter referred to. 


Again : Roger filius Geroldi holds lachenictahalla (sic. the knighten hall), 
" et nullam consuetudinem inde facit prseter watam." 

The house of Stanulfus is found to have been " quieta tempore Regis 
Edwardi prseter watam et geldis." 

Fol. 5. Under the lands of barons and others we find a house of the 
abbot's fee, occupied by Osbertus filius Alberede, " quae faciebat watam." 

The house of Alvinus is stated to be " quieta prseter ivaitam." 

So (fol. 8) land is found to be " libera prseter waitam ;" and again (fol. 9), 
" Tenet eas (domos) comes de Mellent, et sunt similiter quietse praeter 

I apprehend that the word being coupled in two or three 
instances with "geldis" has led to the conjecture that wata 
or waita was a tax ejusdem generis : yet I cannot entertain 
any doubt that it really refers to the service of watching 
(ffuef), and not to any pecuniary rent or impost, though ser- 
vices of this kind were in other instances, and at a later pe- 
riod, often converted into fixed fines. 

The early occurrence of this personal service as annexed to 
the tenure of land, is familiar in this and other countries, and 
many examples are given by Ducange, verb. Wacta. It is 
found in custumals, charters, and capitularies of the eighth and 
ninth centuries, and was a charge imposed on free as well as 
servile tenants . Sometimes we find it enforced for the pro- 
tection of some castle or fortress, against surprise or hostile 
attack, in which case the tenure is similar to that of castle- 
guard. In other cases, it is a measure of police established 
for the security of property, and the preservation of peace. To 
which of these classes the wait-service at Winchester in the 
twelfth century is to be referred is not very clear. The twelve 
" vigilantes homines de melioribus civitatis" mentioned in the 
Exchequer Domesday, under the city of Shrewsbury, may be 
considered as an example of a local police, called into service 
only for temporary purposes during a royal visit. 

The castle of Norwich affords an instance of the service of 
castle- watch distinct from castle- guard, from which favoured 

c See Prolegomena to the Polyptique 1159) by the Count of Namur in favour of 

of Irminon, p. 776 8, for numerous cita- the church of St. Aubain. This duty is 

tions. " Facit wactam et omne servicium referred to in a charter of another Count 

quod ei injungitur." Polypt Irrninonis, to the same church, A.D. 1423. "Item 

p. 212 " Faciunt wagtas aut redimunt que par toute nostre ville de Namur ledit 

denariis ii." Polypt. S. Amandi, printed chapitre dedans leur paroche, et dehors les 

p. 925 of the above Prolegomena : "Do- mannans sur leurs allost et mazures ne 

mus super allodium infra parochiam cas- payent a nous d'un deult appelle" waytage 

telli excubise quod appellant gueteur re- que doivent tous autres bourgois et man- 

spondere prorsus nihil neque persolvere nans." Galliot, Hist, de Namur, vols. v. 

teneretur." Charter of exemption (A.D. and vi. 


individuals or bodies were occasionally exempted. The duty 
is called gawite (i. e. gwaite) in the charter of Richard I., and 
the money-payment exacted in lieu of it was afterwards 
familiarly known by the name of wait-fee*. 

In the earldom of Cornwall a very remarkable example 
occurs of a class of tenants who held (and may perhaps be 
considered as still holding) their lands as of the castle of Laun- 
ceston, by the tenure of keeping watch at the castle gate. 
The tenants thus bound to perform "vigilias ad portam 
castri" also owed suit to a special court in the nature of a 
court baron, called the " curia vigilias," " curia de gayte," or 
" wayternesse court," of which many records are still extant in 
the different offices of the Exchequer, and among the records 
of the Duchy 6 . 

Among the instances of wait-service in the Winchester 
Domesday is the following : 

'' Alestanus fuit monetarius T. R. E. et habuit quandam terram. Modo 
tenet earn Wigot Delinc et facit omnem consuetudinem prseter waitam, et 
reddit monachis de Sapalanda 30rf." 

This passage has given rise to the second error of Dr. 
Lyttleton, to which I have alluded ; for he infers from it the 
existence of a monastery of which every other record has 
perished, namely, the monastery of Sapaland. Another 
passage (in folio 8 of the record) appears at first sight 
to warrant his inference : 

"Est ibi juxta qusedam mans[io], quse reddit monachis de Sapalanda 
30d, et facit consuetudines quas solebat facere T. R. E." 

The result has been that the new monastery of Sapaland 
has taken its place among the ancient English conventual 
establishments in Nasmyth's edition of Tanner's Notitia, and 

d See 1 Rym. 5 Ric. I. new ed. Bloom- Li jus soz la coudroie! 

field, in his History, seems to have mis- Hu, et hu, et hu, et hu ! 

understood this word. Spelman, in his A bien pres 1'ocirroie." &c. 

Gloss., voc. waite-fee, gives an instance, Chansons de Flore et Blancliefleur, 13* 

temp. Eliz., of a tenure by "waite-fee et siecle. Chants Historiques, par Leroux 

castle- garde." de Lincy, l e Serie, p. 139. ed. 1841. 

e The horn of the castle watchman was Paris. My readers will hardly require to 

troublesome to noctivagous lovers : be reminded that the waits, whose sponta- 

" Gaite de la tor ! neous music disturbs our sleep before 

Gardez entor Christmas, are souvenirs of the armed 

Les murs, se Deus vos voie ; watch, who guarded the repose of King 

C'or sont a sejor William at Shrewsbury, of the burghers 

Dame et seignor, and nobles at Winchester, and of the abbot 

Et larron vont en proie. (Lagaite come.) and monks of St Germain, in the days of 

Hu, et hu, et hu, et hu ! Charlemagne. 
Je 1'ai veu, 



in the two last editions of Dugdale's Monasticon : yet out 
of the five passages in the Liber Winton where the name 
of Sapalanda occurs, three seem to me to negative the in- 
ference of Dr. Lyttleton : they are as follows : 

" Borewoldus Horloc tenuit i. domum tempore Regis Edwardi, et facit 
(sic) omnem consuetudinem. Modo tenent monachi et fac[it] f similiter 
consuetudinem et redd[it] eis 30d. de Sapalanda." 

" Lowricus presbyter de Sapalanda monacorum tenuit i. domum T. R. E. 
et reddit omnem consuetudinem et 30</." 

" Hunbric tenuit quandam terram de Sapalanda T. R. E. et facit omnem 
consuetudinem, Modo tenet earn Alwinus Barbitre et facit similiter." 

The accidental position of the words " de Sapalanda," after 
the word " monachis," in the two first entries, has occasioned 
the ambiguity ; the three last shew that Sapaland was the 
name or other description of some place, estate, or land, out 
of which some Winchester monastery derived a revenue, 
amounting, in the case of each tenement, (except the one 
occupied by Hunbric,) to 2s. 6d.e 

The word " monachi" is used alone in several instances, 
as in fol. 12 (p. 541 b, of the printed copy), and probably 
means the monks of St. Swithun. Whatever may have 
given rise to the name of Sapaland, the land itself from which 
the Sapland rents were derived, appears from the property 
described in connection with it to have been on the north, 
or north-east side of the city, near Ovington ; at least there 
are circumstances which lead me to conjecture that such was 
the fact. 

It is singular that it did not occur to the bishop to make 
another addition to the Monasticon on the authority of the 
same record ; for, on fol. 7, we have " inter illam terram et 
monasterium Sancti Walarici erat una venella," &c. It might 
plausibly be inferred from this that there was a monastery of 
St. Valery at Winchester, if we did not know that a parish 
church was sometimes designated as a minster, without any 
pretence to conventuality, and that in fact there was such 
a church near the Westgate at Winchester. E. SMIRKE. 

f The tenement, and not the tenant, is local name as Sapland, Sopland, or Shap- 

here, and in other places in the record, re- land, in the neighbourhood ; hut I am not 

presented as doing or owing the service aware that there is such. We have Chil- 

. and rents. land, Milland, Boysland, &c. 
E One would expect to find some such 

rfginal Documents. 

BY the kind permission of C. Winston, Esq., I am enabled 
to bring before the readers of this Journal a copy of an 
original document, belonging to C. J. Pocock, Esq., of Bristol, 
which exhibits a remarkable instance of the use made of the 
terrors of excommunication in the thirteenth century. All 
are familiar with the employment of this instrument on many 
important occasions, and also as an ordinary means of enforc- 
ing obedience to the decrees of the ecclesiastical authorities; 
but to find it introduced by express stipulation as a sort of 
penalty into a private transaction of inconsiderable moment, 
is I think sufficiently rare to deserve notice in the Archa30- 
logical Journal. 

Hawisia de Wygornia (i. e. of Worcester) was the wife of 
Peter de Wygornia, and in all probability resided at Bristol 
in their stone house near All Saints church-yard or cemetery, 
at the date of this document, the feast of St. Edmund the 
king, 1254. She appears to have been desirous of confirm- 
ing a grant that had been made by her husband to Richard 
de Calna (Calne in Wiltshire) of a piece of land near that 
church-yard or cemetery, in which both she and her husband 
were interested : most likely it was her inheritance, and she 
and her husband held it in her right. To have effected such 
a confirmation in the then state of the law of this country, 
either her husband must have joined with her in a species of 
conveyance called a fine, which at that time had not very 
long been employed for such purposes, and was in fact a 
compromise, with the consent of the court, of a suit against 
the husband and wife, commonly fictitious, by acknowledging 
the land the subject of the suit to be the property of the 
plaintiff, who was in reality the person to whom it was 
intended to be conveyed; or, if a custom existed at Bristol 
similar to what there was in many cities and towns, a 
remnant perhaps of Anglo-Saxon law, her husband and her- 
self might have accomplished the same object by a deed 
acknowledged by them before the mayor or other proper 
officer for that purpose, whose duty it would have been to 


have ascertained, by enquiry of her apart from her husband, 
whether she was a free agent in the matter. However, in 
either case her husband must have concurred with her ; but 
from some cause, whether unwillingness, absence, incompe- 
tence, or what else does not appear, he was not a party to 
the transaction; and consequently she could not by legal 
means confirm the grant. Her own deed would have been 
a nullity, a married woman not being able so to bind either 
herself or her heirs. It required therefore the ingenuity of 
a lawyer and an ecclesiastic to devise a substitute for a legal 
instrument. The expedient resorted to, and which was carried 
into effect by the document above mentioned, was this ; a deed 
was prepared whereby she in terms confirmed her husband's 
grant exactly as she might have done if she had been a widow ; 
and then, instead of the usual warranty of the land against 
herself her heirs and assigns, which would have been of no 
avail as she was married, she, by a very elaborate clause, a 
curious example of formal composition in that age, subjected 
herself her heirs and assigns to excommunication by the Dean 
of Bristol for the time being, with lighted candles and the ring- 
ing of bells, in all the churches of Bristol, in case she or they 
disturbed Richard de Calna his heirs or assigns in the enjoy- 
ment of the land ; and for the observance of this she pledged 
herself by oath to Gilbert the then Dean of Bristol, and Stephen 
de Gnohussalo (Gnoushall) the then Vicar of All Saints. This 
deed was sealed in the presence of several witnesses by 
Hawisia herself, the Dean, and the Vicar. The following 
is a copy of it, the contracted words being given at length. 

" Omnibus Christ! fidelibus presens scriptum visuris vel audituris Hawisia, 
Uxor Petri de Wygornia, salutem in domino ; Noverit universitas vestra 
me concessisse, et hoc presenti scripto meo confirmasse, Ricardo de Calna 
omnem donacionem et concessionem quam dictus Petrus de Wygornia 
maritus meus eidem Ricardo fecit de quadam parte terre illius in villa 
Bristolli juxta Cimiterium Omnium Sanctorum, que quidem pars terre 
continet in longitudine quatuor decim pedes a terra nostra ex parte occi- 
dental! usque ad terrain ejusdem Ricardi de Calna ex parte orientali, et 
undecim pedes in latitudine inter domum nostram petrinam ex parte boreali 
et terrain nostram ex parte australi, Habendam et tenendam totam dictam 
partem terre cum pertinenciis sibi Ricardo de Calna et heredibus et assig- 
natis suis adeo libere et quiete prout carta, quam dictus Petrus de Wygornia 
maritus meus inde dicto Ricardo fecit, melius et liberius protestatur : Pro- 
misi etiam pro me et heredibus et assignatis meis per bonam stipulacionem, 
quod nullus nostrum dictum Ricardum heredes vel assignatos suos aliquo 


tempore futuro super tola dicta terra vel aliqua sui parte inquietabit vel 
molestabit coram aliquo judice ; Quos si inquietaverimus contra dictam 
mearn promissionem, concessi pro me heredibus et assignatis meis, ad 
simplicem denunciacionem dicti Ricardi heredum vel assignatorum suorum, 
sine juramento vel alia probacione eorundem, et sine aliqua vocacione mihi 
heredibus vel assignatis meis facienda, et sine aliquo strepitu judiciali, quod 
Decanus Bristolli, qui pro tempore fuerit, nos omnes et singulos nostrum 
publice et sollernpniter candelis accensis et pulsatis campanis in omnibus 
ecclesiis Bristolli excommunicari facial, et denunciari ut excommunicates 
ab omnibus arctius evitandis donee a dicta inquietacione cessaverimus, una 
cum omnibus dampnis et expensis dicto Ricardo heredibus vel assignatis 
suis, quas occasione ejusdem inquietacionis fecerint, a me heredibus vel assig- 
natos meis refundendis ; quas simplici verbo dicti Ricardi heredum vel assig- 
natorum suorum concessi declarari : Et subjeci me heredes et assignatos 
meos sponte et pure jurisdiction! et cohercioni dicti Decani ubicunque 
fuerimus ad dictam excommunicacionem in personas nostras fulminandam 
cum opus fuerit: Et ne contra predictas promissionem et stipulacionem 
venire presumamus, affidavi in manus dominorum Gilbert! tune Decani 
Bristolli et Stephani de Gnohussalo tune Vicarii Ecclesie omnium Sanc- 
torum Bristolli, qui una cum sigillo meo presenti scripto sigilla sua 
apposuerunt. Actum Anno gratie M. CC. L. quarto circa festum 
Sancti Eadmundi Regis. Hiis testibus Paulo de Corderia, Martino de 
Corderia*, Roberto Pikard, Adamo Snel, Waltero de Monte, Reginaldo 
Golde, Willielmo Halye, Johanne de Templo et aliis V 

L.S. L.S. L.S. 

The seal of Hawisia, which is the middle one, is a pointed 
ellipse, and upon it the device of a flaming star (or a star 
with wavy rays) above a crescent, and round it S' ft^WISSIG 

D 6. The letters between D and the final 6 are 

broken off. The last letter is certainly 6, though I suppose 
that D6 WYGORNIS was intended . On the seal of the 

Corderia, a ropery. The business of justiciaries, and in 1213 to Rome on busi- 

rope-making must have been of some im- ness with the pope, and was a witness to 

portance in a maritime town like Bristol. the charter granted by John in the seven- 

b I have not been able to find any of teenth year of his reigu to the city of 

these witnesses mentioned elsewhere ; but Dublin ; also a William de Wygornia, 

the names of Halye, Golde, and Snel occur called " Magister Willielmus de Wy- 

at different times in the thirteenth and gornia," who was one of the two persons 

fourteenth centuries among the proposi- named in the letters of Henry the Third in 

tors and bailiffs of Bristol. A William 1265, for annulling the grant of the trea- 

de Halyes, who was a propositor in 1 229, surership of York made to Almeric de 

may have been the witness William Halye. Montfort while the king was a prisoner in 

c I have not been able to discover any the hands of the earl of Leicester, Alme- 

thing certain of this lady or of Peter de ric's father. This William was, I think, 

Wygornia her husband in addition to what the nephew of Phillip ; but I have not been 

this document furnishes. Rymer men- able to trace any connexion between either 

tions a Phillip de Wygornia who was in of them, and Peter or Hawisia ; itisnever- 

the service of King John, and sent by him theless worthy of notice, that the device 

in 1208 to Ireland associated with two on the seal of Hawisia closely resembles a 


Dean, which is also a pointed ellipse, is a bird resembling 
a crow, and round it S' DGCSNI BRISTOLLI d ; and on the 
seal of the Vicar, which is round, is a human head, and about 
it S' DNI STGPftl D6 NOVSftSIA Noushall was probably 
Gnoushall, now Gnosall, in Staffordshire. The spelling of this 
name in the document as compared with the seal is a curious 
instance of unsettled orthography 6 . All the seals are of green 
wax, and those of the Dean and Vicar perfect. 

The excommunication, to which Hawisia agreed to submit, 
was of the more formidable kind ; for there were two kinds, 
the greater and the less. The latter merely excluded from 
the rites and sacraments of the Church ; but the former had 
not only that effect, but was pronounced with more affecting 
solemnities, and prohibited all dealings and intercourse with 
the excommunicated person ; which was no light matter in an 
age when such sentences were carried into execution with 
considerable rigour. 

The peculiarity in the form of the instrument may, I think, 
be to some extent accounted for. In the twelfth century a 
great contest commenced between the secular courts and the 
ecclesiastical authorities. Among other things in dispute was 
a practice, which had sprung up, of the ecclesiastical courts 
assuming to take cognizance of contracts, and to enforce the 
performance of them by excommunication, where the con- 
tracting parties had sworn to observe them, whatever may 
have been the case where there was not an oath. This the 

royal badge, which appears on the great grade probably than the others ; for ac- 

seals of Richard the First and Henry the cording to Tanner, Botoner's ancestors were 

Third, and is said to have been borne by engaged in trade. Richard de Calna may 

the servants of King John, and though not not have been of higher rank, for a Richard 

on his seal, is found on his Irish coins. It de Calne was one of the bailiffs of Bristol 

is not however an uncommon device. Many in 1335. 

have supposed it to be referrible to the cru- d The present deanery of Bristol was 

sades : but this is very questionable. Pro- created by Henry the Eighth. The Dean 

bably it had some symbolic or emblematic above mentioned was in all probability the 

meaning as it occurs so often, and it may Dean of the Christianity (court Christian) 

on that account have been assumed by this of Bristol. Barrett in his History of Bristol, 

lady. From the Rot. Hundred. I learn p. 451, gives a document partly in the 

there was a Henry de Wygornia in Wilts, original Latin and partly translated, relating 

temp. Hen. III., and a Rich, de Wygornia to the Kalendaries in All Saints parish and 

was sheriff for that county temp. Edw. dated about 1318, wherein " Robertus Ha- 

I. A John de Wygornia was rector of zell rector ecclesiae de Derham et decanus 

St. Michael's Bristol, in 1313. It is pos- Christianitatis Bristolliae," is mentioned; 

sible further research might identify and in the translated part he is called 

Phillip, William, Peter, Henry, Richard, Dean of Bristol. 

and John as members of the same family ; e According to Barrett, p. 458, Stephen 

but if William of Worcester, surnamed Gnowshale gave to the parish of All Saints 

Botoner, a scholar and antiquary of the a tenement in All Saints-lane about 1350. 

fifteenth century born at Bristol, was of Query, should it not have been 1250 ? 
the family of Peter, they were of humbler 


secular courts firmly, and at length successfully, resisted. The 
general reader will find as much probably as he will be curious 
to learn on this subject in the second volume of Mr. Hallam's 
View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages, pp. 310 
et seqq. The practice was based on the doctrine of the 
spiritual courts, that they act pro salute anima ; and the 
prevention of injustice and perjury, particularly the latter, 
was alleged as a justifiable ground for their interposition. 
This contest was continued, with more or less energy, till after 
the date of the above document, though the ecclesiastical 
tribunals had sometime before been driven from many of 
their positions. A great effort was made on their behalf by 
Archbishop Boniface, who issued his canons and constitutions 
in 1258, and afterwards there was an appeal to parliament, 
but without success; and the statute or ordinance intitled 
' Circumspecte agatis,' commonly referred to the thirteenth year 
of Edward the First, shews within what limits their authority 
was then reduced. However, contracts concerning lay-fees, 
i. e. in popular language, the lands of lay persons, were never 
suffered to be brought under their cognizance ; and therefore 
this case was clearly out of their general jurisdiction, and 
hence the endeavour to give the Dean a special jurisdiction 
and coercive power by means of an express stipulation for the 
purpose, and an oath taken for the observance of it; a con- 
trivance which after all, I have no doubt, would have been 
found unavailing if the lady had sought the protection of the com- 
mon law court; and an apprehension of this, I conceive, induced 
the framer of the instrument to provide so carefully that she 
should submit to excommunication on the bare allegation of 
Richard de Calna that he had been disturbed, without oath 
or other proof being required, and without any judicial fuss 
(sine aliquo strepitu judiciale).' w. s. w. 

f This is not a solitary instance of such should choose, that the observance of the 
a phrase in a document of that period. A agreement might be enforced by eccle- 
similar one occurs in an agreement between siastical censures " absque articuli seu 
the abbot and convent of St. Mary Oseney libelli petitione et quocunque strepitu judi- 
and the prior and convent of Burncester ciali." A stipulation of this kind was pro- 
(Bicester) respecting some tithes, which is bably not uncommon when parties engaged 
recited in an agreement between the same to submit to the decision of a person who 
parties dated 1300; see Paroch. Antiq. 344. had no other authority to adjudicate be- 
lt has some other points of resemblance to tween them in the matter; as appears to 
the document above mentioned ; for the have been the case in the agreement re- 
prior and his convent agreed to submit to ferred to, though the subject of it and the 
the " coercion and discretion" of the official parties were, for most purposes, within the 
or chancellor of the bishop of Lincoln, or jurisdiction of the bishop of Lincoln, 
any other judge the abbot and his convent 


FOR the following description of a remarkable tumulus near Badbury 
camp, Dorset, we are indebted to Mr. John H. Austen, of Ensbury, Local 
Secretary of the Institute in that county. 

"On Nov. 1, 1845, I accidentally ascertained that a barrow situated 
about five miles from Wimborne, Dorset, upon the road leading to Bland- 
ford, and in the immediate neighbourhood of Badbury camp, was in pro- 
gress of being levelled. The circumstance which chiefly attracted my notice 
was the vast quantities of large sandstones and flints which had been taken 
from it. Unfortunately nearly two-thirds of the tumulus were already 
removed. From the remainder, however, I have obtained a tolerably accu- 
rate idea of its interior arrangement, which, with perhaps the exception of 
the ' Deverill barrow,' opened by W. Miles, Esq., in 1825, is more highly 
interesting than any yet examined. The labourer employed could give me 
but little information respecting the part already destroyed, further than 
that he had thrown up many pieces of pottery, and found one urn in a per- 
fect state, but in removal he had broken it ; sufficient however remained 
to enable me to ascertain its form and dimensions. 
It measured 8 inches in height, 6| inches at the 
mouth, and at the bottom 3| inches. The colour 
of the outer side was more red than is usual, and 
within it had a black hard ash adhering to the side, 
It was inverted, and contained only a few white 
ashes. It was ornamented with lines of from nine 
to fourteen fine pricked dots, as if made with a 
portion of a small tooth comb. Such an instrument 
was discovered a few years since by some workmen, 
whilst lowering a hill midway betwixt Badbury camp and the village of Shap- 
wicke, having at one end a small circular hole, and at the other eight short 
teeth like those of a comb. It was four inches long and one inch wide, and 
was part of the rib of a deer a . The barrow was circular, measuring about 
eighty yards in circumference, the diameter sixty-two feet, and the height 
nine feet ; it had however been considerably reduced by the plough. Upon 

* Several combs of this description have 
been found in Great Britain, with remains 
of the primeval age. A representation of 
one may be seen in the Archaeologia Sco- 
tica. Two, found at the Castle-hill, Thet- 
ford, were communicated by Dr. Stukeley 
to the Society of Antiquaries. They ap- 
peared to be formed of the bone of a horse. 
Another, found within the remarkable 

entrenchments at Stanwick, Yorkshire, has 
been deposited by Lord Prudhoe at the 
British Museum. The conjecture that 
these implements had served for the im- 
pression of ornaments on the rude fictile 
vessels of the earliest period does not ap- 
pear to have been previously stated, and 
may deserve attention. 


clearing a section across the centre, the following formation presented it- 
self. The outside circle or foot of the barrow was of chalk, occupying a 
space of fifteen feet towards the centre. There was then a wall extending 
completely round, and enclosing an area of about thirty feet in diameter, 
composed of large masses of sandstone brought from some part of the heath, 
probably from Lytchett, a distance of not less than five miles, and across 
the river Stour. These stones were well packed together as in the founda- 
tions of a building, and the interstices tightly filled with flints. Within 
this wall, for the space of three or four feet, was a bed of flints, without any 
mixture of earth or chalk, packed together from the floor to the surface of 
the barrow, having only a few inches of earth above. The remainder of the 
interior was occupied by large sandstones, serving to protect the various in- 
terments. About the centre I found six deposits. The most northern of 
these was the skeleton of a young child, by the side of which, proceeding 
west, there was a cist containing a deposit of ashes and burnt bones ; and 
near it another, rather above the floor, containing burnt wood. Immediately 
beneath this was a cist containing an urn, placed 
with its mouth downwards, and filled with burnt 
bones, which were perfectly dry and white. It 
was without any ornament, and measured in 
height ten and a quarter inches ; the diameter 
at the mouth, which turned outwards, was eight 
and three quarter inches, and at the bottom four 
inches. The other cists contained burnt bones 
and ashes. Sandstones had been placed over 
them, but were removed without my having an 
opportunity of ascertaining their position. A -"4|f-V 
short distance south of these deposits there was 
a cist containing the bones and skull of a young child, over which had been 
placed a flat sandstone, and about a foot from it appeared a deposit of small 
bones, occupying a space of only two feet ; these were apparently the remains 
of a woman. Immediately above was a row of sandstones, resting, as was usual 
throughout the barrow, upon a thin layer of burnt wood. At this spot the 
barrow appeared to have been opened after its final formation, as if for the pur- 
pose of a subsequent interment, and filled up, not with the earth of which the 
remainder was formed, but with loose chalk, there being no stones or flints 
above those which lay immediately upon the deposit. At the extreme south 
of these cists was a large sandstone, three feet in diameter by sixteen inches 
in thickness, placed edgeways. The above-mentioned cists were circular. 
A few inches west of the cist described as containing an urn, was the lower 
half of another, measuring in diameter five and a half inches, inverted, and 
placed upon the floor of the barrow, without any protection, merely sur- 
rounded by a thin layer of ashes and then the solid earth. It was filled with 
ashes and burnt bones, and rested upon the parts of a broken skull. Near 
this was an urn, also unprotected, and consequently much injured by the 
spade. It was placed upright, and measured in diameter nine and a half 




inches, by about ten inches in height. In form 
it resembled the urn first described, marked 
with impressed dots, but it was without any 
ornament. A short distance from these was a 
deposit of burnt wood at the west side of a large 
flat stone, placed edgeways, which measured 
three feet four inches by two feet ten inches, 
and thirteen inches in thickness. From its 
appearance it would seem that the fire had 
been lighted by its side. Immediately beneath 
the edge of this cist, and resting upon the 
chalk, was a small urn inverted, and by its 

side some small human bones. It was wholly unprotected, and unfor- 
tunately destroyed. South-east of this was a cist sixteen by twelve 
inches in diameter, and eighteen inches in depth, containing ashes and a 
few burnt bones, with a large sized human tooth. Close to the edge 
of this cist, upon its western side, was placed in an upright position, a large 
stone measuring in diameter three by two and a half feet ; and leaning 
against it another of still larger dimensions, inclining towards the north. 
This measured six and a half by four feet, and fifteen inches in thickness. 
About three feet further east were two large stones set edgeways, and 
meeting at their tops. Beneath them was the skeleton of a small child with 
the legs drawn up, lying from west to east. At the north-west side of the 
barrow, about five feet within the wall, was a cist cut in the solid chalk, 
measuring sixteen inches in diameter by sixteen in depth ; it contained an 
urn inverted, and filled with burnt bones. Though carefully bandaged, it 
fell to pieces upon removal, being of more brittle material than any pre- 
viously discovered. The clay of which it is formed is mixed with a quan- 
tity of very small white particles, having the appearance of pounded quartz. 
It measured in height nine inches by nine and a half in diameter, and is 
ornamented by six rows of circular impressions made with the end of a 
round stick or bone of a quarter of an inch in diameter. The cist was filled 
up with ashes. A few inches from this was a cist differing in form, being 
wider at the top than beneath, in diameter eighteen inches by eighteen in 
depth ; a flat stone was placed over it. It contained the skeleton of a young 
child, laid across, with the legs bent downwards. Lying close to the ribs 
was a small elegantly-shaped urn, measuring four inches in height by four 
in diameter, and made of rather a dark clay. It is ornamented with a row 
of small circular impressions, similar to those mentioned in the last instance, 
close to the lip, which turns rather out: beneath is a 
row of perpendicular scratches, and then two rows of 
chevrons, also perpendicular. At the feet of the skele- 
ton was a peculiarly small cup, measuring in height 
one and a half inches by two and a quarter in diameter. 
It is ornamented with two rows of pricked holes near 
the top, beneath which is a row of impressions, made probably with an 


instrument of flat bone, three-eighths of an inch in width, slightly grooved 
across the end. The same pattern is at the bottom and upon the rim. 
Near this, towards the south-west, was a deposit of burnt wood, situated 
above the floor of the barrow, and immediately beneath it were two cists. 
In one of these, which measured two feet in diameter by one and a half in 
depth, were a few unburnt bones and several pieces 
of broken pottery, with a small cup, ornamented 
with three rows of the zigzag pattern, betwixt each 
of which, as well as upon the edge, is a row of 
pricked holes, and at the bottom a row of scratches. 
It measured in height two and a half inches by 
three in diameter, and had two small handles 
pierced horizontally : there appeared to have been 
originally four. In the other, which measured 
two feet in diameter by one in depth, were a few unburnt bones and a small 
urn placed with the mouth upwards, measuring four and three quarter 
inches in height by the same in diameter. The lip, which turned very 
much out, is ornamented with a row of scratches, both within and upon 
its edge, a similar row also passes round near its centre. Close upon 
the edge of this cist was another urn of similar dimensions, inverted, 
and embedded in the solid earth without any protection. It is of much 
ruder workmanship than any of the others, and wholly unornamented, 
measuring five inches in height by five in diameter. Both these urns in- 
clined equally towards the south-east. These last cists were partly, if not 
quite, surrounded by large sandstones set edgeways, and smaller ones built 
upon them, forming as it would seem a dome over the interments, filled 
with earth, and reaching to the surface of the barrow, where these stones 
have been occasionally ploughed out. From this circumstance, as well as 
the general appearance of the excavation, added to the description given by 
the labourer of the other part of the barrow, I am induced to suspect such 
to have been the case throughout b . I found many pieces of broken pottery, 
and a part of a highly-ornamented urn. There was a total absence of any 
kind of arms or ornaments. The labourer however shewed me a round 
piece of thin brass, which he had found amongst the flints within the wall, 
measuring an inch and five-eighths in diameter. It had two minute holes 
near the circumference. It was probably attached to some part of the dress 
as an ornament. Teeth of horses and sheep were of frequent occurrence ; I 
also found some large vertebrae and the tusk of a boar. Upon one of the 
large stones was a quantity of a white substance like cement, of so hard a 
nature that it was with difficulty I could break off a portion with an iron bar. 
" If I offered a conjecture upon its formation, I should say that the wall, 
and foot of the barrow, which is of chalk, were first made, and the area 
kept as a family burying-place. The interments, as above described, were 
placed at different intervals of time, covered with earth (not chalk) or flints, 

b I would here refer to the Archaeological a tumulus in Ireland, containing a dome- 
Journal, vol. iii. p. 155, where is described shaped structure. 



and protected by stones. And over the whole, at a later period, the barrow 
itself was probably formed. My reason for this opinion is, first, that all 
these deposits, including, as they do, the skeletons of three or four infants, 
could scarcely have been made at the same time. And in the second place 
there was not the slightest appearance (with one exception) of displacement 
of the stones or flints in any way. As these circumstances then would sug- 
gest that the interments were formed at various periods, so the general ap- 
pearance leaves no doubt as to the superstructure of flints, and surface or form 
of the barrow itself having been made at the same time and not piecemeal. 

" I have met with no instance of a British barrow containing any appear- 
ance of a wall having surrounded the interments. Pausanias, in speaking of 
a monument of Auge, the daughter of Aleus king of Arcadia, in Per- 
gamus, which is above the river Caicus, says, ' this tomb is a heap of earth 
surrounded with a wall of stone.' And in the Saxon poem, 'Beowulf,' 
mention is made of a similar wall as surrounding the tomb of a warrior." 

Some vestiges of Roman occupation, and apparently of a burial-place in 
Roman times, have been noticed by Mr. Austen about three quarters of a 
mile from Badbury camp, adjoining to the Roman road which passes through 
Badbury to Dorchester. He had recently found fragments of Roman'pottery, 
and a bronze fibula at that spot, and was induced to suppose that the rude 
comb of bone, above mentioned, which had been dug up near the same loca- 
lity, might be of Roman rather than British origin. 

We are enabled by the kindness of Mr. W. H. Gomonde, of Cheltenham, 
to give a representation of a very curious object, found on the skull of a 
skeleton, exhumed on Leckhampton hill, in the autumn of 1844, near to the 
site of a Roman camp c . Mr. Gomonde writes as follows. "I beg to send 
a rough, though accurate, sketch of the curious skull-cap ; the fact of its 
having been found near a Roman burying-ground makes it very interesting. 
The top is like the umbo of a shield 
similar to those found in Saxon tu- 
muli." This singular relic is now in 
the possession of Captain Henry Bell ; 
it is formed of bronze, the metal being 
pliable and thin, ill suited for the pur- 
pose of affording any protection against 
the stroke of a weapon. A portion 
of the chain remains, which passed 
under the chin, this when first found 
was perfect. Sir Samuel Meyrick con- 
siders this remarkable head-piece to be 
the British "Penffestyn." A discovery 
of similar character was made in 1844 
at Souldern, Oxfordshire, near the line 
of the Portway. The skeleton lay 
extended W. by S. and E. by N., the head being to the former. Sir Henry 

c A brief report of this discovery was given in the Ardhaeol. Journal, vol. i. p. 387. 


Dryden has recorded the following particulars regarding this interment. 
" On the right side of its head lay a pair of bone ornaments two inches 
long, in shape four-sided cones, having on each side nine small engraved 
circles. At the small end of each is inserted an iron rivet, which is probably 
the remains of a hook for suspension, perhaps from the ear, by another 
brass ring. About the head were many fragments of thin brass (one part 
tin to seven parts copper) which when collected and put together form 
parts of two bands, the first of which is seven inches long and three-fourths 
wide, and has encircled the lower part of a leathern skull-cap. The edges 
of the leather and of this brass band were held together by a thin concave 
brass binding, in the hollow of which fragments of leather are still to be 
seen. On each side of the helmet, attached to the brass band, was an 
ornamental hinge for a chin-strap. Of the other band about 1 ft. 5 inches 
are existing, the whole of which is equal width, and one eighth narrower 
than the first. It was probably the binding of the edge of the helmet, 
where there would be a seam, or intended to encircle the helmet close 
above the other binding. On both these bands are rivets, which shew that 
the leather riveted was three sixteenths thick. Nothing else, according to 
my informants, was found with the skeleton." We are indebted for this 
curious relation to the interesting addition to the topography of Oxford- 
shire, compiled by Mr. William Wing d , and regret that no representation 
of so singular a relic, which appears to have been precisely analogous to 
that communicated by Mr. Gomonde, should have been given. The urns 
found with and near to the skeleton at Souldern, as represented in Mr. 
Wing's history, from drawings by Sir Henry Dryden, are of a less rude 
character than the cinerary vessels of the earlier period. They resemble, 
in some striking particulars, the urns found in Nottinghamshire, and com- 
municated to the Institute by Edward Strutt, Esq., M.P. e 

Mr. Gomonde has subsequently reported another discovery of an inter- 
ment near the same spot. A human skeleton of ordinary stature was ex- 
posed to view, which having been deposited in clay was much decayed by 
the moisture of the soil. A remarkable appearance, however, presented 
itself in the clay surrounding the skull, which was full of iron studs, suffi- 
ciently indicating that the head had been protected by a cap of singular 
construction, having been covered all over with these iron studs. Mr. 
Gomonde with this account forwarded one of these for examination. 
Nothing else was found with the skeleton, but in the adjoining field were 
found remains of red pottery and three coins of Constantine, now in his 
possession, and all the fields around appeared to afford indications of early 
occupation, by popular tradition connected with them, their names, and 
general appearances. Various kinds of pottery, coins and other relics, are 
constantly dug up near this locality. 

d The Antiquities and History of Steeple jects, this well-arranged and unpretending 

Aston, compiled by Wm. Wing; Bedding- work, comprising much valuable informa- 

ton, 1845. We may take this occasion of tion. 

commending to the notice of those of our e Archaeological Journal, p. 159 of this 

readers, who may be interested in such sub- volume. 


A bronze spear-head, of very unusual form, discovered in the bed of the 
Severn, was communicated during the last year by Mr. Allies, Local 
Secretary of the Institute at Worcester f . His vigilance in watching the 
operations, which have recently brought to light many curious remains 
from that depository, have enabled him to forward for inspection another 
bronze weapon of different form. Mr. Allies states that " it was dredged 
up from the bed of the river Severn by some workmen employed in the 
improvement of the navigation of that river, about a quarter of a mile 
below Kempsey Ferry, and the same distance above Pixam Feriy. They 
also found at the same spot, in the bed of the western side of the river, the 
remains of oaken piles, under the gravel, and of planking which had been 
fastened to the piles. These extended about half way across the river. 
The place is near the site of the Roman camp at Kempsey, described in 
my Antiquities of Worcestershire." This spear-head is formed of mixed 
metal of very bright colour, and hard quality, the edges being remarkably 
sharp. It measures, in length, 10^ inches. The leaf-shaped blade ter- 
minates at the lower extremity in two loops, by means of which the spear- 
head apparently was securely attached to the shaft. This arrangement 
is not of uncommon occurrence, and it is well shewn by the curious example 
of a stone mould for casting such weapons, found in Ireland, in Galway, 
as also by an Irish weapon represented in this Journal g . In the present 
instance there is a flat lozenge-shaped appendage on each side, a variety in 
the fashion of these weapons apparently intended for the more secure pro- 
tection of the cord passing through the loops. In some examples a single 
loop on one side is found to have been accounted sufficient. 

We would take this occasion of calling the attention of our readers, who 
may take an interest in such discoveries, to the valuable information which 
may result from watchful precaution for securing the ancient remains 
almost invariably found in the removal of the bed of a river, or any similar 
operation. The profusion of curious objects discovered in dredging in the 
Thames is well known, and the extensive collection formed by Dr. Hume, 
consisting of objects of every period 
found in the alluvial soil at Hoylake, 
near the mouth of the Dee, and ex- 
hibited at the meeting of the Insti- 
tute at York, afforded a striking 
evidence of the importance of such 

The bead here represented, is in 
the possession of Mr.Orlando Jewitt, 
Headington, Oxford, and, it is be- 
lieved, was found in that neighbour- 
hood. It was exhibited with the fol- 
lowing notice : " The substance of 

1 A representation is given in Archaeo- * Archseologia, vol. xv. pi. xxxiv. Ar- 

logical Journal, vol. ii. p. 187. chaeological Journal, vol. ii. p. 187. 


the bead appears almost black, but, when held to the light, it is found to be 
a beautifully clear deep green glass ; the surface of it is richly varied with 
splashes of white enamel mixed with blue, radiating from the centre and 
slightly contorted, particularly on the under side. The enamel penetrates 
some distance into the substance of the glass, and appears to have been 
thrown on to the mass while in a soft state ; it was then probably slightly 
twisted and its globular form flattened down between two plain surfaces. 
It is not perforated, and there is only a very slight depression in the centre. 
Another bead of similar character was found near Adderbury, in the same 
county, and is engraved in Beesley's History of Banbury. It was dis- 
covered in the bed of a stream which flows near the British camp of Mad- 
marston. The dimensions of it are rather larger than the annexed ex- 
ample : it is formed of the same clear green glass, and likewise marked 
with enamel, but the surface not so much covered. It is also imperforate 
and depressed in the centre. The Adderbury bead was formerly in the 
collection of the present Dean of Westminster, by whom it was deposited 
in the Ashmolean Museum. 

In addition to the one just mentioned, the Ashmolean Museum contains 
a curious series of beads which belonged to the original collection of Elias 
Ashmole, or to those added by Dr. Plot. The localities where they were 
found are not mentioned. Among them is one very similar to the Ad- 
derbury bead, but perforated, and measuring 2? inches in diameter. The 
body of this is not of the same fine green as the two already described, but 
is more like the common modern bottle-glass ; the markings are of white and 
blue enamel, similar to those of the others. 

There are also two other imperforate beads or balls, one of which, 
measuring 2J inches in diameter, is of a smoke-coloured glass, looking 
almost black when not held to the light. This is ornamented with fourteen 
lines of white enamel, radiating in a spiral manner from the centre. The 
other is H inch in diameter, of a light brown glass, and ornamented with 
the radiating lines the same as the last, but in this some of the lines are red. 

Among the perforated beads are many curious varieties and great diver- 
sity in the colour of the glass, but there are none entirely colourless, though 
some approach nearly to it. Some of the enamelled specimens are curious, 
being formed of concentric layers of different colours : the facets are cut 
across these, and thus produce a variety of waved lines. Another has an 
imitation of stones of different colour being set in studs on its surface, and 
a third is ornamented with small raised and twisted cord-work. Indeed 
the whole collection, from the diversity in form, material, colour and design 
which it exhibits, is well deserving of a careful examination." o. J. 


We are indebted to Mr. J. O. Westwood for the annexed representations 
of some interesting sculptured remains preserved in the museum of the 
Literary and Philosophical Institution of Bath, and considered by him as 
of Anglo-Saxon workmanship. Two of the most remarkable existing monu- 



ments of this class, the crosses of Carew and Nevern, South Wales, have 

been already made known to the readers of the " Archaeological Journal," 

by means of Mr. Westwood's faithful representations 11 . He has communi- 

cated the following description of the sculptured fragments at Bath. " The 

first figure represents a carved stone about a foot across, preserved amongst the 

Roman sculptures, which form so 

important a feature in the museum 

of that Institution. This stone was 

figured by Carter in his work on the 

' Ancient Architectural remains 

of England,' (PI. 8. fig. A), and 

described as the ' spandrel of two 

arches filled with an entwined 

band or true lover's knot,' and 

as the ' fragment of a Roman temple at Bath.' It is surprising, how- 

ever, how Carter could have adopted such an opinion, which is opposed, 

not only by the small size of the stone, but by the style of ornament, 

which is quite foreign to Roman work ; in fact, any one at all conversant 

with the early Anglo-Saxon manuscripts, will at once refer it to an 

Anglo-Saxon origin, and will designate it, without much fear of contradic- 

tion, as one of the arms of a cross. This latter opinion is fully confirmed 

by the examination of another stone (hitherto unfigured), which I also 

found amongst the Roman sculptures of the 

same museum, and which both in its form 

and ornamentation evidently appears to be the 

broken head of a small cross of the Anglo- 

Saxon period. The carved work is in relief, 

and it will be seen that the knots towards the 

centre of the stone are not symmetrical. The 

third figure represents a small stone vase re- 

cently dug up in the neighbourhood of the 

cathedral ; it is circular, about a foot in diameter at the top, and about 

eight inches high. The rim is 

dilated and the sides ornamented 

with thick plain ribs terminating 

in slight bosses on the rim and 

base : there is no hole through its -,. 

bottom. It appears to be of too * 

small a size for a font, but it may 

be compared with the figure of 

the font discovered in the sea at 

the mouth of the Orwell, com- 

municated to the Institute by Capt. 

Stanley 1 ." This vase is obviously of a later age than the crosses. 

Mr. William Hylton LongstafF, of Darlington, has forwarded a copy from 

h Archaeological Journal, vol. iii. p. 71. ' Ibid, vol. ii. p. 272. 


a sketch in his possession, of a sculptured stone of the same early period in 
Caermarthenshire, taken by his ancestor, John Dyer, the poet. It appears to 
have been the shaft of a cross, and, as stated in an accompanying note in the 
handwriting of the poet, was standing "on the estate of R. D. k , esq., called 
Abersannar, and is in a field called Kar Maen, that is, the Great Stone 
Field. On the top is carved a shallow bed, an inch and a half deep, in the 
centre of which is a hollow about three inches deep, both of an oblong 
square. Some think it an heathen altar of the earliest times, and that the 
middle hollow was to bind the victim at the sacrifice, but it seems too high 
for an altar, it being even now about seven feet above ground. It is of an 
exceeding hard flinty stone." The oblong hollow in question is evidently a 
mortice, by means of which the head of the cross was fixed in its place. 
The ornaments sculptured upon this shaft closely resemble those of the Pe- 
nally crosses, noticed on a former occasion 1 . In the centre there is an 
oblong panel, in which appear six letters. A representation of this in- 
scription has been given in the additions to Camden's Britannia, but no ex- 
planation of its import has been supplied, and we have not been able to 
ascertain whether this monument is still in existence. 

The sculptured remains of this description deserve careful examination, 
especially when they present any vestiges of inscriptions. We are indebted 
to Mr. Chalmers, of Auldbar, for a sketch of a fragment existing in the 
churchyard of St. Vigeans, Forfarshire, sculptured with interlaced scroll- 
work, and a defaced inscription, hitherto unexplained. 


In the last Number of the Archaeological Journal, a representation was 
given of a curious inscribed ring, found in the church-yard at Bredicot, 
Worcestershire, and now in the possession of Mr. Jabez Allies. The state- 
ment then submitted to our readers that this object had been regarded as 
talismanic, has subsequently been called in question. The subject of the 
value attached to physical charms, during the middle ages, is well deserving 
of attention, and. it has hitherto been imperfectly taken into consideration. 
It may not be without interest to our readers, if some observations be 
offered in proof of the talismanic character of the ring above mentioned, and 
other objects of a similar description. The custom of wearing some phrase 
or cabalistic combination of letters, either inscribed on parchment and 
paper, or more indelibly affixed to rings and other personal ornaments, is 
of considerable antiquity. Its origin may very probably be traced to the 
Gnostics, and to the legends on the strange devices known by the name of 
Abraxas, in which heathen and Christian allusions are strangely confounded 
together". It may now be impracticable to explain the import of the legends 

* Richard Dyer, as stated by Gough. Journal, vol. i. p. 384. 

Probably one of the poet's relations. His m Gough's Camden, vol. iii. p. 141. 

father was Robert Dyer, of Aberglassney. A great variety of these are given by 

1 See representations of two fragments Montfaucon, Ant. Exp.,tom. ii., and Snp- 

existing at Penally, near Tenby, Archaeol. plem., torn. ii. 

VOL. III. 3 A 


which occur upon certain medieval rings and devices, which probably are 
in many cases anagrammatic, and the original orthography of the legend 
corrupted and changed, in others. Other examples may be cited in 
which legends similar to that of the Bredicot ring occur, but more or less 
modified and varied. There can be little question that the same talismanic 
'type is to be traced in the legend on a gold ring found in Rockingham 
forest in 1841, thus inscribed on the outer side, + GUTTV : GUTTA : MADROS : 
HYDROS, and on the inner side, VDROS : UDROS :: THEBAL. We are enabled 
by the kindness of the Rev. H. H. Knight, of Neath, Glamorganshire, to 
record the existence of another singular ring, bearing some of the same 
magical words. This ring is of gold, much bent and defaced : it was found 
some years since on the Glamorganshire coast, near to the Worms Head, 
the western extremity of the county, where numerous objects have at 
various times been found on the shifting of the sand, such as fire-arms, an 
astrolabe, and silver dollars. It has been supposed that these remains 
indicate the spot where a Spanish or Portuguese vessel was wrecked about 
200 years since. Of this curious relic, communicated through the Rev. 

TL A i'DE z:e vlTETI 




R. Gordon, a correct representation is here, by Mr. Knight's obliging per- 
mission, submitted to our readers. The talismanic character of these 
mysterious words seems to be sufficiently proved by comparison with the 
physical charms given in an English medical MS. preserved at Stockholm, 
and published by the Society of Antiquaries. Amongst various cabalistic 
prescriptions is found one, " for peynys in theth .... Boro berto briore + 
vulnera quinque dei sint medicina mei + Tahebal + ghether (or guthman) 
+++ Onthman," &c. The last word should probably be read Guthman, 
and it is succeeded by five crosses, possibly in allusion to the five wounds 
of the Saviour. 

In ancient medicinal compilations numerous directions occur for the com- 
position of amulets. The MSS. in the Sloane collection supply much in- 
formation connected with the use of such written charms. The Stockholm 
MS., apparently of the latter part of the fourteenth century, informs us that 

Archseologia, xxx. 390. 


the mystic word ANAMZAPTUS is a charm against epilepsy, if pronounced 
in a man's ear when he is fallen in the evil, and for a woman the prescribed 
formula is ANAMZAPTA. By this is ascertained the import of the following 
legend on an ancient ring ihc T ananizapta + xpi + T. On another ring, 
found in Coventry Park, was read the same word, ANANYZAPTA, with various 
curious devices P. 

Before quitting this curious subject of the use of physical charms inscribed 
upon personal ornaments, it may not be irrelevant to recur to the elegant 
little brooch of gold, in the form of an X, set with five gems, found near 
Devizes, and exhibited by Mr. Herbert Williams at the meeting of the 
Institute at Winchester 1. It bore on one side the letters A G L A, which 
occur as part of a physical charm against fevers in the Stockholm MS., 
with the sign of the cross between each letter, and succeeded by the names 
Jaspar, Melchysar, Baptizar 1 ". The same mysterious word is likewise 
found on a thin gold ring, discovered in a garden at Newark, about the 
year 1741, and thus inscribed AGLA . THALCVT . CALCVT . CATTAMA . 

The use of rings accounted to possess some talismanic virtue might be 
further shewn in regard to " the king's cramp rings," highly esteemed on 
the continent as well as in England, as we learn from a letter addressed to 
Ridley by Bishop Gardner, who designated them as endued by " the special 
gift of curation ministered to the kings of this realm." A more homely 
remedy for the same disorder is pointed out in " Withal's Little Dic- 

" The bone of a haires foote closed in a ring 
Will drive away the cramp, when as it doth wring." 

A curious passage occurs in a letter addressed by Lord Chancellor 
Hatton to Sir Thomas Smith, preserved in one of the Harl. MSS., relating 
to an epidemic at that time prevalent. " I am likewise bold to commend 
my most humble duty to our deer mistress (Queen Elizabeth) by this letter 
and ring, which hath the virtue to expell infectious airs, and is (as it telleth 
me) to be worn betwixt the sweet duggs, the chaste nest of pure constancy. 
I trust, Sir, when the virtue is known, it shall not be refused for the value." 

Two sepulchral effigies of diminutive dimensions exist in Pembrokeshire, 
which have not been included in the list given by Mr. Walford, in his notice 
of the little effigy at Horsted Keynes'. Sketches of these figures have 
been communicated by Mr. Thomas Allen, of Freestone Hall, Tenby. 
One of them, much defaced, appears to have been intended to represent 
a female, with a coverchief thrown over her head. The slab is narrower 
at the lower end than at the head, where it terminates in a pointed arch, 
crocketed, and forming a sort of canopy over the figure. This was found 

* Archaeologia, xviii. 306. Allusion is r Archseologia, xxx. 400. 

often made in the early romances to the Camden's Brit., ed. Gough, ii. 404. 

credited virtues of precious stones, and ta- See a notice of a curious talismanic ring 

lismanic rings, as in Sir Eglamour, v. 715 ; against leprosy, Archaeol., xxi. 25, 120. 
Sir Perceval De Galles, v. 1860, &c. * Archaeol. Journal. See p. 234 of this 

i Proceedings of the Archseol. Instit. volume. 
Winchester, p. xxiv. 



by Mr. Allen in Carew church. The second is in the church of Boulston, 
and represents a male figure, rudely sculptured, clad in a long gown, the 
feet resting on a dog. Date, fourteenth century ? Over the head is a cinq- 
foiled canopy. Dimensions of the slab, length, 2 ft. 3 in. ; width, at head, 
1 ft., at feet 10 in. 

Mr. R. P. Pullan has communicated, through Mr. Walford, an impression of 
a small sepulchral brass, of the fifteenth century, existing in the chancel of 
the church at West Tanfield, Yorkshire. It represents an ecclesiastic, for- 
merly rector of the parish, clad in the canonical habit. The figure measures 
19 inches in length. He is represented as vested in a cope, with its usual 
decorative bordures of embroidery, or orfrays : over his cassock is worn a 
surplice with very long sleeves, the furred tippet appears with its long 
pendants in front, and a portion of its hood surrounding the throat, like a 
falling collar. The tonsure is concealed by a small skull-cap. Beneath the 
figure is a plate inscribed with the following singular lines : 

Bum trixit Sector, toe dTanftlfl 
Sutton. TEn jatet Inc graBuatus tt EUc tnagtet' 
'artib?. ac ectam (Eanonkus fuc q? SSHcatcfjtatcr" 
Sic "Norton' biator ffunUtu faota p'tor. 

Gough has given this inscription, in his additions to Camden, but 
strangely blundered in the transcript x . 

The annexed representation of the seal of the chantry founded in Wim- 
bourne Minster by Thomas de Brembre, who 
succeeded as dean of that collegiate church 
Aug. 5, 1350, is taken from an impression of 
the original matrix which is in possession of 
the Institute, having been presented, with 
other curious relics, by the Rev. Robert 
Wickham of Twyford, Hants. This beauti- 
ful seal has been already engraved in Hutch- 
ins's History of Dorsetshire y, but so unsatis- 
factorily that another representation of it ap- 
peared desirable. Thomas de Brembre suc- 
ceeded to the prebend of Milton Manor, in 
the cathedral church of Lincoln, in 1 344, and 
in 1345 was made prebendary of Sutton cum 
Bucks, the best endowed stall in the cathe- 
dral 2 . He is said to have died in 1361, and 
was buried at Wimbourne, but this date is probably incorrect. His foun- 
dation at Wimbourne was endowed for a warden and four chaplains 8 : in 
1534 it was returned as of the annual value of 22. 8s. 4?., which sum was 
then divided between three chaplains only. The armorial bearings on the 

" So Chester was sometimes called. See 
Ormerod, vol. i. p. ] 07. 
1 Camd. Brit., iii. 335. 
y Ed. 1796. vol. ii. p. 537. 

z Browne Willis : Survey of Lincoln, 
pp. 222. 246. 

Pat. 39 Edward III., part ii. m. 10 
and 19. 



shield at the base of the seal are those usually ascribed to Brembre ; argent, 
two annulets, and a canton azure. Brembre, lord 
mayor of London in 1377, 1383-4-5, bore the same, 
with a mullet on the canton for difference. Nume- 
rous particulars concerning Brembre's " great 
chauntrye," as it was anciently called, are given in 
the History of Dorsetshire 11 . 

The curious seal of the sub-dean of Chichester 
here engraved, by permission of the Rev. Thomas 
Mozley, rector of Cholderton, Wiltshire, has been 
fully described in a former number of the Journal c . 
It is a brass matrix, and was discovered six years 
since, in a field between the two parishes of Chol- 
derton and Newton Toney, on the borders of Hamp- 

As a further illustration of the remarks on ancient drinking cups termed 
" Mazers," which appeared in 
the Archaeological Journal, vol. 
ii. p. 263, we are enabled, by 
the kindness of Sir William 
Heathcote, Bart., to present 
the accompanying cut of a 
Mazer, which is evidently of an 
earlier age than the example 
in the possession of Mr. Shir- 
ley, which we have already 
figured ; its date is probably 
early in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. It was found in the 
deep well in the ruined castle 
of Merdon, near Hursley, built 
by Bishop Henry de Blois, A.D. 1138. The material is apparently ashen 
wood, which was supposed to be gifted with certain medicinal or extraordi- 
nary qualities. 



WE again give a sketch of some of the Transactions of this Society, 
not only as a compliment justly due, but also on account of the interesting 
matter communicated to it ; referring for a more detailed statement to the 
" Programme of Questions" in the Gentleman's Magazine for May last, 
and to the forthcoming " Proces Verbal " annually published by the Society 

b Pp. 534537. c Vol. ii. p. 210. 


The proceedings commenced with an enquiry as to the monuments in 
Lorraine of Celtic origin, which elicited information of some Maenhirs, 
and of a Dolmen called the " Gottstein," near Sarrbruck ; and likewise of 
an extensive fort or camp called the "Ring" although supposed to be 
Hunnish and situate on the Dolberg, one of the Hunsruck chain of hills 
near Berncastel, and remarkable for having its vallum faced with masonry. 

The victory of JOVIN over the Germans, and his previous stratagetical 
movements, were ingeniously shewn to have occurred near Scarpone, a 
village on the Moselle, about half-way between Metz and Nancy. 

The notices of Roman remains lately discovered were so numerous that 
M. de Caumont, the Director, requested the Local Committee to cause 
them to be mapped for publication by the Society ; and urged especial atten- 
tion to the lines of aqueducts. He also suggested that a plan of ROMAN 
METZ might be drawn up from the Roman buildings still, or lately there, 
in situ ; to which M. Reichensperger proposed the addition of a statement 
as to whether they are of indigenous or foreign material he having found 
the Roman monuments at Treves to be of forty different kinds of marble, 
and of which some are even African. The Director also asked for a list of 
Roman sculptured and inscribed stones in Lorraine, together with a map of 
its dioceses and towns during the Merovingian and Carlovingian dynasties, 
which caused a remark by M. Robert, of Metz, upon the aid derivable from 
numismatic research in the determination of doubtful localities. 

In discussing the form and construction of houses of Roman slaves and 
the inferior class of Roman freedmen, it was argued, from the paucity of 
stones and bricks, and the multiplicity of nails found on their supposed sites, 
that such houses were low, and chiefly of wood, or of lath and plaster. 

With reference to the eleventh question of the Programme, an illustrated 
notice, presented, through Dr. Bromet, by Mr. Charles Tucker, on certain 
objects of Greco-Egyptian character lately found at Colchester, was in 
compliment to them as members of the British Archaeological Institute 
read by the President himself. 

The Director then enquired as to the monuments of Romanesque style in 
Lorraine ; and this produced a memoir and some viva voce information, 
whence it appeared that they are all nearly similar to those in the south of 
France, except a church at Rosheim, the architectural details of which 
were probably copied from a church at Ancona, in Italy. 

The Pointed style in Lorraine, it was stated, has comparatively but little 
ornament or statuary the cathedral of Metz, although of the 14th century, 
being referred to as an example of this simplicity, as well as several man- 
sions there of the 15th and 16th centuries. It was also stated that many 
churches have not their altar ends towards the east. 

The Director then asked for a list of Lorraine churches of known dates. 

Upon the question relative to the employment of geometrical proportion 
in mediaeval buildings, the Society was informed that in an Essay pub- 
lished by the Archaeological Institute on the buildings of William of 
Wykeham, this subject had been treated on by Professor Cockerell of 
the Royal Academy of London. 


The questions on ancient Military Architecture elicited much interesting 
matter from the military members present : and M. de Caumont demon- 
strated by drawings the great irregularity, in plan, of castles built on rocky 
eminences like those near the Moselle and the Rhine and of castles in 
lower situations like many in the west and north of France, and in Eng- 
land. He also contrasted the massive square keep of Newcastle in North- 
umberland, and of some castles on the Loire which are at once citadels 
and stately baronial residences with the narrow watch-tower keeps of 
such castles as derive their chief security from the escarpment of their sites. 
The learned Director was moreover of opinion that most of the castles on a 
line from Bordeaux through Poitou and Normandy to Amiens, and even 
into England, were planned after Moorish types in Spain ; and appealed for 
corroboration of his opinion to the writer of this account, who thereupon 
took occasion to say a few words also about Vitrified forts, Scotch Peels, 
and Irish round-towers. 

A paper upon Vaulting by M. de Lassaulx, of Coblenz, was then read ; 
its ingenious author elucidating the intricacies of his subject by references 
to the treatises of Mr. Samuel Ware in the Archseologia, and of Professors 
Whewell and Willis ; and also to a series of plaster models, which he after- 
wards presented to the Society. 

In explanation of the questions on the architectonic decoration and furni- 
ture of churches, several drawings were exhibited by the Director, among 
which was a stone cross attached to the church-wall at Montmille, in 
Picardy, like that at Romsey in Hampshire. But no examples of such 
were known in Lorraine, and only two or three of Christ sitting in the 
benedictional attitude so common over doorways in other parts of France. 
Ancient altars, and fonts, and bells of ovoid shape, were also said to be rare ; 
and the clergy present were therefore requested to use their influence in 
preserving them. 

Queries by Mr. J. O. Westwood were then presented through Dr. Bromet, 
relative to church-yard crosses adorned with knotted work and figures of 
serpent-shape ; which queries, it is probable, will be considered at the next 
annual meeting, of the Society at Nevers. 

A memoir was read on the Book of the Evangelists, and on a chalice and 
paten which belonged to Arnald, bishop of Toul, tn the 9th century : and 
drawings were shewn, with a recommendation of their form for new sacra- 
mental plate in churches of Romanesque style. 

Drawings were also shewn of two processional crosses of the 12th and 
14th centuries in Metz cathedral, which, with other costly works of medi- 
seval art a cope (called Charlemagne's) of red silk embroidered with golden 
eagles the ancient mass-books with their musical notation and the stained 
glass there were afterwards examined, a well as a large modern window 
destined for Lyons cathedral : of the last-named work the Society did not 
express much approbation. 

Among the minor churches visited was a Templars' church now within 
the precincts of the citadel, and till lately used as a magazine. Of this the 
writer took a plan and elevation, it being remarkable when compared with 


English Templars' churches for being wholly of Romanesque architecture, 
and for the octagonal exterior of its nave, the shortness of its choir, and for 
a low apsidal east end. On its interior walls paintings are still visible, as 
also on some girders in a building near it, which was probably the Knights' 
refectory the paintings there being representations of warriors on horse- 
back in armour of the 13th century. 

The ancient city-gateways, and the machinery for working their draw- 
bridges and herses or portcullises, were shewn by the Commandant of the 
garrison, who also, in a tour of the fortifications, pointed out what he con- 
ceived to have been the direction of the Roman walls, and of those erected 
in the 10th century, as depicted in a plan previously exhibited by him. 

The Society likewise visited the Museum of Roman and Mediaeval Anti- 
quities found in Lorraine, with the Public Library, containing several inte- 
resting MSS. and a classified collection of coins in glass cases the unusual 
facility of access to which drew forth much approbation. 

In addition to its promenades in the city, the Society, under the intelligent 
guidance of the Vicomte de Cussy, made one day an excursion to the site 
of JOVIN'S victory before mentioned, as also to the Roman aqueduct at 
Jouy, and a castle at Preny, remarkable for a triangular keep of unequal 
sides, with a tower which formerly contained a warning-bell called " Mande 
Guerre," and for having its outer walls embellished with a large Lorraine 
cross in relief, and some rustic-work the protuberances of which represent 
half-imbedded cannon-balls. 

At the last sitting at Metz which was held in the Prefecture commu- 
nications were made on Church-Music by the Baron de Roisin : on the 
Templars of Lorraine and their above-described church, with reference to 
an octagonal Templars' church at Rome : on the art of Lock-making, illus- 
trated by several hundred drawings, some of which demonstrated that the 
principle of Bramah's lock was not unknown in ancient Egypt : and a few 
extracts, by the writer of this sketch, from the Harleian MSS. relative to 
Metz during the early middle-ages. 

Some elementary books for the propagation of Archaeology in the public 
schools and mechanics' institutes of Lorraine together with a notification 
that the Council of the Society had appropriated 3500 francs towards the 
restoration of divers edifices in that province were then presented by M. 
de Caumont to the Prefet, who, expressing his thanks and promising all 
his influence towards the furtherance of the Society's laudable objects, 
thereupon closed the session with an invitation to inspect a collection of pic- 
tures and enamels which at once evinced his good taste and liberality. 

Early on the following day the Society embarked for Troves, where they 
met with so magnificent a reception that I shall not describe it, fearing to 
be deemed guilty of exaggeration. Nor shall I speak of the so well-known 
monuments at Treves, except as to the novel light thrown on some of them 
by late investigations ; or mention its minor antiquities, except to point out 
a few in places not always accessible to individual strangers. 

The large brick building hitherto called "the Palace of Constantine," 
has been proved to be a basilica or hall of justice ; and, although now 


occupied by soldiers, should be visited interiorly, if only for seeing a 
majestic arch of sixty feet span opening into its apsidal, Tribunal end. The 
edifice long called " the Roman Baths," there is reason to suppose, was part 
of the Imperial palace, and never really Thermae or public baths no exca- 
vations having yet demonstrated any water-courses, or (except under a 
small corner chamber) any hypocausts or other constructions like those 
usually found in Roman buildings formed undoubtedly for bathing pur- 
poses. But this opinion was vigorously combated on the spot itself, as 
well as an opinion that the Thermae were near the river. 

Some of the original basilical walls of the Cathedral have been recently 
laid bare, under the direction of the learned architect Christian Schmidt, 
who kindly demonstrated, with reference to his engraved plans of this 
edifice, the difference between its portions of the 4th century and those 
of the 1 1th and 12th. M. Schmidt also pointed out when in the church of 
Notre-Dame its remarkable ground-plan, and, considering its date ( 1227 
1243) and its vicinity to the Rhenish provinces, the advanced style of its 
beautiful architecture. 

The collection of Roman inscribed stones at the Porta Nigra has been 
much increased, and several newly-found sculptured marbles and coins have 
been added to the collection belonging to the " Treves Society for useful 
research" now at the Gymnasium. 

Of the places not always accessible may be mentioned the Sacristy of 
Notre-Dame, and among its treasures the portable altar of St. Willebrod, 
which is a small oaken chest covered with a copper case adorned with 
figures in silver and ivory of Byzantine work, and inscribed with a record 
of its dedication, and a list of the reliques originally deposited in it. 
Also the Palace of the Bishop, who politely exhibited to the Society some 
very beautiful MSS. there, and a censer of the 12th century lately found by 
him in a country church : and lastly, a chamber at one end of the Public 
Library, containing an assemblage of minor objects of antiquity illustrative 
of the arts and domestic manners of mediaeval times. 

At the farewell meeting, (which was public,) after a brief account by M. 
de Caumont of the rise and progress of the Society, the Secretary gave an 
oral report of the observations and opinions of its members on the several 
monuments which they had visited ; and then complimenting, in the name 
of the Society, the municipal government of Treves for what it had already 
done in their preservation and development but with a suggestion that the 
course of the aqueduct should be further explored placed on the table a 
donation of 300 francs towards that purpose and the restoration of a bronze 
inscription of the 12th century on one of the city gates. M. de Caumont 
afterwards presented the Society's silver medals to four gentlemen of 
Treves, recommended by the Council as the most active and intelligent 
archaeologists there, and thanking the inhabitants in general for their 
cordial reception, with an expression of his conviction that this visit of the 
Society would produce every good effect that could be hoped for, took 
leave of the assembly by announcing that its fourteenth annual meeting 
would take place next June at NEVERS. w. BROMET. 

VOL. in. 3 B 

Notices of Nefo publications. 


MARTYR. By William Sidney Gibson, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. F.S.A., 
etc. Vol. I. Pickering. 1846. 4to. 

DURING the last three years several important and costly works have 
appeared on the history of ancient monastic foundations in England, toge- 
ther with minor essays on the same subject. The volume before us is the 
most attractive of these contributions to English ecclesiastical history. It 
is profusely decorated with coloured initial letters by the accurate pencil 
of Mr. Shaw, chiefly copied from catholic examples of different periods. 
Besides the objections, in point of taste, which may be justly urged against 
this style of embellishment, which has so widely prevailed of late, we may 
observe that not the least of the evils resulting from its adoption is that its 
expense unavoidably places works like the present, and others which might 
be named, beyond the reach of ordinary book-buyers, at once restricting the 
general usefulness of the publication, and limiting the reputation of the author, 
who in all such cases seems, unavoidably, to rely for success as much upon 
the ability of the artist he may employ, as upon his own literary merits. 
In the present instance, moreover, we would gladly have seen a larger expen- 
diture on the delineations of the ruins of the priory, which belong to a most 
interesting period of architecture, and are but poorly exhibited, both as to 
general effect and to details, in the etchings by Mr. Richardson. 

Having thus discharged our conscience by protesting against a fashion 
which is equally erroneous in principle and injurious in effect, we gladly 
turn from the decorations to the text of Mr. Gibson's work, on which he has 
bestowed much zealous labour united with varied and extensive research. 

The ruins of Tynemouth priory, a succursal cell to the great abbey of 
St. Alban, are conspicuous on the lofty promontory north of the mouth of 
the river Tyne, a site from which the local name is obviously derived. This 
admirable and commanding position could scarcely have been left unoccu- 
pied by the Romans. Yet there is no evidence to justify a positive con- 
clusion on the subject. Camden supposed Tynemouth to be the TUNNO- 
CELUM of the " Notitia," an opinion rejected by Horsley, who claimed that 
distinction for Solway Frith. In short, the Roman historians mention no 
station which can be satisfactorily identified with the spot. Two memorials 
of Roman dominion have been discovered among the ruins a votive altar 
and an inscribed tablet. The inscription upon the former shews that it was 


dedicated to Jupiter by ^Elius Rufus, " prsefectus cohortis quartse Lin- 

Votive Altar found at Tynemouth 

gonum;" but, although it was found among the remains of the supposed 
buildings of the earlier monastery, to the north of the existing ruins, there 
is no proof whatever that it was in situ, or that it may not have been trans- 
ferred thither in remote times from the adjoining station of SEGEDUNUM, 
Wall's End, which is known to have been garrisoned by the cohort named 
in the dedication". The inscription on the tablet is imperfect and doubtful 

Inscribed Tablet found at Tyuemoutn. 

Reference has already been made to 
the frequent removal, in Northumberland, 
of Roman remains from their original 

position, for building purposes. See Ar- 
chaeological Journal, vol. ii. p. 240. 


at the beginning, and, as usually happens in such instances, it has received 
very contrary interpretations. Brand supposed it to commemorate the 
construction of a harbour and temple by Caius Julius Verus Maximinus of 
the sixth legion b , while the Rev. John Hodgson, the late accomplished his- 
torian of Northumberland, believed it to refer to the erection of a cippus 
on a base, and a temple. Either reading is unsatisfactory, and it is not easy 
to offer a solution of the difficulty. Thus much is certain, there is nothing, 
the harbour theory being rejected, to identify this inscription with the place 
of its discovery. However, there is much probability in the conjecture 
that, during the Roman occupation of Britain, Tynemouth may have been a 
military post, subordinate in importance to SEGEDTJNUM, the most easterly 
of the known garrisons on the wall of Severus. 

Nothing certain is known of the history of Tynemouth until the close of 
the eighth century. It may be possible, as Mr. Gibson seems 'to believe, 
that soon after the conversion of the northern parts to Christianity, it 
obtained a reputation for local sanctity ; but in the entire absence of 
evidence, it is useless to discuss the question. Yet one or two points raised 
by the author require observation. It is improbable, as he is disposed to 
think, that Tynemouth was the monastery of the holy Abbess Virca, 
mentioned in Beda's life of St. Cuthbert, as the words of that writer pre- 
sent this objection, that the house referred to, if situated near the mouth of 
Tyne c , must have stood on the southern bank of the river. The legend of 
St. Oswin, patron of the foundation, was not written until five centuries 
after his death, and like many legends it is obnoxious to criticism in respect 
both of events and dates : but even admitting the fact therein stated, that 
Oswin was buried in the oratory of the Virgin Mary, at the mouth of the 
river Tyne, A.D. 651, we are not told whether on the north or south side d ; 
it must be also admitted that the earliest genuine mention of the place, 
anterior to this legend of the twelfth century, is a notice, in the Saxon 
Chronicle, that Osred, king of Northumbria, was interred at Tynemouth 
A.D. 792. From this, indeed, it may be fairly inferred that at the close of 
the eighth century a church, and possibly a convent, existed there, but 
beyond the slight record of Osred's burial, there is not an iota of evidence, 

b See his explanation of the Tynemouth of the Society, we were informed that they 

inscriptions, and representations of the had been long since consigned to the vault 

three sculptured sides of the altar, Ar- serving as a storehouse, under the great 

chaeologia, vol. viii. p. 326, and Gough's court at Somerset-house. 

Camden, vol. iii. p. 514. These interest- c "Est denique monasterium non longe 

ing memorials, discovered in 1783 by ab ostio Tini fluminis ad meridiem situm," 

Major Durnford, were presented to the &c. 

Society of Antiquaries of London, with a d Oswin is said to have been born at a 

fragment of an early stone cross, found town called Urfa, south of the Tyne, and 

amongst the ruins with the altars. Mr. opposite to the site of the monastery, now 

Gibson does not appear to have been aware known as South Shields. Is it not at 

of the existence of this relic ; and on recent least probable he may have been interred 

enquiry regarding the preservation of these at his birth-place ? 
remains amongst the valuable collections 


not even a respectable tradition, to guide us in the investigation of the 
history of the spot previously to that date. 

Whatever may have been the character or extent of the religious house 
at Tynemouth in which Osred was interred in 792, it would appear that, 
owing to successive ravages of the Danish pirates, to which, from its situa- 
tion, it was particularly exposed, or to some other cause, the place was 
ruined and deserted when the relics of St. Oswin are said to have been 
discovered, A.D. 1065. No great weight can be attached to the story of 
the refoundation of the building by Tosti, earl of Northumberland : under 
any circumstances that chief could have done little more than commence the 
good work, as he was slain in the year following the discovery of the mar- 
tyr's remains. The next authentic notice, then, of Tynemouth, after the 
Saxon Chronicle, is in the charter whereby Waltheof, earl of Northumber- 
land, granted " the church of St. Mary in Tinemuthe, together with the 
body of St. Oswin, king and martyr, which rests in the same church," to 
the monks of Jarrow. 

By this concession, which Mr. Gibson supposes to have been made circa 
A.D. 1075, Tynemouth eventually became a dependency of the church of 
Durham : for on the removal of the brethren of Jarrow and Weremouth to 
that monastery, Alberic, earl of Northumberland, confirmed Waltheof's 
gift, to the church of St. Cuthbert and its occupants, for ever. Confirma- 
tions, however, even though well attested, were not unfrequently set aside, 
in the unsettled times at the close of the eleventh century. Robert de 
Mowbray, who succeeded Alberic in the earldom of Northumberland, re- 
stored the monastery of Tynemouth, expelled the monks of St. Cuthbert, and 
granted it to the abbat of St. Alban's, who with a truly mundane disregard 
of the solemn warnings of the monks of Durham, " to forbear from seizing 
the property of others," sent his people to dwell there ; and Tynemouth re- 
mained a cell to St. Alban's until it fell with the maternal house at the Dis- 
solution. In this sketch of the early history of the priory we have not 
followed Mr. Gibson into the pleasant but unprofitable regions of con- 

The annals of the priory subsequent to its union with St. Alban's offer 
no very remarkable incidents. Like other religious establishments it 
largely increased its possessions during the twelfth century, a period 
favourable beyond any other, before or after, to the growth of monastic 
institutions. The chapter of St. Alban's used it as a conveniently remote 
prison for its refractory or guilty members, and in early times an exile from 
the pleasant fields and temperate climate of Hertfordshire to a rugged rock 
exposed to the storms of the German ocean, and in the dangerous vicinity 
. of the Scots, must have been a severe penalty. In one respect however the 
history of this priory becomes important, and that is when considered in its 
relations with the neighbouring town of Newcastle ; to this part of the sub- 
ject Mr. Gibson has given less attention than could have been desired. 


No people who had to depend on commerce for their existence, could 
have been more unfortunately situated than were the burgesses of Newcastle 
in medieval days. The rapid Tyne rolled by their quay as it were in 
mockery, they had no property in its navigable course. The right of the 
bishop of Durham to the water south of the mid-stream was recognised, and 
the limit of his franchise northwards marked by a stone tower which divided 
Tyne bridge in the centre, the cost of maintaining the southern half of 
which was defrayed by the episcopal exchequer. On the other hand the 
abbat of St. Alban's claimed under the foundation charter of Robert de 
Mowbray all the liberties and customs in the river Tyne which that noble- 
man had possessed, and confidently maintained that at the date of his grant 
the river was divided " between the said earl and the bishop of Durham." 
This was under any circumstances a doubtful title, particularly as Mow- 
bray's grant had disappeared at a very early period, for as the abbat 
piously observed in the suit temp. Edward the First, " where that charter 
is, God knoweth." However, under this insufficient title the monks of 
Tynemouth challenged a right to the water of the river north of the mid- 
stream. Although their claim to levy tolls on shipping is not expressly 
noticed in any of the documents cited by Mr. Gibson, there is no doubt 
that, at various periods, they endeavoured to assert such a privilege ; and, 
what was even of more consequence to the burgesses, the prior of Tyne- 
mouth, with his brother of Durham, had endeavoured to forestal the trade 
of Newcastle by enlarging the little villages called the " Sheles," at the 
mouth of the river, which were originally, as the name implies, clusters of 
wooden huts, or " logges," inhabited by fishermen ; he built large fishing 
smacks for trading purposes, thereby indirectly defrauding the borough of 
its prisage, and moreover he baked "other people's bread" in his ovens, 
whereby the burgesses lost their furnage e dues. 

Thus placed between two fires, it is not surprising that the townspeople 
should have appealed to the crown in self-defence ; and it cannot be said, 
as Mr. Gibson appears to think, that, because they claimed legal protection 
against acts and pretensions which vitally affected their prosperity, they 
were either "jealous" or " encroaching" neighbours of the monks. The 
result of proceedings in parliament, on this subject, under Edward the First, 
was a judgment in favour of the burgesses ; the question had been already 
raised though not decided in the reign of Henry the Third ; and it was only 
finally adjusted by the Dissolution. However, time has justified the fore- 
sight of the monks in attempting to create a town at the mouth of this 

e Mr. Gibson has mistaken the signifi- corporation revenue. In the same way 

cation of this word. It meant the profit lords of sokes situated within boroughs or 

arising from baking the bread of the bur- cities had their seignorial ovens. The rue 

gesses and of the dwellers within the ban- Four- Saint- Honore in Paris preserves to 

lieu or franchise of the town, who were all this day the memory of the four-bannale of 

obliged to resort to the municipal ovens; the ancient bishops of that city. 
and thus arose an important item in the 


important river, and the primitive appellation of the Iog-hut8 of the fisher, 
men of the priors of Tynemouth and Durham is now borne by two flourish- 
ing towns North and South Shields which send vessels to all parts of 
the globe. This prolonged and interesting contest between secular and 
ecclesiastical merchants may be further illustrated by other records than 
those printed by Mr. Gibson, who has our thanks nevertheless for what he 
has contributed towards it. 

Before parting with Mr. Gibson, and our space admonishes us that we 
must now do so, we would say a few words touching his remarks upon the 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle on Tyne, against whom he has launched 
a severe philippic. It is true, as he observes, that Society has of late years 
given few proofs of its vitality ; it may be even admitted that it has not 
made its existence felt ; but in passing these strictures on it Mr. Gibson 
has not taken into consideration how many of its once most active sup- 
porters have been overtaken by death, or enfeebled by age. The places 
of those who have finally departed or merely retired from the scene cannot 
be readily supplied, at a time when a more precise method in conducting 
archaeological enquiries is expected, and more especially amidst that activity 
of professional and commercial rivalry which distinguishes the state of 
society in Newcastle, in common with other northern towns, leading more 
to considerations of the present and future than to retrospection. Still 
that, although it may be somewhat dormant, the Society is rich in the 
material wherewith to pursue its former course of usefulness, the members 
of the Archaeological Institute can testify, who received much valuable 
assistance from its council on the occasion of the recent meeting at York. 
Why does not Mr. Gibson, who, although a stranger, has already shewn 
himself so fully alive to the antiquarian wants of the north, step forward 
and co-operate with them, instead of railing, because his own particular 
taste is for monuments of a later time, at the unrivalled collection of relics 
of the Roman occupation of England which, in our opinion, so gracefully 
and appropriately decorate the approach to the Society's room an edifice 
which is built where the wall of Severus once stood ? He may be assured 
his assistance would be duly estimated whatever the shape it might 

It is impossible to speak too highly of most of the illustrations of this 
work. The fac-similes of charters are especially worthy of remark, as 
among the best ever executed. The grant of Edgar the son of Gospatric 
cannot be surpassed for truthful character. 

The seal of the priory, at least the only one of which an impression 
has been preserved, is of Decorated character, though late. The Virgin 
and Child are represented in one compartment, and St. Oswin, regally 
attired, in the other. Mr. Gibson observes that it is difficult to ap- 
propriate the large head which is represented between the two ogee 
canopies; it is evidently intended for a female, and from the presence 






of an etoile on either side would 
seem to be also designed for the 
Virgin. The annexed cut, kindly 
furnished by the author, is from an 
impression very inferior to that ap- 
pended to the deed of surrender, 
still preserved in the Augmentation 
Office, of which likewise, and of the 
signatures, the volume contains a 
lithographed copy, admirably finish- 
ed, the seal being of the colour of 
the wax original. 

Besides the seal of Edward the 
Second, Mr.Gibson has engraved the 
second great seal of Edward the 
Third. As we are not aware that 
it has ever been given before, ex- 
eept in Sandford, we gladly use the 
permission of the author to present 
it to our readers, whom we may re- 
fer for some interesting particulars 

Connected With it, tO ProfeSSOr Seal of the Priory of Tynemouth. 

Willis's paper on the " History of the Great Seals of England," in the 
second volume of the Archological Journal. 

KING GEORGE IV. By John Lord Campbell, A.M., &c. Second 
Edition. 3 vols. 8vo. Murray, 1846. 

As Lord Campbell's work has already attained the dignity of a second 
edition, and may, possibly, reach a third, it will be rendering a useful ser- 
vice to the noble author and his readers, to call attention to some omis- 
sions, and many errors in that portion of it which falls within the scope of 
an archaeological review. 

It is unnecessary to follow his lordship into the question of the deriva- 
tion of the word " chancellor," since he has neither cast any new light 
upon a point which has been frequently discussed, nor supplied any fresh 
material for conjecture. The noble author has been equally unsuccessful 
in his observations upon the duties of the office in early times, a part of his 
work remarkably full of contradictory positions. We shall also pass by 
his notices of the chancellors during the Anglo-Saxon period, from the 
pluviose St. Swithin to the notary Swardus, who is most preposterously 
elevated to the dignity of vice-chancellor under Edward the Confessor. 

VOL. III. 3 C 


Notwithstanding Lord Campbell's researches, and the admirable word- 
painting of Sir Francis Palgrave, we can no more recognise the chancellor, 
assisted by the masters in chancery, sitting in the Witteneagemot, as " law 
lords," than modern travellers can discern Jove and his attendant deities 
assembled on mount Olympus. 

To begin, then, with Lord Campbell's Life of Thomas a Becket, first in 
point of eminence of the chancellors after the Conquest, respecting whose 
career and acts we possess most authentic and minute information. In the 
account of his parentage and birth in the city of London, we are not told 
that the locality of the house in which he was born is to this day very ac- 
curately marked by the hall of the Mercers' company in Cheapside, once 
the site of a hospital dedicated to his memory : on that spot stood his 
paternal home, as we know from the will of Agnes, the martyr's sister ; 
his father, Gilbert a Becket, was a parishioner of St. Mary Colechurch ; 
and in the font of that church the future chancellor was baptized, as 
tradition asserted St. Edmund the king and martyr had been before 

Speaking of the council of Northampton, by which Becket was sentenced, 
Lord Campbell remarks " it lasted a good many days, the court sitting on 
Sundays as well as week-days." Not so many days. That assembly was 
opened on Tuesday the 13th of October, 1164, and on the evening of 
Tuesday the 20th, at the latest, the chancellor fled, in disguise, to Sand- 
wich*, whence he sailed for Gravelines, landing there on the 2nd of No- 
vember; but if the latter date be correct, his sentence must have been 
given on Sunday the 18th of October, and such is the opinion of Dr. Lingard. 
However, the dates of the Quadrilogus, with which Fitz-Stephen here agrees, 
are inconsistent ; yet under any circumstances the council did not last more 
than a week, and its sittings, perhaps, did not exceed five days ; so the 
laborious Sundays of Lord Campbell's narrative are reduced to one. This 
vagueness of statement is a remarkable feature of the author's style, and 
cannot be sufficiently reprehended. Another instance of it is the observa- 
tion, that the archbishop suffered in the fifty-third year of his age ; yet ac- 
cording to the dates supplied by Lord Campbell, he was born in 1 1 19, and 
slain on the 29th of December, 1170, and therefore could not have been in 
more than his fifty-first year. But his lordship's dates are, in general, as 
loosely ascertained as his facts ; thus he ascribes the coronation of King 
Hemy the younger to the year 1169, whereas it took place on the 14th of 
June, 1170; and in the same manner refers the reconciliatory interview 
between Henry and Becket to " a meadow near the town of Fereitville, on 
the borders of Touraine." Freteval is the proper orthography of the name, 
but that is unimportant, since it was not there, but at Mont-Louis, between 
Amboise and Tours, that the king met the archbishop. Lord Campbell must 
have been thinking of the treaty of Freteval between Henry and Louis of 
a Taking a circuitous route, by Lincoln and Boston. 


France in 1161. Thierry has committed the same error in his history of 
the Norman Conquest. 

From Becket we may pass, for the intervening chancellors are not worth 
a comment, to William Longchamp, bishop of Ely, the celebrated minister 
of Richard the First, and would add to the notice of him by Lord Campbell 
a fact which has hitherto been unpublished, viz. that it was about the times 
of Richard that "Chancery-lane" acquired its ominous name. There is 
extant a deed by which Longchamp demised certain messuages in the 
" Chancellor's-lane," heretofore the " New-street." Lord Campbell, it 
should be observed, has most successfully identified chancellor Longchamp 
with the minstrel Blondel, who is said to have serenaded Richard in his 
prison-house : according to his lordship the chancellor's song began, " O 
Richard, O mon Roy, 1 ' &c. Unfortunately the authorities for this in- 
teresting discovery are omitted. It is difficult to imagine how the author fell 
into the singular error of dating the apocryphal letter of the Old Man of the 
Mountain at Messina, above all other places. Credulous as people un- 
doubtedly were in those times, such a blunder could never have passed 
unnoticed. There is the less excuse for Lord Campbell, as the letter is 
printed in the Fcedera, and also translated by Thierry, to whom his lordship 
acknowledges many obligations. 

We should by no means be disposed to attribute undue importance to 
these errata, but like inadvertencies mark almost every page of that division 
of this work to which our observations must be restricted, and necessarily 
impair the value of its authority. Even after Lord Campbell has arrived, 
in the course of his narrative, at that period of English history when a 
writer, not averse to the labour of research, might well abandon conjecture 
for certainty, we find him yielding to an imaginatory version of clearly- 
recorded facts, and ingeniously, though, as we believe, unintentionally, dis- 
torting those facts for the purpose of introducing the notice of an individual 
who has no more title to appear in this memorial of English chancellors 
and keepers of the Great Seal, than Friar Bacon has to be accounted the 
inventor of the steam-engine : we allude to Eleanor, consort of Henry the 
Third, whose life has been written by Lord Campbell, as a " Lady Keeper 
of the Great Seal." According to his lordship's account "she held the 
office nearly a whole year, performing all its duties, as well judicial as 
ministerial." We propose to shew that such was not the case, and that 
Lord Campbell wrote under a misapprehension of certain very simple facts. 

His lordship's first position is that Henry, " in the prospect of his going 
into Gascony in 1253," entrusted her with the custody of the great seal, 
" and the queen was left in the full exercise of her authority as lady 

To this we reply that the credible testimony of a contemporary annalist 
entirely disproves the statement. The queen and Richard earl of Cornwall, 
were appointed "custodes" of the realm, and Matthew Paris informs us 


that the king wrote to them as such, that if any rich abbey or bishopric 
should fall vacant during his absence they were to keep the same for him : 
although, ultimately, he gave express authority to the earl and William de 
Kilkenny to confer ecclesiastical benefices b . But Lord Campbell cites a 
document which he terms " a commission," to support his case, as proving 
that the great seal was committed to the queen's keeping. We object 
in the first place that the document relied on is not a commission, but letters 
patent, conveying a general notification of an act done, and secondly that 
instead of corroborating his lordship's assumption the instrument in ques- 
tion shews its fallacy, and confirms also the narrative of Matthew Paris. 

This patent recites that the king, about to set out for Gascony, had com- 
mitted his great seal to the custody of the queen, " under our privy seal and 
the seals of our beloved brother and liege-subject Richard earl of Cornwall, 
and of certain others of our council ;" the condition of such trust being that 
if anything should be sealed in the king's name with any other seal than 
that, which might tend to the detriment of the king or his realm, it should 
be of no moment and wholly void. It must be sufficiently obvious from the 
circumstance of the great seal being under the king's privy seal, and the 
seals of others of his council, that it was sealed up in its pouch, and that the 
queen could not use it without the intervention of the council, and, there- 
fore, that she was not de facto keeper of the seal in the usual sense of that 
phrase. The seal was rather in the hands of commissioners : but had they 
any power to use it ? As the privy seal was upon it, the just inference would 
seem to be that it was the king's intention the pouch should not be 
opened at all during his absence. This view is supported by the next cor- 
rection of Lord Campbell's narrative, which it is our unpleasant duty to 
make. His lordship says, " the sealing of writs and common instruments 
was left, under her direction, to Kilkenny, archdeacon of Coventry." It 
would naturally be supposed from these words that Lord Campbell had 
good authority for a fact so circumstantially stated ; yet there is not the 
shadow of a foundation for it ; and the authority which he cites, and on 
which he must be held to depend, contradicts him in every particular. The 
seal which the queen, in obedience to the king's precept, delivered to Kil- 
kenny, was not the great seal, but the seal of the exchequer, which the king 
states in his letter he had deputed to be used " in place of our great seal 
which we will cause to be shut up until our return from the parts [of Gas- 
cony] aforesaid ." Although Lord Campbell prints that which purports to 
be a copy of this writ, the words we have distinguished by italics are left 
out in his work ; yet even despite this remarkable omission, which we 
cannot suppose to be otherwise than accidental, or to have arisen from his 
copying at second-hand from some very careless compiler, it will be seen 

h Pat. 37 Hen. III. m. 4. partibus predictis." Pat. 37 Henry III. 

c " Loco raagni sigilli nostri quod claudi m. 5. 
faciemus usque ad reditum nostrum de 


that his statements are incorrect ; it was the exchequer seal which was en- 
trusted to Kilkenny, to be used in place of the great seal, and instead of 
acting under the queen's direction, he was appointed absolutely and without 
restriction, to bear and use it until the king's return to England ! 

His lordship proceeds " She sat as judge in the Aula Regia, beginning 
her sittings on the morrow of the Nativity of the blessed Virgin Mary. 
These sittings were interrupted by the accouchement of the judge." We 
decline to enter into the knotty question of the constitution and juris- 
diction of the Aula Regia, but if Lord Campbell intends his readers to 
believe that Queen Eleanor sat therein individually as keeper of the great 
seal, and with any equitable jurisdiction, it must be observed that he is 
entirely mistaken. He quotes as his authority a Plea roll d of the 37th year 
of Henry the Third ; the title of the first rotulet of which is " Pleas before 
the lady the queen and the council of the lord the king," &c. Just the sort 
of title that might be expected when the king was out of the realm ; those 
pleas which, had he been present, would be described as " coram Rege," 
were now recorded as heard before his council, and the queen having been 
nominated, as already stated, one of the guardians of the kingdom, took 
her place in the council by virtue of such appointment 6 . Moreover, had 
his lordship examined this Plea roll, he would have found that after the 
first rotulet, or skin, the queen's name is not again mentioned the pro- 
ceedings are thenceforward described simply as " coram consilio." Her 
majesty was not present after the sittings on the morrow of the Nativity of 
the Virgin, that was the 9th of September, and her accouchement did not 
take place until the 25th of November ; so much for the marvellous story 
of her sittings being interrupted by that interesting event. We confess it 
seems to us very surprising that Lord Campbell, who must know that in 
the middle of the reign of Henry the Third, the jurisdiction of the chan- 
cellor was already defined and distinguished from the common law, should 
quote an ordinary Plea roll as a proof of purely imaginaiy sittings in equity. 
We need scarcely, after the preceding observations, take the further trouble 
of contradicting- the assertion that after her favourable recovery the " lady 
keeper" resumed her place in the Aula Regia. 

There are so many errors in this little bit of romance by Lord Campbell, 
that we can do no more than cursorily allude to them. The story of the 
queen commencing " an unextinguishable feud with the citizens of London," 
about the dues at Queenhithe, is a monstrous absurdity. Those dues were 
payable long before Eleanor's time, and the citizens farmed them under 

d Lord Campbell cites this document, regis Henrici filii Regis Johannis xxxvij . 

wrongly, as Rot. Thes. transfretavit idem dominus rex usque Was- 

e Henry sailed from Portsmouth on the coniam, et facte fuerunt he subsequentes 

6th of August, and all patents and writs littere patentes coram consilio ipsius 

subsequent to that date were prepared domini regis in Anglia, et continuate us- 

" coram consilio," and tested by the Queen que ad annum ipsius regis xxxviij." Pat 

and Richard earl of Cornwall. " Memo- 37 Hen. III. m. 2. 
randum quod sexto die Augusti anno regni 


the queen consort, by charter. Lord Campbell might just as well have 
said that Queenhithe took its name from her majesty. With respect to her 
claim to "Queengold" we would refer his lordship to Prynne's essay, for 
further information on that point, and to his assertion that " the city of 
London had hitherto been a sort of free republic in a despotic kingdom, 
and its privileges had been respected in times of general oppression," we 
reply that, whatever it may have been in theory, it had been no such thing 
in fact ; but that during no reign, from first to last, were its privileges so 
utterly disregarded as during the times of Henry the Third ; that monarch 
suspended the franchise of the citizens again and again on the most trifling 
pretexts. Then Lord Campbell states that the queen made a speech to the 
parliament, assembled in the beginning of 1254, and pressed for a supply. 
We find no record of this oratorical effort ; in fact Matthew Paris expressly 
says that the king's prolocutor and "messenger" made the speech in 

In the notice of the chancellorship of William de Kilkenny, who was 
promoted to the office, according to Lord Campbell, on the resignation of 
Queen Eleanor, his lordship sets out with a singular mistake, attributing 
the dictation of a speech delivered by Henry in April, 1253, to " lord chan- 
cellor Kilkenny," who, according to his own shewing, was not appointed till 
1254. We cannot moreover find any authority for this statement, which 
is not borne out by Matthew Paris. 

The length to which this notice has extended obliges us to pass over 
other and equally grave errors. In conclusion we would observe that it 
has seldom been our lot to find so many inaccuracies in notes, extracts, and 
references, as in Lord Campbell's work ; there is scarcely a Latin quotation 
correct ; for this it must be presumed his lordship is not amenable to criti- 
cism, his amanuensis must be censured ; yet such carelessness could not 
fail to detract very materially from the reputation of any writer less above 
the suspicion of ignorance than we gladly admit Lord Campbell to be. 



ENGLAND. By Thomas Rickman, Architect. Fourth edition. 8vo. 


Edward Boid, Esq. Second edition. 12mo. 

Matthew Holbeche Bloxam. Eighth edition. 12mo. 


edition. 12mo. 



GOTHIC AECHITECTUEE was so long the favourite region of the imagi- 
nation, where poetry and romance held undisputed sway, that a violent 
opposition might naturally be expected to any attempt to reduce it to the 
ordinary level of a science, to apply the rule and compass to it, and to trace 
its gradual progress step by step from the decay of Roman art to the 
glorious development of the complete Gothic ; and though truth will pre- 
vail in the end, its progress under such circumstances was sure to be slow, 
and frequently thrown back for a season. The character of the extraordi- 
nary man whose genius first reduced this chaos into order, was not calcu- 
lated to diminish the violence of his opponents, and the accidental circum- 
stance of his having been brought up a quaker was perhaps likely to add 
to the prejudice against his system. Yet perhaps this very circumstance, 
and the habit engendered by it, of well weighing his words before he com- 


mitted himself by expressing them, contributed to make his work more 
really valuable from the extreme accuracy and caution which it every where 
exhibits. Whatever the causes may have been, the fact is certain that he 
did produce a most valuable and well-considered system, and that few 
sciences can boast of so good an elementary treatise, more especially as a 
first essay on the subject ; and though nearly forty years have now passed 
over since he first published his system in the form of lectures to crowded 
audiences at the Literary Institution at Liverpool, and though he lived to 
issue four editions of his work, each adding fresh examples in support of his 
views, yet no one has been able to correct any material point of his system, 
and it is surprising to notice how very little information has really been 
added to the mass which he collected with such extraordinary diligence. 

It is much to be regretted that some of the active and zealous young men 
who so enthusiastically pursue this now fashionable study, do not imitate 
the industry of the humble quaker in collecting facts, and consider how 
much they are indebted to him for all they know of the subject, instead of 
taking every opportunity of expressing their contempt for his labours. 
Whether his nomenclature is the best that could have been invented is not 
now the question ; his divisions of the styles are so clear and true, and the 
precision with which he has discriminated their characteristic features is so 
inimitable, that his work must always remain the basis on which all others 
treating of the same subject must necessarily build. This is the only ex- 
cuse that can be offered for what otherwise would be the gross plagiarism 
manifested in all the treatises that have subsequently appeared, extending 
frequently to extracting many successive pages verbatim, without acknow- 
ledgment a , and in all to the free use of his facts, his arguments, and his 
conclusions, without the addition of more than a mere fraction to the infor- 
mation he had collected. That his nomenclature presents some anomalies 
is not disputed, but it has been so long established, and is so generally 
understood by all classes, that any attempt to change it now is merely to 
drive us back to the chaos from which his genius has happily delivered us. 
We now have a language which is understood alike by employers, archi- 
tects, builders, and workmen ; if we attempt to change it, we shall have 
each of these classes using a different language, a very Babel let loose again. 
Nor has any better system or better nomenclature been proposed. The 
objections which present themselves at first sight to the new nomenclature 
are at least as great as those that are complained of in the established one. 

Mr. Bold, in his " History of all the principal Styles of Architecture," 
published in 1830 b , adopted the plan of calling the three styles of Gothic 
merely First, Second, and Third, in order to avoid as much as possible the 

a See " Aunt Elinor's Lectures on already passed into merited oblivion. The 

Architecture," which however is a useful idea was a good one, but the execution of 

little book for children. it very indifferent. 

b This slight and superficial work has 


use of technical language in a popular work. This was perhaps more 
sensible than the general abuse of Rickman's technical terms with which 
every one has been wearied of late. But this judicious avoiding of tech- 
nical language is widely different from the plan proposed by the Eccle- 
siologist in 1846, of adopting "First, Middle, and Third Pointed," as a 
new technical language, and doing away with the name of "Gothic" alto- 
gether as inappropriate, overlooking the fact that this name is applied, in 
the same manner as we apply it, in every language in Europe. 

It is easy to shew that the objections to this proposed new nomenclature 
are at least as great as any that apply to Rickman's terms. In the first 
place the transition from Norman, or what Mr. Bloxam calls the " Semi- 
Norman Style," is unquestionably the " First Pointed Style.'' It is not a 
Gothic style, but it is Pointed. Secondly, to describe a church as having 
" First Pointed round-headed doorways," and " Middle Pointed square- 
headed windows," is more absurd than anything in Rickman. Yet such 
examples do occur, and that not by ones or twos, but by tens and hundreds. 
In some districts almost every church will be found with either Early 
English round-headed doorways, and sometimes pier-arches also, or with 
Decorated square-headed windows. In other words, it was a very common 
practice in the thirteenth century to use round arches with all the details 
of pure Gothic work, and in the fourteenth century it was still more common 
to use square-headed windows, often with very beautiful mouldings and 
details, and tracery. 

Thirdly, It would be very possible to build a thoroughly good Gothic 
church taken entirely from fine ancient examples without a single pointed 
arch throughout. This is fatal to the scheme ; it proves that the pointed 
arch is not an essential feature but an accident of that style, which by the 
common consent of all Europe is called Gothic, and whatever the origin 
of the name may have been, any attempt to change it is now too late. 
Another serious objection to the proposed " new nomenclature" is its vague- 
ness and want of precision, no one can say where the first style begins or 
ends. Mr. Paley's Manual was expected to supply this deficiency, but it 
is very far from doing so. The impression which his book leaves is 
favourable to the writer ; it is written in a good spirit, a pleasing style, 
and a gentlemanly tone, and contains a good deal of original observation 
which shews that the subject is not new to the author, though here and there 
he falls into the usual errors of inexperienced writers on this subject. But 
no one can help seeing that his own good sense and sound judgment 
would have led him to continue the use of the established nomenclature 
which every body understands, and which continually creeps in as it were 
unawares, and in spite of his wish to please his injudicious friends by adopt- 
ing their crotchet. The natural consequence of this is that his book is very 
confused and more calculated to puzzle than to assist a beginner, and that 
the author is not able to do justice to himself and his own knowledge. He 
VOL. in. 3D 


begins his second chapter with the remark that " To suggest new methods of 
arrangement and new terms to express them, perhaps only tends to perplex 
and confuse the elements of the science ; and some of those already proposed 
are sufficiently appropriate." But he has not firmness enough to act on this 
sensible opinion, being overruled by external influence, and proceeds to 
divide the Romanesque into four styles, and the " Gothic" into seven more : 
where each begins and ends it is in vain to attempt to make out, for as these 
distinctions are in a great degree imaginary and have no real existence, 
examples will continually occur in which two of his styles are so blended 
together in work that is evidently cotemporaneous, that any effort to 
separate them must be futile, and hence we suppose arises the confusion 
which we find in his attempt to distinguish them. Mr. Rickman's styles are 
so perfectly natural and true that any attempt to upset them and make fresh 
divisions is certain to fail when a large number of examples come to be 
examined in different districts. Rules which may seem good in one county 
will entirely fail in another. Mr. Rickman's divisions may naturally be 
subdivided into early and late in each style, and he always allowed for 
the transition from one style to another occupying a considerable period ; 
of course many buildings being entirely of this transitional character. 
If the study were made more easy by multiplying names, each of these 
changes might have a separate name, but as we have always observed that 
the more names and the more divisions are made, so much the more are 
beginners puzzled, we deprecate their use especially in these manuals for 

There is a clearness and simplicity about Mr. Rickman's system which 
renders it peculiarly easy to understand and to remember. A learner by 
his method, will be able to discriminate the style and age of a build- 
ing in half the time that he could do so by Mr. Paley's or the Eccle- 
siologist's. Mr. Bloxam has had the good sense to retain Mr. Rickman's 
divisions of the styles and nomenclature, and his book continues to be 
the best manual for an archaeologist. He is too fond of viewing all old build- 
ings which present any anomalies as necessarily Anglo-Saxon, and he has 
introduced two new styles, the " Semi-Norman" and the " Debased," neither 
of which are properly styles at all ; but on the whole his book is sensible and 
useful. The early editions were little more than " Rickman made easy," his 
language thrown into question and answer, and illustrated by Mr. Jewitt's 
beautiful woodcuts. The later editions however contain a good deal of 
original research, though too much confined to the "Anglo-Saxon style." 
On this subject Mr. Paley follows him implicitly, far too implicitly as we 
think, but we must reserve that question for another opportunity, and return 
for the present to Mr. Paley. His book is illustrated by some very pretty 
woodcuts by Williams, which are creditable to the artist, but do not exhibit 
the same accuracy or the same knowledge of the subject with Mr. Jewitt's; 
the artist has evidently engraved many of the drawings without understand- 


ing them, hence they are more pretty than valuable, but this remark applies 
to a part only. 

The very material question, " What constitutes a distinct style of archi- 
tecture," does not appear to have been much considered either by Mr. 
Bloxam or by Mr. Paley. A little reflection would shew that it must have 
certain characteristic features not possessed by any other style, and by which 
it may be distinguished. Apply this obvious test to Mr. Rickman's styles. 
The Early English style is distinguished by its characteristic mouldings, 
and by the general use of lancet-shaped windows. The latter feature is 
the popular one, but not to be depended on by itself; the mouldings how- 
ever are invariable, and a never-failing test by which it may be distin- 
guished from any other style in this country, and from the corresponding 
styles of other countries, the Early French, Early German, or Early Flemish : 
each country has its own distinct style, of which the mouldings are the only 
sure test. The Decorated English style is distinguished also by its charac- 
teristic mouldings, and by the geometrical or flowing form of the tracery of 
the windows. The second feature is again the popular one, but not alone 
to be relied upon, but the two together form the test. The same re- 
marks apply more particularly to the Perpendicular style, and although in 
this style the vertical lines of tracery are more to be depended on, they are 
not by themselves the test. Let any of the proposed new styles be tried by 
similar tests, and no accurate definition of them can be given. Mr. Bloxam's 
Anglo-Saxon style has no really characteristic features ; every one of those 
which are popularly so considered may be found in later work also. It is 
probable that some of the buildings of this class do belong to the Saxon 
period, but they have not sufficient distinct character to form a separate 
style. The "Semi-Norman style" is open to the same objection: the 
buildings of this class are very numerous, and it may be a convenient divi- 
sion as a period of transition, but it has no peculiar features of its own ; 
these buildings belong partly to one style and partly to another, intermixed 
in every possible variety of form and feature. The " Debased style " is 
open to the same objections ; the buildings of the seventeenth century are 
often debased enough, but all the characteristics of a separate style are 
wanting. The proposed new styles of the Ecclesiologist and Mr. Paley 
are open to the same objections, they are equally incapable of any exact 
definition. If Mr. Rickman's definitions are to be applied to the First 
Pointed, Middle Pointed, and Third Pointed, the mere change of name 
has been already objected to. Mr. Paley's twelve styles are still more 
objectionable, from the endless confusion the use of them must cause. 
1. 2. The Saxon period is too obscure for us to be able to define any style, 
still less to divide it into two. 4. The period of transition is not a style. 
6. " Late or Florid First Pointed, 1240 to 1270." This wants the clear 
lines of definition ; the pure Early English style continued throughout this 
period, without any marked difference in the mouldings, and although 



Howden, Yorkshire, 

the windows become larger and have foliated circles, &c. in the head, 
yet this difference alone is not sufficient to form a separate style. 7. 
" Geometric Middle Pointed," and 8. " Complete 
Middle Pointed." Between these two supposed 
styles no real line of distinction can be drawn, 
either in the mouldings or the tracery. It is true 
that the geometrical forms of tracery are gene- 
rally earlier than the flowing forms, but by no 
means always ; they are often continued to a 
late period in the Decorated style, and sometimes 
in the same building the windows have their 
tracery geometrical and flowing alternately, 
without any other distinction, the mouldings 
and details being the same, and the two evi- 
dently built at the same time. This is fatal to 
the attempt to divide the Decorated into two 
styles. 9. " Third Pointed," 10. " Florid Third 
Pointed." The length of time over which the 
Perpendicular style extended, makes it more 
desirable to divide it into early and late, but no 
line of distinction can be drawn, at least none 
sufficiently marked for common use ; very early 
Perpendicular buildings have frequently been mistaken for very late ones, 
by persons supposed to be good judges. It is allowed by all that there 
was a continual progress, a gradual change in all the styles, but this was 
not always simultaneous, there were new fashions and old fashions at all 
periods : however numerous we may make the styles, we must still allow 
for a transition period between one and the other, so that the only result 
of such numerous divisions must be increased confusion, and consequent 
difficulty, to students and persons who have not time to study the subject 
very deeply. 

Mr. Paley may be able to make all these nice distinctions himself, but 
few will be able to follow him, and those who have studied the subject a 
much longer time, and perhaps quite as deeply as Mr. Paley, do not agree 
with him as to the expediency of these divisions, nor yet as to the precise 
point where each should begin and end, neither will history bear him out 
as to the dates which he has assumed. He acknowledges that, " With 
respect to the dates of each it is quite impossible to lay down more than a 
very general scheme," and quotes with approbation these sensible obser- 
vations. " Professor Willis is of opinion that in each style we must pre- 
sume the existence of Imitation and Transition specimens, and that at the 
same period of time, and in the same country, buildings may have been in 
progress, some in the old style, some in the new, others in every possible 
gradation between them. For when any new style is invented in the 


country where it appears, we shall inevitably trace it in transition; 
wherever it is brought in complete, and adopted in works of considerable 
magnitude, it becomes as it were a rival, and is likely to be more or less 
closely followed by the native architects ; though many of these, through 
preference of their old fashion or ignorance of the new, may go on building 
in a style half a century behind others. Thus it must be expected that 
many perplexing anomalies will occur to us in attempting to assign dates, 
which in fact would be inexplicable on any other theory. Still on the 
whole each country had its characteristic development ." 

All this is very true and very important within due limitations, but is it 
not a fatal objection to such minute subdivision of styles ? If we are to 
make three separate styles in each century, and also to acknowledge 
that one builder may be half a century behind others at the same time, 
how are we ever to remember the succession of styles, or judge of the age 
of a building which may have been built in the " style before the last." 
The simple old-fashioned plan of describing buildings by the reigns of the 
different Kings, is far less objectionable than all these new styles. The 
style of Henry the Third or of Edward the Third is more easy to remember 
and as well defined as these new distinctions. Mr. Rickman's broad divi- 
sions are natural, easy, and obvious, and those who wish for more minute 
divisions may readily make them by adding early or late in the style, or the 
name of the king in whose reign that division was most in use. 

With regard to foreign countries, it must be borne in mind that Normandy 
and a considerable part of France formed part of the English dominions at 
the time the change .of style took place, and many of the finest French 
cathedrals are acknowledged by the French themselves to have been 
" built by the English," that is by the Anglo-Normans. In other foreign 
countries the distinction is far greater, and sufficiently great to make it 
desirable to distinguish them by the names of their respective countries. 
Mr. Paley observes that " both the Early English and the Third Pointed, 
or Perpendicular, are peculiar to our country. The corresponding or 
synchronous continental styles are the geometrical Decorated, and the 
Flamboyant. But at Norrez and Ardenne, near Caen, Professor Whewell 
found as perfect and genuine ' Early English' churches as our country can 
supply." The chapel of the seminary at Bayeux is another example of 
pure and good Early English work ; though even in these buildings the 
mouldings partake of a French character. 

The following remarks on symbolism are proofs of Mr. Paley's good 
sense, when he has firmness enough to use it, and free himself from the 

c This is not sufficiently attended to by nent. But this is worse than needless now, 
modern architects ; even Mr. Pugin has set for we have better ancient models of our 
the dangerous example of foreignising in own to follow than can be procured from 
his churches and their decorations. True it abroad. This is admitted by Mr. Petit, 
is that in the middle ages improvements " Remarks," &c. vol. i. p. 13. See Rick- 
were frequently borrowed from the conti- man, p. 37- 


influence of his ingenious but fanciful friends. " Much as has been said 
on the subject of symbolism d , and undiscovered laws of Gothic architecture, 
we are strongly disposed to attribute the almost unattainable perfection of 
the medieval buildings to the unerring judgment, fine taste, and intuitive 
feeling of the artists, who built religiously, not coerced by utilitarian 
employers, and, above all, devoted exclusively to the one style prevalent 
in their day, without so much as the knowledge of any other, and without 
any care to imitate their predecessors in anything." 

The use of corbel-heads in ascertaining the date of a building by the cos- 
tume of the head-dress has often been pointed out : the difficulty is in 
knowing accurately the exact period during which a particular head-dress 
continued in use. For instance, Mr. Paley says, " It may be useful 
to observe, that the head-dress of a square form is a certain evidence of the 
transition, and fixes the date of a building to about the year 1375. The 
nave and chancel of Ryhall church, Rutland, are of this style, and marked 
by this peculiar dripstone termination." But unfortunately at p. 297 this 
head-dress is described, and the date of 1420 assigned to it. And at 
p. 176 the same square-topped head-dress is engraved, and said to be of the 
time of Edward the Third, side by side with another female head, having 
the chin-cloth or wimple, which was worn in the time of Edward the 
First. This confusion very much destroys the utility of corbel-heads as a 
guide for beginners in an elementary work which this is evidently intended 
to be, but for which purpose it is not suited. There is much to please in 
the book, but it is calculated only for advanced students. The concluding 
chapter on Monumental Brasses is from the pen of C. R. Manning, Esq., of 
Benet College, and is a very good concise account of this interesting class 
of monuments. We cannot take leave of Mr. Paley without thanking him 
for the pleasure his book has afforded us on the whole, though we have been 
obliged to differ from him on many points, and regret that its general utility 
should be so much impeded by attempts at originality without sufficient 

Of Mr. Bloxam's book we have already said that the later editions are 
greatly improved, and we repeat that it now forms the best manual for 
archaeologists in this interesting branch of study. Our objections to the 
two new styles which he has introduced are rather of extent than of kind ; 
we think he goes too far, that the differences do not amount to a separate 
Style, though we do not deny that there are considerable differences between 
these buildings and the regular Styles. 

On the Saxon question we think that neither he nor any of his followers 
have paid sufficient attention to the masonry and construction of these build- 

d See chap. iv. of Mr. Poole's "Churches, Lewis's treatise on this suhject, seem to 

their Structure, Arrangement, and De- have much of fanciful and questionable 

coration." The philosophizing theories of conjecture, amidst some undoubted truth. 
the late translators of Durandus, and Mr. 



ings ; nor has much additional light been thrown on the subject since the 
researches of Mr. Kickman and Mr. Twopeny, neither of whom considered 
the anomalies which they were the first to notice as having sufficient cha- 
racter to form a separate Style. 

It is true that in some of these buildings the masonry is rude enough, and 
the construction is more that of carpenters than of masons ; and it is pro- 
bable that these examples are really of the Saxon period ; but in other in- 
stances, such as Daglingworth, the masonry is better than that of the tran- 
septs of Winchester, and quite as good as that of the tower rebuilt after it 
had fallen " from imperfect construction 6 ." The fineness of the joints be- 
tween the stones in ashlar work is a ready test by which to judge of the 
quality and probable age of the masonry ; and thus tried, many of the 
supposed Saxon structures must be considered to have been built after 
1100, when, as Mr. Bloxam himself shews (p. 101) from William of 
Malmesbury (lib. v.), fine-jointed masonry was first used in England by 
Roger bishop of Salisbury. 

In other instances the rude cubical masses found in the place of capitals 
to the chancel-arch, which have been assumed as characteristics of this sup- 
posed style, have every appearance of being simply the blocks put up by the 
masons for the purpose of having the capitals carved out of them, but by 
some accident, or want of funds, left unfinished ; for instance, at Wittering 
the arches between the nave and aisle have regular Norman capitals, any one 
of which might have been carved out of the rude blocks left at the chancel- 
arch. And Mr. Bloxam states (p. 113) that it was very customary to 
carve the capitals after the blocks were fixed in their places, as the crypt 
at Canterbury clearly proves, for they are there to be found in almost every 
stage of their progress, and some of the sculpture must have been done long 
after they were erected. In the later styles he 
also notices the same thing. " We sometimes 
meet with square CORBEL BLOCKS, and other 
work of an intended decorative description, 
the design for the sculpture of which has never 
been carried into effect." As at Crick, North- 
amptonshire, &c. p. 231. We have only to 
apply this remark to Norman works, and one 
class of the anomalies supposed to be Saxon 
disappears. Others, such as the capital or 
impost of St. Benet's, Cambridge, have much 
more the appearance of late Norman or tran- 
sition works, than of the Saxon age. 

' It is worthy of remark that cotem- 
porary writers mention the fall of a great 
number of towers immediately after they 
were built in the early Norman period, 
and as the great superiority of the Norman 

St. Benef, Cambridge. 

masonry is acknowledged, the probability 
is that any buildings which exhibit better 
masonry, with finer joints than we find in 
early Norman work, are of later rather 
than earlier date. 



We cannot understand upon 
what ground Mr. Bloxam con- 
siders the ruined church in the 
castle at Dover as some centuries 
older than Darent church, Kent, 
which is a good example of early 
Norman work, and has quite as 
early a character as the ruins at 
Dover; though these have some 
Roman remains worked up in 
them belonging to an earlier 
building, the present structure 
has nothing to distinguish it 
from work of the twelfth cen- 

It is worthy of remark that many 
of these structures are mixed up Darent church, Kent. 

with late Norman and transition work, in a manner that seems almost unac- 
countable if the Saxon theory were admitted. Daglingworth has a lancet 
window in the chancel in the original wall without any appearance of in- 
sertion, and the same thing occurs also at Wittering, and in several other 
instances. These objections to the theory should be fairly stated and ex- 

After all, this supposed style is a very immaterial point, of no practical 
importance, though very interesting for archaeological discussion. Mr. 
Bloxam's description of the characteristic features of the regular styles is 
good and clear, and his illustrations extremely beautiful, and as good as 
their small size will admit, though we could have wished the drawings to 
have been more correct in some instances. The manner in which Mr. 
Jewitt has preserved the spirit of Early English foliage in the capitals from 
York and Durham is highly creditable to his skill. The foliage from 
Salisbury and Lincoln is also beautifully engraved, and Mr. Bloxam's de- 
scription of it is good and accurate. " Sculptured foliage of this era is 
much used in capitals, brackets, corbels, bosses, and crockets, and is gene- 
rally called s^$-leaved, a term not applying so much to the formality of 
design or execution, which are frequently very elegant, and done with 
much freedom of hand, as to designate a kind of crisp foliage in which the 
stiff stems as well as the leaves are used in the composition. In this it 
chiefly differs from the later styles, where we see an approximation to nature, 
and the foliage appears of a much thinner and more flexible texture, evincing 
a greater freedom both in conception and execution. This is particularly 
observable where the thick stems rise from the mouldings and support the 
foliage above. Among the forms of foliage the trefoil is most predominant, 
and very characteristic of the style." (See the cuts opposite.) 










" The foliage of Decorated capitals may generally be distinguished from 
those of Early English by its not rising from the neck-moulding with stiff 
stems, but being carried round the bell in something of a wreath-like form. 
The foliage itself, whether of capitals, finials, crockets, bosses, or other 
ornamental accessories, exhibits much of natural freedom, and we frequently 
find the oak, the ivy, the hazel, the vine, the fern, &c. very beautifully and 
VOL. in. 3 F, 



closely copied from the natural leaves ; the oak in particular seems to have 
been an especial favourite. The leaves are luxuriantly expanded, grace- 
fully disposed, and sculptured with great boldness and freedom ; they are 
sufficiently distinct from the foliage of the succeeding style, which, though 
frequently most elaborate, has still in general a certain formality of outline 
which renders it very inferior in grace and beauty to the Decorated." 


" The north door of Adderbury is particularly fine; the jambs are finished 
with rich crocketed canopies, from which the arch springs; the dripstone is 
ornamented with a moulding resembling a fir-cone, and within this is a 
beautiful modification of the tooth-ornament, which is here 
converted into a knot of ivy -leaves and other foliage : the 
inner mouldings are ornamented with the oak and vine 
leaves, and within this is the four-leaved flower. Many 
doorways are without shafts, and the jambs are composed of 
a series of quarter round and semi-cylindrical mouldings, which have often 
a square-edged fillet running vertically up the face, and these are all con- 
tinuous with the architrave mouldings." 

The Decorated roof at Adderbury is a very good specimen, and espe- 
cially useful at this time, when timber roofs of the earlier styles are 
much wanted, by calling attention to the existence, of many of them un- 
noticed in our country churches, where they are daily being destroyed 
under the influence of the present mania for the restoration of our old 
churches, which is only another name for the total destruction of their 



original character ; and more mischief is being done under this delusion 
than ever the Puritans did with their axes and their hammers : they left 
evidence against themselves of the mischief they had done, but our modern 
" restorers " leave nothing by which we can tell what they have destroyed : 
their first step is to obliterate every vestige of the old work, before they 
begin to build up their own " improvement." 



We have scarcely allowed space to notice Mr. Barr's unpretending and 
useful little book, but not much will be required, his own description of it 
disarms criticism. " This little work is intended to serve merely as an 
introduction to the study of the ecclesiastical edifices of this country, and 
at the same time to afford a simple and practical guide to those who are 
engaged in the erection or restoration of churches." These purposes 
it is well calculated to serve. The first half of the book is occupied in 
describing the different parts of an Anglican church as they should be, 
and though some may be disposed to cavil at the quiet manner in which 
Mr. Barr assumes that his views of what they ought to be are unques- 
tionable, we are disposed to think he is right; an elementary work should 
not be controversial. The latter half describes the styles, dividing them 
into centuries to avoid the use of technical terms. His descriptions of the 
characteristics of each century are concise and clear, and his selection of 
woodcuts, especially of the mouldings, very well suited to render them 
familiar to the eye. Perhaps if he had been content to refer to the 



" Glossary of Architecture," instead of borrowing from it, he would have 
been less open to the charge of appearing in borrowed plumes. The 
number of his original cuts would have been sufficient to give his work a 
very respectable appearance, some of them being as good as any in the 
other works before us ; for instance, the Norman arcade at St. Peter's, 
Northampton, which we have borrowed at p. 379 ; the Early English cor- 
bel-table at Beverley (see p. 391); the Decorated pinnacle at Howden (see 
p. 384); and the Perpendicular tower at Dundry. 


NOTE. In the " Notices of the Priory of Southwick," p. 222 of this volume, 
the seal of the prior of Chertsey was accidentally inserted instead of the South- 
wick seal, which will be given in a future number. 




L. A. Chassant, Bibliothecaire a Evreux, et auteur d'une PALEOGRAPHIE DBS 
Chartes. [This is a portable 12mo. founded on the Lexicon of Walther and 
the Lists of Abbreviations in the Benedictine folios, and of which the Plates 
have been all engraved by the author himself.] 

NOTICE DE LA CATHEDRALS DE MEAUX, par Mgr. Allou, the Bishop. 8vo. 

MAHNE, par E. Paty. 4to. 



8vo. de 16 pages. 

Second edition, 8vo. [This work is a compilation from De Caumont's "Cours 
d'Antiquites" and other archaeological publications.] 

STATISTIQUE MONUMENTALE DU CALVADOS, par A. de Caumont. Tome premier. 
Paris, chez Derache, Rue du Bouloy, No. 7. An 8vo. of 425 pages, with 
150 woodcuts and 15 lithographs in 4to. relating to the Cantons of Caen 
and those in its vicinity. 

Bouillet. 8vo. with an atlas of 35 plates. [The plan of this work is so ad- 
mirable that perhaps in a future number we may give some further account 
' of it.] 

TOURNAI, par B. Benard, Architecte de la Ville. Bruxelles, chez Vandalle. 
Folio, with 25 outline copperplates. 

This is a republication of some papers honoured a few years ago with a gold 
medal, by the Academy of Inscriptions, and comprises an account of the ancient 
roads of that district, and a comparative description of its different cemeteries. 

par M. Sirand. 8vo. 264 pages, with 10 plates in outline. 


Paris, chez Derache, Eue du Bouloy, No. 7. [This little and cheap work gives 
an account of this institution and all the learned Societies in the Departments 
of France.] 

Caumont. 8vo. 161 pages. Paris, chez Derache, Rue du Bouloy, No. 7. 
[This is a little work of similar intent to that of Mr. Parker's " Glossary of 

CANON, D'APRES DES TEXTES NOUVEAUX, par M. M. Reinaud et Fave, 8vo. 
pp. 288, avec atlas de 17 planches. 

TEVESA, par M. Letronne. Paris, brochure, in 8vo. 

SIONIBUS AUGUSTI LE PREVosT. Tom. iii. Paris, chez Renouard et Co. 1845. 
8vo. pp. 624. Public par la Societe de 1'Histoire de France. 

HISTOIRE DE RENNES, par M. M. de Villeneuve, et de Maillet, Bibliothecaire de 
la Ville de Rennes. Renues, chez Morembe, 1845, 8vo. pp. 547, avec 2 plans. 



ERHALTUNG DER ALTERTHUEMEH. Dresden, bei Walther. 8vo. 160 pages, 
with plates. 

SACHSEN. Dresden, bei Blochtnann. 12mo. 44 pages, with 4 plates. [A useful 
book of instructions for describing churches, addressed to members of the 
Saxon Antiquarian Society.] 

Leipzig, bei Koehler. 8vo. 525 pages, with 2 plates. [This is an excellent 
Catalogue Raisonne, with an Appendix of Essays on the uses of certain parts of 
armour not yet well determined. It has also a well-arranged list of extracts 
from Inventories and other documents relative to armour of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, with similar intent to a work published also at Leipzig (but 
which we have never seen) entitled " RUSTUNG-WORTERBUCH."] 


LEBER. Wien, bei Braumiiller. 8vo. 330 pages, with 10 plates. [This is a 
history and detailed description of some Castles near Baden in Austria, with 
an account of Tournaments.] 

BUCHLEIN VON DER FIALEN. Trier, bei Linz. [This is a reprint from a little 
work on architectural pinnacles, published in 1486, by Rorizer, an architect of 
Ratisbon ; edited, with an appendix, by M. Reichensperger, of Treves, and 
illustrated with 26 figures.] 


TELALTERLICHEN BAUKUN8T, von Fr. Lenhart, Coeln. With a translation in 
French. 12mo. 51 pages. [This is a priced catalogue of casts from various 
architectural ornaments in Cologne, made especially for the use of students in 
Gothic architecture, and well worthy of attention by the Inspector and Directors 
of Schools of Design.] 


Otte. Nordhausen, bei Forstemann. 8vo. 174 pages, with 5 plates. [A con- 
cise and geographically arranged account of Gothic edifices, which I found 
a very useful guide to architectural research in Germany.] 

KUNST, von Bernhard Grueber. [The first part contains 24 plates, representing 
various objects of Architecture and Art of the 9th, 10th, llth, 12th, and 13th 
centuries. The second part treats of construction, and has 48 plates of 
columns, mouldings, and vaulting, &c., with remarks on Materials, Lighting, 
and Ventilation.] 

Miinchen, 1844, bei Zach. [This work is in long folio, with very good outline 
lithographic plates.] 

ARCH.EOLOGISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT, von E. Gerhard. Berlin. 4to. with plates. 


4to. with plates, bei Meyer. 

Berlin. 8vo. 

AXTIQUABISK TIDDSKRIFT : the Bulletins of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of 
the North, for 1843, 1844, and 1845 contain Memoirs and Plates on Arrow- 
headed Inscriptions; on Runic, and what we call Celtic Antiquities; and also 
an interesting Catalogue raisonne of the Society's Museum at Copenhagen. 

[W. B.] 


Worsaae of Copenhagen, with numerous additions and illustrations of similar 
remains in England. 

Charles Boutell, M.A., one of the Secretaries of the St. Alban's Architectural 
Society, a Member of the Archaeological Institute, &c. Originally read, for 
the most part, before the St. Alban's Architectural Society, at three of their 
Mi-dings, held severally at St. Alban's in February, June, and October, 18-15. 


the late Thomas Rickman, F.S.A. Fifth edition. With numerous engravings 
on steel and wood, of the best examples, drawn by Mackenzie, engraved by Le 
Keux and Jewitt. 

GLASS, with Hints on Glass Painting, by an Amateur. Illustrated by Coloured 
Plates from Ancient Examples. 

OXFORD ARCHITECTURAL SOCIETY. It is proposed to publish, as soon as a suffi- 
cient number of Subscribers are obtained, a Catalogue of the Society's Rubbings 
of MONUMENTAL BRASSES, which amount to about 300, from all parts of Eng- 
land. The armorial bearings and inscriptions will be given, and the work will 
comprise a complete introduction to the subject, and full Indexes. Subscribers' 
names received by Mr. Parker, Oxford, and all Booksellers, to whom the usual 
allowances will be made. 

Committee Room, Holy well, Oxford, Dec. 12, 1846. 


A MANUAL OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. By F. A. Paley, M.A., author of " A 
Manual of Gothic Mouldings," with nearly 70 illustrations. John Van Voorst, 
Paternoster Row. 

London, Boone, 29, Bond Street. 

each alternate month. Proofs, 3s. 6d. ; plain, 2s. 6d. No. I. to V. 

Woodcuts, 16s. 

lished under the superintendence of the Lincolnshire Architectural Society, 
with illustrations by F. Mackenzie and O. Jewitt. Small folio, 10s. 

REMARKS ON ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER. Read 'before the Lichfield Architec- 
tural Society. By the Rev. J. L. Petit, M.A. Royal folio, with 44 Etchings. 
11. Is. 

Parish Churches. By the Rev. J. L. Petit, M.A. 8vo. with two Etchings. Is. 

NOTE. At p. 190, the work entitled " Designs for Churches and Chapels in the 
Norman and Gothic Styles" is attributed by mistake to the Oxford Architectural 


The signifies mo engraving of the object referred to. 


ABBEYS, of St. Alhan, Herts, 85 

St. Amand, Roueu, rurftihiry of, 7 

; St. Trinity Caen, 24, cartulary of, 26 

Abinedon, Berks, seal found near, 76 
Adderbury, Oxon, Church of, door, and 'drip- 
stone in, 390 

bead found near, 355 

Adeodatus, inscription to at Rome, 282 
Aiguebelle in Savoy, duplicate effigy of Peter 

d'Aqaablanca, bishop of Hereford, at, 238 
Altar*, at Bedale, 258, and in Lorraine, 363 
Annmzaptus, a mystic word, a charm against 

epilepsy, 359 

Anglesea, invaded by the Irish Piets, A.D. 450, 

cromlechs found in, 39 

*spear-monld and celt-monld in, 257 

Anstey, Herts, diminutive effigy at, 239 

Aqueduct, 365 

Archaeological intelligence, 67, 155, 255, 348 

recent publications, 102 104, 

188192, 393396 

viewed, 379, 392 long and short work not 
proved to have been Anglo-Saxon, 285, the 
ancient Church of Brixworth being deficient 
in this masonry, 285, although great antiquity 
may be claimed for Churches which possess it, 
287 lapidei tabnlatus, towers rising in stages, 
and bonding-courses, borrowed from the Ho- 
mans, 287 'windows, at Caistor, Northamp- 
tonshire, 288, *at Headbourn Worthy, Hants, 
29, in Oxford Castle, 289, and at St. Cronan's, 
Ireland, 177 doors, at Stantim Lacy, Shrop- 
shire, 289-297, and at Adderbury, Oxon, 390 
capital at St. Benet's, Cambridge, 367 resem- 
blance between theChurches of Crk-k,Northamp- 
tonnhire, and of Bilton and of Astley, Warwick- 
shire, 291 first explained as a system and a 
science by Rickman, 379, whose nomenclature 
has been long established and understood, 386 
whereas the proposed new nomenclature is 
not an improvement, but the contrary, 381, 
Mr. Paley's Manual wanting clearness, and 
his proposed new styles natural divisions, 382 
a style of architecture must have a distinct 
character, 383, which Mr. Bloxam's and Mr. 
Paley's proposed new styles have not, 384 re- 
marks on foreign styles, 385, and on sym- 
bolism in architecture, 386 Saxon buildings, 

386, their masonry not sufficiently observed, 

387, often mixed with late Norman work, 
388 Early English foliage, character of, 3H8 
Decorated foliage, character of, 389 Mr. 
Bloxam's Manual the best for advanced utn- 
dents, 386, and Mr. Barr's the best for be- 
ginners, 391 

military, 291, 295, 363 

Ardragh, Donegal, Ireland, gorget found at, 37 
Armour, ancient British, 352, 353 
Arrow-heads found at Woodperry, Oxon, 119 
Ashhurton, Devon, the market place at, 266 
Ashley, Hants, hell-cot, 207, and 'Church at, 299 
Austin, St., in converting the Anglo-Saxons, A.D. 

596, preserved their heathen temples, 195 
Axe of stone found at Llanmadock, Wales, 67 
Aycliffe, Durham, sculptured crosses at, 260 
Ayot, St. Lawrence, Herts, effigy at, 239 
Ayr, St., near Cotentiu, France, tore found at, 

36, 37 

VOL. III. 3 


Badbnry Camp, Dorset, tumnlue found near, con- 
taining *ornameuted urns and skeletons in cistH, 
Baldwin, bishop of Theronanne, 16 

Comte of Flanders, charter of, 17 

conducted Matilda 

into Ponthieu, to meet William I., where their 

marriage was celebrated, 21 
Baliol, John, character of, 185 
Barker, John, brass of, at Godalming, Surrey, 83 
Barr, family of, 81 

Barr's Manual of Gothic Architecture, 391 
Barrows, 155 157, 348 
Basin of free stone at Buckley, Worcestershire, 

Bath, Somerset, fragments of small Saxon crosses 

at, and stone vase dug up near, 356 
Battle Abbey, Sussex, muniments of, in posses- 
sion of Sir T. Phillips, 215 
Beads, found at Hoylake, Cheshire, 354 and 

near Adderbury, Oxon, of fine green glass, 355 
Beauchamp, R., earl of Warwick, his statue 

at Warwick, 203 but liuried at Lewes, 80 
Becket, Thomas A, born in Cheapside, London, 

fled in disguise to Sandwich, and suffered in 

his fifty-first year, 374 

Bedale, Yorkshire, fragment of cross at, 260 
'sculptured stone and altar, 

with details of supposed Saxon tombs in crypt 

of church at, 258 
Bede, on the chalice exhibited to pilgrims at 

Jerusalem, 131 

BEDFORDSHIRE. Bedford, 318 

of, 183 

Bell-cots, interesting examples of, 205 213 

in the gable below the roof, as at Cor- 

hampton, Littleton, and Ashley, Hants, 206 
in the west wall above the roof and gable, 
as at Manton, Rutland, 218 

over the chancel-arch, as at Binsey, Oxon, 


*in small turrets, on the west gable, as at 
St. Helen's, York, 211 

in niches projecting from the face of the 

wall, as at 'Godshill. Isle of Wight, 212 
BERKSHIRE. Abingdon, 76; II iuksey, (North), 

301; Reading, 141148; Tubncy, 69; Wai- 

lingford, 75; Windsor, 5961, 104; Witten- 

ham, (Long), 239 

Bertram, J. C., pretended discovery by, 161 
Beverley, Yorkshire, Early English corbel-table 

at, 391 

Bingley, Mr., cromlech* mentioned by, 39 
Binsey, Oxon, Church of, 209 
Bircham Tofts, Norfolk, coped coffin at, 268 
Bishop Wolston, of Worcester, *eal of, 261 
Blanche, daughter of Edward III., effigy of, 2S7 
Bloxam's Manual of Gothic Architcctii-e, 386 
Boat, ancient, found in Lough Fea, Ireland, 94 
Bodowyr, Wales, cromlech standing at, 42, 43 

Botteiford, Leicestershire, effigy at, 239 



Boyne, Ireland, tumuli on the, were royal sepul- 
chres, 156 

Braine Abbey, France, wafer irons there, 253 
Brampton, Norfolk, fragments of urns at, 249 
Brass of J. Barker atGodalming, Surrey, 83 

Sir N. Carew, at Haccombe, Devon, 153 

T. Button, at West Tanneld, Yorks., 360 

in Wyke Church, Hants, 84 

Braunfels, Germany, torques found at, 27 
Bredicott, and *Bredon Hill, Worcestershire, 

rings found near, 267 
Bride, St., legend of, 224 
Bridle-bitt of iron found at Lough Fea, 95 
"Bristol, Somerset, an altar-tomb in the Church 

of St. Stephen at, 82 

British monuments, ancient, 39 43, 348 352 
Brooches, Roman, found at Woodperr